# Aerospace Design Project. Design of a class-3 Ultralight airplane

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1 Aerospace Design Project Design of a class-3 Ultralight airplane Ludovic Noels Grigorios Dimitriadis

2 1. Context Groups from 4 to 5 students will design a class-3 ultralight airplane (ULM), as defined in the project definition presentation slides. Different tasks have been assigned to every student in each group in order to carry out the project. You will complete the table in Appendix 1 with all the computed values (the table can be modified if required) and you will provide the code used to compute these values. If not stated otherwise, the values correspond to the cruise configuration. 2. Conceptual design The following items will be studied: 1/ Existing ULMs and regulation ( 2/ Wing: Geometry (taper ratio λ, twist, sweep angle, C root, C tip, span ) Airfoil Incidence angle Position on the fuselage 3/ Empennage / canard (foreplane): Geometry (taper ratio λ, twist, sweep angle, C root, C tip, span ) Airfoil Incidence angle Position on the fuselage 4/Fuselage, weight, performance: Fuselage geometry Engine Weight of fuel + range Performance Weight and center of gravity position of each component 5/ Stability In all the important flight configurations Calculation of the drag polar Calculation of the derivatives of CL, CD, Cm, Cy and Cn 6/ Landing gear (only for groups with five students) Position, 2

3 Design 7/ Design sensitivity analysis (only for groups with five students) 10 % variation of the main parameters 3. Preliminary design For this study, the following points will be addressed: 1/ Structural study Evaluation of the maneuver and gust envelopes Estimation of aerodynamics forces First design of the structure Catia model (with FE simulation) 2/ Aerodynamic study Using the Catia geometry from part 3/, extraction of wetted areas, volume, surfaces etc Detailed drag evaluation (ask L. Noels for references) 3/ Flight mechanics Create a solid Catia model (with mass, inertia) Evaluate mass, inertia and position of centre of gravity Compute a turn maneuver at minimum radius Evaluate take-off and landing distances 4/ ADS verification Verify aircraft performance and characteristics using ADS (Aircraft Design Software by OAD) Extract Catia model and create a realistic view of the aircraft 5/ Control (group of 5 students) Design the control surfaces Compute the control stability derivatives 3

4 4. Organization, reports and presentation Group organization: Student 1: Parts 2.1, 2.2, and 3.2 Student 2: Parts 2.1, 2.3, and 3.3 Student 3: Parts 2.1, 2.4, and 3.1 Student 4: Parts 2.1, 2.5, and 3.4 Student 5: Parts 2.1, 2.6, 2.7 and 3.5 Reports In English Describe and justify your design choices Describe your methodology Around 25 pages Presentations In English Describe and justify your design choices Describe your methodology Around 20 minutes Important dates First report (Conceptual Design): 27 February 2015 Second report (Corrected Conceptual Design and Preliminary Design): 4 May 2015 Presentations: 15 May

5 Appendix 1: List of parameters Parameters USI US/Imp Height: HEIGHTfus Width: WIDTHfus Length: LENGTHfus span: b Aspect Ratio: AR Gross Surface: S Exposed: S_exp Taper Ratio: Lambda Cord at root: Croot Cord at tip: Ctip Sweep angle at chord quarter: Lambda_quart Geometric twist: Eps_gtip Mean Aerodynamic Chord: MAC X coordinate of Aerodynamic center: Xac Y coordinate of Aerodynamic center: Yac Compressibility parameter: BETA Cruise Mach: M Average airfoil thickness: t_bar Fuel volume: V_fuel Wetted wing surface: S_wetted_w Wing lift coefficient in cruise: C_L_w Wing lift coefficient derivative: a Fuselage Wing 5

6 Angle of attack at root (cruise): Alpha_root Zero-lift angle of attack at root: Alpha_L0 Zero-lift angle of attack of the profile: Alpha_l0 Aerodynamics twist coefficient: Alpha_01 Aerodynamics twist: Eps_a_tip Maximum lift coefficient of the wing (flaps in): CLmax Stall velocity (flaps in): Vs Stall velocity (flaps out): Vs0 Reynolds number: Re Airfoil lift coefficient derivative: c_l_a Airfoil design lift coefficient: c_l_i Maximum camber: cmax Lift coefficient (cruise): LW Plane lift coefficient (cruise): CL Empennage/canard plane lift coefficient (cruise): CLT Surface of the empennage/canard: ST Fuselage angle of attack: Alpha_f Zero-lift fuselage angle of attack: Alpha_f0 Pitching moment coefficient: Cm Wing pitching moment coefficient: Cm0 X-coordinate of the gravity center: Xcg Stability (for each flight configuration) 6

7 Empennage/canard pitching moment coefficient: CmT Empennage/canard lift: LT Non-dimensional center of gravity position: h Non-dimensional AC position: h0 Non-dimensional stability limit of the center of gravity position: hn Incidence angle of the wing on the fuselage: iw Plane lift coefficient derivative: CL_alpha_plane Empennage/canard angle of attack: Alpha_T Downwash: Eps Downwash gradient: d_eps_d_alpha Vertical distance between wing and empennage/canard: m Stability margin: Kn Incidence angle of the empennage/canard on the fuselage: it Span: bt Aspect Ratio: AR_T Taper ratio: Lamba_T Sweep angle at chord quarter: Lambda_quart_T Chord at root: CTroot Chord at tip: CTtip Distance between the plane gravity center and the empennage AC: lt Horizontal empennage/canard Vertical empennage 7

8 Height: bf Aspect Ratio: ARF Surface: SF Taper Ratio: Lambda_F Sweep angle at chord quarter: Lambda_quart_F Chord at root: CFroot Chord at tip: CFtip Distance between the plane gravity center and the empennage AC: lf Lift coefficient (critical case): CLF Lift coefficient (critical case): LF Yaw moment coefficient (critical case): CN Yaw moment coefficient derivative: CNbeta Rudder height: hr Rudder surface: Sr Drag (cruise): D Drag coefficient: CD Zero-lift drag coefficient: CD0 e-factor: E Compressibility drag coefficient: CompCD Security velocity: V2 Drag coefficient at security velocity: CDV2s SLS thrust: Tt0 Take-off thrust: Tto Specific fuel consumption: CT Cruise thrust: T Drag Engine 8

9 Wing: Ww Empennage/canard weight: WT Vertical empennage weight (without rudder): WF1 Vertical empennage weight (with rudder): WF2 n_ultime Cabin pressure: DeltaPmax n_limite Fuselage weight: Wfus Gear weight: Wgear Control weight: Wsc Propulsion weight: Wprop Instrument weight: Winst Electrical devices weight: Welec Electronical devices weight: Wetronic Payload: Wpayload Fuel weight for take-off: Wto Fuel weight for landing: Wland Reserve fuel weight: Wres Fuel weight for climb: Wclimb Fuel weight for cruise: Wf Manufacturer empty weight: MEW Zero-fuel-weight: ZFW Take-off weight: Wto Range at maximum payload: d_etoile Maximum pitch angle: Theta Maximum roll angle: Phi Dihedral angle: Gamma Weights Landing gear 9

10 Hauteur de l'aile: Hg Distance between landing gears: t Angle of attack at lift-off: AlphaLOF Lift-off speed: V_LOF Touch down angle: ThetaTD Distance between plane gravity center and aft landing gear: lm Plane gravity center height: Zcg Xwing XempH XempV Xfus Xsyst_elec Xelec_instr Xpayload Xfuel Positions of centres of gravity: 10

11 Appendix 2: Ultralight airplane design 11

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