INTEGRATED MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA

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1 INTEGRATED MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA Tejas Rawal (Corresponding Author) Ph.D. Research Scholar, Dept. of Architecture & Planning, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee M: M: Dr. V. Devadas Associate Professor, Dept. of Architecture & Planning, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee Nand Kumar Ph.D. Research Scholar, Dept. of Architecture & Planning Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee Abstract With escalating nuisance of transportation demand and rapid urbanisation in India, innovative solutions and methods are being evolved and borrowed from other countries. Over the last decade numerous Mass Rapid Transit Systems have come up in various cities like Metro Rails, Bus Rapid Transit Systems and Monorails. The interlinking of these various public transport modes and various other modes is now the important issue from user point of view and opportunity from planners point of view, for seamless travel across the various modes and sustainability of the overall public transportation network in the city. This paper is an attempt to understand the Integrated Multi-Modal Urban Transportation for India. With the help of Delhi case study, efforts are made to identify the advantages, disadvantages and challenges of Integrated Multi-Modal Urban Transportation for Indian cities. Key words: Multi-Modal, Sustainability, Integrated Transportation, India 197

2 Integrated Multi-Modal Transportation In India 1 INTRODUCTION In the contemporary era, majority of the Indian cities are characterized as urban areas having higher densities; organically developed (improper land use control); lack of adequate physical and social infrastructure; especially transport infrastructure where there is lack of proper roads and parking facilities, poor public transport, lack of road-user discipline, etc. Urban transport systems in most Indian cities are under heavy strain, and has negatively affected the quality of life of urban population (Verma 2010). Facilities of mass transit in the cities are utterly insufficient for providing fast, comfortable and convenient travel. This has resulted in heavy shift of commuter patronage from mass transit to private or personal transportation and as a consequence there is huge increase in personal vehicle ownership. The resultant effects are, increased traffic congestion and transport-borne pollution, heavy fuel consumption, poor level of service to the commuters, etc. Still, million plus cities generates more travel demands, which is not fully met by private modes of transportation, as a consequence mass rapid transit system becomes mandatory for such cities, to provide better, advanced, efficient and quality transit services. Many steps are being taken by the Indian Government to promote sustainable urban transport. There are seven cities with populations in excess of 4 million. Nearly 100 kilometers of Metro rail is operating in Delhi with another 250 kilometers of Metro rail under construction in the first five cities. Two other cities are actively planning their rail transit systems. In addition, 11 cities are introducing Bus Rapid Transit System while two more cities have them in the planning stage (Singhal, 2010). Nevertheless, the efficiency and effectiveness of mass transits rely on accessibility of various modes in the city, design and availability of routes, incoming flow of pedestrians at station, frequency of service, etc. Transportation infrastructure development, traffic management, intelligent transportation systems, use of green and renewable fuels, higher traffic speed, less operation costs, maximum utilization of public transport, less congestion and accidents on road, easy & safe movement of pedestrian, etc. are the key parameters for sustainability of public transportation facilities. In levy to suffice the never ending needs of urban commuters, authorities try to combine two or more public transportation modes, to achieve easy and uninterrupted travel in the cities. The resultant process, which has evolved out of this, is Integrated Multi Modal Transport System (IMMTS) that involves coordinated use of different modes and its integration to fight against road congestion, longer journey time and air pollution. 2 INTEGRATED MULTI MODAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM? Integrated Multi Modal Transport System (IMMTS) comprises of one trip that involves two or more than two different modes of transportation like bus, metro, car, tram, etc.; either government or privately operated; where in-between passengers have to transfer in to other mode. Some modes of transportation have always been depended on other modes. Urban bus systems generally serve train and subway stations and often extends to local airports. A major goal of integrated multi-modal transport system in developed countries is to reduce dependence on the automobile as a major mode of ground transportation and increase use of public transport. In the developing countries a variety of modes of transport are used. 198

3 When these modes are run on the same track, the efficiency is lost over the period of time and by increase in number of vehicles. The system can otherwise help improve the efficiency if managed properly, where local bodies have defined tracks for them (Buchari 2008). This multi modal system can be helpful for the cities which have a fast rate of urbanisation and higher population densities. The main aim of IMMTS is to promote public transport in urban areas. A coordinated integration of different modes brings about reduced congestion on the road, greater convenience for commuters, efficiency and cost effectiveness. Key elements of IMMTS can be identified as: Transportation infrastructure on top of which transport modes operate; Modes of transport: network representing different modes, routes and paths; Multi modal trips: this is the use of people for these modes with different combinations; Transfer points: allowing people to change from one mode to another. In other words, Multi modal transport planning refers to decision making that considers various modes, such as, walking, cycling, automobiles, public transit, etc., and connections among modes so that each can play its optimal role in the overall transport system (Litman 2012). In this context, a multi modal transport system is an integrated approach that incorporates all components of urban transport into a single system for efficient use of available transport resources and infrastructure for better mobility within a wide range of modal options for the commuters. The Various Characteristics Of IMMTS Are As Follows (Kumar, 2009): Journey involving more than one mode of transportation. For various possibilities, use of different modes of transport is accepted. The policy generally do not fixate on one single mode. Development of seamless web of integrated transport chains, linking road, rail and water ways. Competition between transporters instead of between transport modes. Transfer node and smooth interchange flow. Seamless travel an important characteristic of the system. With the comprehensive objectives to ensure safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable and sustainable access for the growing number of city residents to jobs, education, recreation and such other needs within cities; the Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India, formulated National Urban Transport Policy in As one of the techniques to achieve such objectives is to, enabling the establishment of quality focused MULTI MODAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS that are well integrated, providing seamless travel across modes. 3 URBAN MULTI-MODAL COMMUTING Public transportation systems such as train or metro systems have the most efficient means and highest capacity to transport people around cities. Therefore multi-modal commuting in the urban environment is largely dedicated to first getting people onto the train network and once off the train network, to their final destination and its associated modes of transportation, consisting the integration of multiple modes. The following are the types of mixed modes approaches observed in various countries (Hine 2003): 199

4 Integrated Multi-Modal Transportation In India FIGURE 1: Urban Multi-modal Commuting Examples: Park and Ride, Feeder Service, Bike and Ride, Bicycle on Bus, Bicycle Parking, Bicycle Rental Service and Integrated Multimodal Transfer Station 3.1 Automobile to public transport nodes Automobiles are predominantly and conventionally popular as a single-mode form of transit, although, they also are accepted in various multi-modal scenarios. They can provide a short commute to train stations, airports, and bus stations, where all-day "park and ride" spaces are available. Cars offer commuters the relative comfort of single-mode travel, while it significantly reduces the financial and environmental costs. 3.2 Bus to public transport nodes Many large cities link their railway network to their bus network. This enables commuters to get to places that are not serviced directly by rail, which are often considered to be far compared to comfortable walking distance. Feeder buses are a specific example of this. Feeder buses work best when they are scheduled according to the railway timings. Feeder buses are very successful in servicing customers' needs which helps to increase ridership patronage and therefore also improves the operating income. 3.3 Cycling to public transport nodes: Bike-and-Ride All around the world bicycles are used to get to and from train and other public transportation stations, which is often called "Bike-and-Ride". Due to the threat of theft or vandalism of bicycles left at these stations, "bike and ride" transport benefits greatly from secure bicycle parking facilities. Some train/bus/ferry systems allow commuters to take their bicycles on-board, which allows cyclists to ride at both ends of the commute. In some cities a public bicycle rental programme has been implemented which allows travelers to get to and from a train station. 200

5 3.4 Transfer facilities In recent years, an increasing emphasis has been placed on designing facilities that make such transfers easier and more seamless. These are intended to help passengers move from one mode of transportation to another for example, an intermodal station may service air, rail, and highway transportation for example. 4 INTEGRATED MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORTATION CASE STUDY: DELHI Delhi has significant dependence on its transport infrastructure. The city has a highly efficient public transport system with the introduction of the Delhi Metro. There are 5.5 million registered vehicles in the city, which is the highest in the world among all cities, while the Delhi NCR has 11.2 million vehicles. Delhi and NCR lose nearly 42 crore (420 million) man-hours every month while commuting between home and office through public transport, due to the traffic congestion. Therefore serious efforts, including a number of transport infrastructure projects, are under way to encourage usage of public transport in the city. At 1749 km of road length per 100 km², Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India. Major roadways include the Ring Road and the Outer Ring Road, which had a traffic density of 110,000 vehicles per day in Total road length of Delhi was 28,508 km including 388 km of National Highways. Major road-based public transport facilities in Delhi are provided by DTC buses, auto-rickshaws, taxis and cycle-rickshaws. FIGURE 2: Public Transportation Modes of Delhi namely, DTC Buses; BRT Buses; Auto Rickshaw; Pedel Rickshaw; Metro and Ring Rail. Rapid increase of population coupled with large-scale immigration due to high economic growth has resulted in ever increasing demand for better transport, putting excessive pressure on the city's existent transport infrastructure. Like many other cities in the developing world, the city faces acute transport management problems leading to air 201

6 Integrated Multi-Modal Transportation In India pollution, congestion and resultant loss of productivity. In order to meet the transportation demand in Delhi, the State and Union government started the construction of an ambitious Mass Rapid Transit system, known as Delhi Metro in The project started commercial operations on December 24, It has set many performance and efficiency standards ever since and is continuously expanding at a very rapid pace. As of 2010, the metro operates 5 lines with a total length of 190 km and 132 stations while several other lines are under construction. Ring railway is a circular rail network in Delhi, which runs parallel to the Ring Road and was conceived during the Asian Games of The system is not popular amongst people and it is a total failure as far as public transport is considered. The major reasons for failure of the system are lack of proper connectivity, less population density in areas of reach. The network is now utilized as a freight corridor and limited passenger train services are available during peak hours. Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System Ltd.: With all various modes, and its complications and chaos, there was a need for a managing and implementation agency, which was sought in form of Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System (DIMTS) Ltd. It is an urban transport and infrastructure development company. DIMTS came into being in April In July 2007 it became an equal equity joint venture company between the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and the IDFC Foundation. DIMTS provide concept to commissioning as well as operations, management and maintenance services, in the following areas; Urban Transport Planning; Project Management; Engineering Design and Construction Management; Financial Modeling; Public Transport Concession Management; Operations and Facilities Management; Information Technology and e- Enablement. Transportation is the common theme behind these various areas of concerns. 5 ASSESSMENT Multi-modal commuting combines the benefits of walking, bicycle commuting, or driving with the benefits of rapid transit while balancing some of the major disadvantages of each individual mode. Location plays a large role in multi-modal commuting. When the commuter finds the distance between the origin and the destination too far to be enjoyable or practical, commute by car or motorcycle to the station may remain practical, as long as last mile connectivity to destination is practical by walking, a bicycle, or shuttle/ feeder bus. In general, locations close to major transit station have higher land value and thus have higher costs of rent or purchase. A commuter can choose to live near or far according to the last mile connection availability like by walking, a bicycle, or shuttle/ feeder bus, and also the rent or purchase affordability in the vicinity of that particular transit station. Other cost advantages of multi-modal commuting include lower fuel and maintenance costs; and increased automobile life. These cost benefits are balanced by costs of transit, which can vary in different cases. The effectiveness of a multi-modal commute can be measured in many ways: speed to destination, convenience, security, environmental impact, and proximity to mass transit. Because multi-modal commutes rely on a certain degree of coordination, scheduling 202

7 issues with mass transit can often be an issue. For example, a sometimes-late train can be an annoyance, and an often-late train can make a commute impractical. Weather can also be a factor. Even when the use of an automobile is involved, the transition from one mode of transportation to another, often exposes commuters to the adverse weather. As a result, multi-mode commuters often travel prepared for extreme weather conditions. In Indian context it is very important to integrate all various modes of transport like bus, feeder services, bicycle, rickshaw, etc. with rapid transit system. It is equally important to integrate non-motorized modes (pedestrian, cycles, rickshaws, etc.) to mass rapid transits. It is also important that utilisation of IMMTS to its maximum capacity, depends on mobility of non-motorized vehicles and intermediate para transits. For IMMTS the interchanges and seamless travel are significant components of an integrated transport strategy, as these are a part of infrastructure which involves multimodal activities. The biggest challenge for Indian cities would be to achieve the highest level of integration of multiple modes to shift the captive ridership of personalized transport to at least partial usage of public transport for mixed-mode travel. 6 CONCLUSION In India, with increasing number of middle class, the personalized vehicles have also increased in many folds in last decade, which further has causes deterioration in traffic and environmental conditions. This has generated implacable need to shift mode of travel from car to walk/cycle for short journey and to public transport for long journey. Integrated multimodal urban transportation is a step ahead to achieve this goal. IMMTS is a promising area of research and development, for near future, as well as for scientific and practical implementation of adequate infrastructure; as most of the Indian cities are pacing up for improving the transport infrastructure by carrying out various transportation projects. The case of Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System is the precursor to upcoming developments for appropriate integration of various modes of transportation in highly dense urban areas of India. The biggest challenge for Indian cities would be to achieve the highest level of integration of multiple modes to shift the captive ridership of personalized transport to at least partial usage of public transport for mixed-mode travel. REFERENCES Buchari, Erika et al. (2008). Enhancing Public Transport System in Developing Countries towards Multimodal Public Transport System. Proceedings of the Conference on The Intelligent Public Transport System, April 2-4, Netherland. Hine, J. and Scott, J. (2000). Seamless, Accessible Travel: User s Views of Public Transport Journey and Interchange. Transport Policy 7, pp Kumar, P. (2009). Design Approach for Multi Modal Transport System. Architecture - Time Space & People Litman, T. (2012). Introduction to Multi-Modal Transportation Planning, Victoria Transport Policy Institute Singhal, B. I Towards Sustainable Urban Transport in India Verma, A., (VOL. 100, NO. 9, 2010). Achieving sustainable transportation system for Indian cities. CURRENT SCIENCE. 203

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