ERRATA for Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 4th Edition (GBF-4)

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1 Dvid Bernhrdt, P.E., President Commissioner, Mine Deprtment of Trnsporttion Bud Wright, Executive Director 444 North Cpitol Street NW, Suite 249, Wshington, DC (202) Fx: (202) ERRATA for Guide for the Development of Bicycle Fcilities, 4th Edition (GBF-4) Februry 2017 TO: FROM: AASHTO Members Erin Grdy, Director AASHTO Publictions Production RE: Februry 2013 nd 2017 Errtum to the Guide for the Development of Bicycle Fcilities, 4 th Edition AASHTO hs issued n errt tht includes technicl revisions to the Guide for the Development of Bicycle Fcilities, 4th Edition. To ensure tht your editions re ccurte nd current, we re providing you with the ttched summry of the errt chnges, s well s the revised pges to which they pply. Those items with green heder re from the 2017 Errt, those items with red heder re from the 2013 Errt. Following the summry pges, you will find the replcement pges tht include ll revisions to be inserted into your book. Should you need dditionl copies of the errt, you cn downlod them free of chrge on the AASHTO Online Bookstore t the following URL: We pologize for ny inconvenience. Plese feel free to contct us if you hve questions or need ny dditionl informtion. Thnk you.

2 Summry of Errt Chnges, GBF-4 Februry , 5-22 Shded re represents S > L Shded re represents S < L

3 Summry of Errt Chnges, GBF-4 Februry 2013 Pge Existing Text Corrected Text Chpter Tble 3-2 in Row 1, Typicl Upright Adult Cyclists, Feture column reds: Feture Decelertion rte (dry level pvement) Decelertion rte for wet conditions (50 80% reduction in efficiency) Vlue U.S. Customry 0.16 ft/s m/s ft/s m/s 2 Feture Decelertion rte (dry level pvement) Decelertion rte for wet conditions (50 80% reduction in efficiency) Vlue U.S. Customry 8 10 ft/s m/s ft/s m/s 2 Add new sixth row to red: Feture Coefficient of friction for brking, wet level pvement Vlue U.S. Customry

4 Summry of Errt Chnges, GBF-4 Februry 2013 Pge Existing Text Corrected Text Chpter Figure 5-3 top illustrtion, the drop dimension reds: Drop is 6 ft 1(.8 m) Drop is 6 ft (1.8 m) 5-20 Tble 5-5 top formuls for nd red: 200 h 2 1 h2 200 h 2 1 h2 2 when S L L 2S S L L S The bottom formuls for nd red: 2 AS S L L 2S h 2h A 100 2h1 2h1 1 1 when L AS 2 2 A 5-21, 5-22 Figure 5-8, the notes t the bottom of the U.S. Customry nd tbles red: Shded re represents S = L Shded re represents S > L The cell for A = 5 nd S = 55 (i.e., vlue = 54) reds: Tble 5-6, the bottom formuls for nd red: R 1 HSO 1 cos R HSO R 54 [without shding] R 1 R HSO S cos R 5-36 Tble 5-8, the definition for term i for U.S. Customry nd reds: i = motorist decelertion rte (ft/s 2 ) in intersection pproch when brking to stop is not initited (ssume -5.0 ft/s 2 ) i = motorist decelertion rte (m/s 2 ) in intersection pproch when brking to stop is not initited (ssume -1.5 m/s 2 ) i = motorist decelertion rte (ft/s 2 ) on intersection pproch when brking to stop is not initited (ssume 5.0 ft/s 2 ) i = motorist decelertion rte (m/s 2 ) on intersection pproch when brking to stop is not initited (ssume 1.5 m/s 2 )

5 Guide to Bicycle Fcilities, 4th Edition Tble 3-1. Key Dimensions (continued) User Type Feture Dimension Recumbent bicyclist Physicl length 82 in. 2.2 m Eye height 46 in. 1.2 m Tndem bicyclist Physicl length (typicl dimension) 96 in. 2.4 m Bicyclist with child triler Physicl width 30 in m Physicl length 117 in. 3.0 m Hnd bicyclist Eye height 34 in. 0.9 m Inline skter Sweep width 60 in. 1.5 m As with bicycle dimensions, bicyclist performnce cn vry considerbly bsed upon opertor bility nd vehicle design. Tble 3-2 lists vrious performnce criteri for typicl upright dult bicyclists s well s key performnce criteri for other types of bicyclists (1), (4), (11). Bicyclist speeds vry bsed on ge nd bility nd re function of mny fctors, including bicyclist skill, bicyclist physicl nd cognitive bilities, bicycle design, trffic, lighting, wind conditions, trnsporttion fcility design, nd terrin. Adults typiclly ride t 8 15 mph (13 24 km/h) on level terrin, while children ride more slowly. Experienced, physiclly fit riders cn ride up to 30 mph (50 km/h); very fit riders cn ride t speeds in excess of 30 mph (50 km/h) but will typiclly only ride t such speeds on rods. Tble 3-2. Key Performnce Criteri Bicyclist Type Typicl upright dult bicyclist Feture Vlue Speed, pved level terrin 8 15 mph km/h Speed, downhill plus mph plus km/h Speed, uphill 5 12 mph 8-19 km/h Perception rection time s s Accelertion rte ft/s m/s 2 Coefficient of friction for brking, wet level pvement Coefficient of friction for brking, dry level pvement Decelertion rte (dry level pvement) 8 10 ft/s m/s 2 Decelertion rte for wet conditions (50 80% reduction in efficiency) 2 5 ft/s m/s 2 Recumbent bicyclist Speed, level terrin mph km/h Accelertion rte ft/s m/s 2 Decelertion rte ft/s m/s 2 Note: The speeds reported re for bicyclists on shred use pths. Experience suggests tht mximum speeds on rodwys cn be considerbly higher. 3-4

6 Chpter 5: Design of Shred Use Pths Pth Sfety Ril 42 in. (1 m) 1 ft (0.3 m) (1V:3H) or steeper Drop is 6 ft (1.8 m) or more Less thn 5 ft (1.5 m) Pth Sfety Ril 42 in. (1 m) 1 ft (0.3 m) (1V:2H) or steeper Drop is 4 ft (1.2 m) or more Less thn 5 ft (1.5 m) Pth Sfety Ril 42 in. (1 m) 1 ft (0.3 m) (1V:1H) or steeper Drop is 1 ft (0.3 m) or more Less thn 5 ft (1.5 m) Figure 5-3. Sfety Ril Between Pth nd Adjcent Slope 5-7

7 Guide to Bicycle Fcilities, 4th Edition Reserch indictes tht, under dry conditions, the coefficient of friction of vrious other pth users rnge from 0.20 for inline skters to 0.30 for recumbent bicyclists. If users with lower coefficients of friction such s inline skters or recumbent bicyclists re expected to mke up reltively lrge percentge of pth users, stopping sight distnces should be incresed. For two-wy shred use pths, the sight distnce in the descending direction, tht is, where G is defined s negtive, will control the design. Figure 5-8 is used to select the minimum length of verticl curve needed to provide minimum stopping sight distnce t vrious speeds on crest verticl curves. The eye height of the typicl dult bicyclist is ssumed to be 4.5 ft (1.4 m), nd the object height is ssumed to be 0 in. (0 mm) to recognize tht impediments to bicycle trvel exist t pvement level. The minimum length of verticl curve cn lso be clculted using the following eqution s shown in Tble 5-5. Tble 5-5. Length of Crest Verticl Curve to Provide Sight Distnce L = minimum length of verticl curve (ft) A = lgebric grde difference (percent) L = minimum length of verticl curve (m) A = lgebric grde difference (percent) S = stopping sight distnce (ft) S = stopping sight distnce (m) h 1 = eye height (4.5 ft for typicl bicyclist) h 1 = eye height (1.4 m for typicl bicyclist) h 2 = object height (0 ft) h 2 = object height (0 m) 5-20

8 Chpter 5: Design of Shred Use Pths A S = Stopping Sight Distnce (ft) (%) Shded re represents S < L Minimum length of verticl curve = 3 ft Figure 5-8. Minimum Length of Crest Verticl Curve Bsed on Stopping Sight Distnce 5-21

9 Guide for the Development of Bicycle Fcilities, Fourth Edition A S = Stopping Sight Distnce (m) (%) Shded re represents S < L Minimum length of verticl curve = 1 m Figure 5-8. Minimum Length of Crest Verticl Curve Bsed on Stopping Sight Distnce (continued) Other pth users such s child bicyclists, hnd bicyclists, recumbent bicyclists, nd others hve lower eye heights thn typicl dult bicyclist. Eye heights re pproximtely 2.6 ft (0.85 m) for hnd bicyclists nd 3.9 ft (1.2 m) for recumbent bicyclists. When compred to the eye heights of typicl bicyclists, these lower eye heights limit sight distnce over crest verticl curves. However, since most hnd bicyclists nd child bicyclists trvel slower thn typicl dult bicyclists, their needs re met by using the vlues in Figure 5-8. Recumbent bicyclists generlly trvel fster thn typicl upright bicyclists, so if they re expected to mke up reltively lrge percentge of pth users, crest verticl curve lengths should be incresed ccordingly (operting chrcteristics of recumbent bicyclists re found in Chpter 3). Figures 5-9, 5-10, nd Tble 5-6 indicte the minimum clernce tht should be used for line-ofsight obstructions for horizontl curves. The lterl clernce (horizontl sight line offset or HSO) is obtined by using the tble in Figure 5-9 with the stopping sight distnce (Figure 5-6) nd the proposed horizontl rdius of curvture. Pth users typiclly trvel side-by-side on shred use pths. On nrrow pths, bicyclists hve tendency to ride ner the middle of the pth. For these resons, nd becuse of the higher likeli- 5-22

10 Chpter 5: Design of Shred Use Pths hood for crshes on curves, lterl clernces on horizontl curves should be clculted bsed on the sum of the stopping sight distnces for pth users trveling in opposite directions round the curve. Where this is not prcticl, considertion should be given to widening the pth through the curve, instlling yellow center line stripe, instlling turn or curve wrning signs (W1 series) in ccordnce with the MUTCD (7), or combintion of these lterntives. See Sections nd for more informtion bout center line pvement mrkings nd signs. Figure 5-9. Digrm Illustrting Components for Determining Horizontl Sight Distnce Tble 5-6. Horizontl Sight Distnce S = stopping sight distnce (ft) S = stopping sight distnce (m) R = rdius of centerline of lne (ft) R = rdius of centerline of lne (m) HSO = horizontl sightline offset, distnce from centerline of lne to obstruction (ft) Note: Angle is expressed in degrees; line of sight is 2.3 ft bove centerline of inside lne t point of obstruction. HSO = horizontl sightline offset, distnce from centerline of lne to obstruction (m) Note: Angle is expressed in degrees; line of sight is 0.7 m bove centerline of inside lne t point of obstruction. 5-23

11 Guide to Bicycle Fcilities, 4th Edition Tble 5-8. Length of Pth Leg of Sight Tringle 1.47Ve 1.47Vb t = w+l t g=t V b= 1.47V t i pth g rod 0.278Ve 0.278Vb t = w+l t g=t V b= 0.278V t i pth g rod t g = trvel time to rech nd cler the pth (s) b = length of leg sight tringle long the pth pproch (ft) t = trvel time to rech the pth from the decision point for motorist tht doesn t stop (s). For rod pproch grdes tht exceed 3 percent, vlue should be djusted in ccordnce with AASHTO s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highwys nd Streets (5) V e = speed t which the motorist would enter the intersection fter decelerting (mph) (ssumed 0.60 rod design speed) V b = speed t which brking by the motorist begins (mph) (sme s rod design speed) i = motorist decelertion rte (ft/s 2 ) on intersection pproch when brking to stop not initited (ssume 5.0 ft/s 2 ) w = width of the intersection to be crossed (ft) t g = trvel time to rech nd cler the pth (s) b = length of leg sight tringle long the pth pproch (m) t = trvel time to rech the pth from the decision point for motorist tht doesn t stop (s). For rod pproch grdes tht exceed 3 percent, vlue should be djusted in ccordnce with AASHTO s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highwys nd Streets (5) V e = speed t which the motorist would enter the intersection fter decelerting (km/h) (ssumed 0.60 rod design speed) V b = speed t which brking by the motorist begins (km/h) (sme s rod design speed) i = motorist decelertion rte (m/s 2 ) on intersection pproch when brking to stop not initited (ssume 1.5 m/s 2 ) w = width of the intersection to be crossed (m) L = length of the design vehicle (ft) L = length of the design vehicle (m) V pth = design speed of the pth (mph) V pth = design speed of the pth (km/h) V rod = design speed of the rod (mph) V rod = design speed of the rod (km/h) Note: This tble ccounts for reduced motor vehicle speeds per stndrd prctice in AASHTO s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highwys nd Streets (5). 5-36

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