TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS

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1 TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS

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3 TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS Copyright 2005 All rights reserved. Reproduction of this document in whole or in part by any means is prohibited, unless authorized in writing by: ATCO Electric Health, Safety, Environment th Street Edmonton, Alberta Canada T5J 2V6 Phone: (780) Fax: (780) This guide is in accordance with the Alberta Infrastructure publication Traffic Accommodation in Work Zones and the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Canada published by the Transportation Association of Canada. 20% Post Consumer Content February 2005, Revision 1

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 100: HOW TO USE THIS DOCUMENT 101 Purpose Applying the Guide...1 SECTION 200: TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION TOOLS 201 Traffic Control Devices...3 A. Use of Traffic Control Devices...3 B. Temporary Signing...4 C. Lane Delineation Flagpersons...5 A. Use of Flagpersons...5 B. Protective Equipment Requirements Traffic Hazard Spotters...6 A. Use of Traffic Hazard Spotters...6 B. Protective Equipment Requirements Illumination After Dark Detours...7 SECTION 300: TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION PLAN 301 Planning...9 A. Important Considerations...9 B. Developing the Plan...11 February 2005, Revision 1 Page i

6 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS 302 Notifications and Approvals Implementation...12 APPENDICES Appendix A: Appendix B: Traffic Control Signs, Devices and Protective Equipment...13 Standard Signing: B.1 Off Roadway (2 or 4-Lane)...15 B.2 Road Shoulder More Than 30 Minutes...16 B.3 Road Shoulder Less Than 30 Minutes...17 B.4 Slow Moving Vehicle...18 B.5 Highway Lane Interruption...19 B.6 Rural Roads and Low Volume Traffic...20 B.7 4-Lane Highway Interruption...21 B.8 4-Lane Highway Manlift...22 B.9 4-Lane Urban Manlift Less Than 50 km/hr...23 B.10 Intersections Near Work Area...24 Page ii February 2005, Revision 1

7 101 Purpose SECTION 100: HOW TO USE THIS DOCUMENT The purpose of this guide is to provide employees with instructions and standards for protecting their work areas from traffic hazards while accommodating traffic flow. It is designed to: familiarize employees with the traffic accommodation tools available to them; and provide direction for developing effective traffic accommodation plans. 102 Applying the Guide Diagrams of standard installations for accommodating traffic through electric utility work areas along roadways are provided in the appendices. Variations may be required where hills, curves, intersections, driveways and other physical features are present, and judgement must be used to select the most appropriate approach. However, all installations must conform to these general principles: Unless superceded in writing by another road authority (i.e., municipality, county or private road owner), the February 2005, Revision 1 Page 1

8 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS instructions and standards provided in this guide must be applied to all work performed on or adjacent to any public or private roadway in Alberta. The employee in charge is responsible to develop a sitespecific plan for traffic accommodation, and check all elements regularly to make sure employee safety is protected and traffic flow through the work area is acceptable. All employees are expected to comply fully with the traffic accommodation plan throughout the duration of the job. Whenever imminent danger to employees, motorists or pedestrians is identified, work must be stopped immediately and not resumed until the deficiency is corrected to the satisfaction of the work group and/or the local road authority. Page 2 February 2005, Revision 1

9 SECTION 200: TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION TOOLS 201 Traffic Control Devices (signs, traffic cones, arrow boards, etc.) A. Use of Traffic Control Devices Effective use of traffic control devices is critical to advise, warn and direct motorists safely through the work area, as appropriate for site conditions. Traffic control devices must be visible to traffic and positioned to optimize their effectiveness. Any traffic control devices not required for work area protection must be removed or covered immediately. Use traffic control devices to achieve: Awareness and Identification Advise motorists of the type of activity they will encounter, routing changes and speed restrictions (including when it is safe to resume normal speed). Protection Protect motorists and employees from collisions by providing adequate warning and/or barriers. February 2005, Revision 1 Page 3

10 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS Safe Traffic Speed Identify reduced speed zones, required wherever work activities create obstructions or place employees or equipment in/adjacent to the normal path of travel. Clear Traffic Routing Identify lane changes and provide adequate transitions, relative to the speed and volume of traffic travelling through the work area. Refer to Appendix A: Traffic Control Signs, Devices and Protective Equipment. B. Temporary Signing Use only standard equipment. For specifications, refer to Appendix A and the Operations tool catalog web site, located on the Intranet. Contact the warehouse for ordering assistance. Position signs as follows: Make sure the face of the sign is clearly visible to oncoming traffic. On two-lane, undivided highways, locate signs on the right hand side of the road. Mount signs on portable stands so that the bottom of the sign is not less than 0.3 m (1 foot) above the roadway surface. Make sure signs for construction projects are sufficiently weighted to remain in position for the duration of the job. Use only sandbags for weighting. Place the first sign 100 m 150 m from the work area, if possible. Space subsequent signs 100 m 150 m apart, unless otherwise indicated. Make sure posts, portable sign stands and sandbags do not present a hazard to traffic. Page 4 February 2005, Revision 1

11 SECTION 200: TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION TOOLS C. Lane Delineation Lane delineators, typically traffic cones, are used to outline lane transitions and indicate the intended path for traffic traveling through the work area. A minimum 3.5 m lane width must be maintained at all times. Traffic cones must be a minimum of 70 cm in height and must be spaced a minimum of 3 m apart. Traffic cones are not suitable for use as warning devices except in emergency situations. Arrow Boards In certain situations on multi-lane highways, sequential arrow boards can provide effective lane delineation. However, signs, barricades, traffic cones or other traffic control devices must be used in conjunction with the arrow boards. Note: "Sequential Arrow" mode must NOT be used on highways with opposing traffic. Only "Bar" or "Hazard" mode is appropriate. 202 Flagpersons A. Use of Flagpersons Wherever traffic control devices are insufficient to provide adequate warning or direction to traffic, trained flagpersons are required. Flagperson training is available through the department Training Centre. Typical situations requiring flagpersons involve reduced lane widths, lane/road closures and/or congested work areas. Flagpersons are used to stop traffic intermittently as required by the work, or to maintain safe, continuous traffic flow through the work area at reduced speeds. Flagpersons must be separated from the work area they are protecting and be clearly visible to approaching motorists. They must also be visible to each other, or use one of the February 2005, Revision 1 Page 5

12 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS following methods for exchanging information and instructions: An additional flagperson located between themselves; or another means of communication (e.g., radio, baton). B. Protective Equipment Requirements To enhance their visibility and identification, flagpersons have specific clothing and protective equipment requirements. These include: white coveralls; an orange vest with reflective yellow and white striping and an orange hard hat. A handheld signal light is also required after dark or in poor visibility. Additional flagperson duties and equipment requirements are provided in the flagperson training course. 203 Traffic Hazard Spotters A. Use of Traffic Hazard Spotters On low volume roadways where work can be completed safely without interrupting traffic, traffic hazard spotters must be used. Either one employee must be designated the traffic hazard spotter, or all employees at the work site must continually spot for traffic. Work must always yield to traffic. When traffic approaches, the area must be immediately cleared of all persons, tools, equipment and materials. B. Protective Equipment Requirements At a minimum, anyone exposed to the traffic hazard must wear an orange vest with reflective yellow striping, or ATCO Electric standard high visibility, fire retardant coveralls. Page 6 February 2005, Revision 1

13 SECTION 200: TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION TOOLS The following additional protective equipment may be required wherever traffic hazard spotting is used: 4-way flashers and strobe lights or rotating beacons, where available, to clearly identify the work area; Warning and speed advisory signs, to slow traffic and provide additional time for employees, tools, equipment and materials to be cleared from the work area; Traffic cones, to mark the location of any obstacle that could pose a hazard to traffic as it moves through the work area. 204 Illumination After Dark Work area activities often create conditions on or near the roadway travel lane that are particularly hazardous at night. For this reason, reflectorized signs and barriers must be illuminated to direct traffic when work areas are left unattended after dark (attended work areas are identified by the flashing lights on company vehicles). Use the following types of lighting: Low Intensity Flashing Lights (Type A) Mount on advance warning signs to continually warn motorists they are approaching an obstacle or other potential hazard. Low Intensity Continuous Lights (Type C) Place along the edge of the travel lane to delineate and guide motorists through detour curves, lane changes and transitions. 205 Detours When the entire roadway must be closed, a detour must be provided. The scheduling, location and use of a detour requires the approval of the appropriate division/section manager and the road authority. February 2005, Revision 1 Page 7

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15 SECTION 300: TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION PLAN 301 Planning Traffic accommodation must be considered during the job planning process. A. Important Considerations Consider each of the following when developing the traffic accommodation plan: Buffer Zone Provide a buffer zone between traffic and the work area wherever possible. Class of Roadway Determine the capacity or level of service the roadway provides. The higher capacity, the greater the need for traffic control measures. Duration of Work Minimize the amount of time employees are exposed to the traffic hazard. Gradeline A steep downhill grade can increase the distance required for vehicles to come to a stop. Make sure there is plenty of advance warning of work activities at the bottom of a hill. February 2005, Revision 1 Page 9

16 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS High Load Moves Traffic accommodation and work area protection during high load moves must be coordinated between ATCO Electric and the person responsible for the high load move. A high load may not move through the work area until the employee in charge provides approval. Lane Closures Close lanes only as necessary to divert traffic around the work area. Closing lanes unnecessarily shows a disregard for motorists and may result in the suspension of work activ ities. Pedestrian Safety Provide pedestrians with a safe route through the work area using traffic cones to delineate between the work area and the traveled portions of a roadway. NEVER divert pedestrians onto the traveled portion of a roadway. Protective Equipment At a minimum, anyone exposed to the traffic hazard must wear an orange vest with reflective yellow striping, or ATCO Electric standard high visibility, fire retardant coveralls. Flagpersons have additional clothing and equipment requirements see Section 202. Railway Traffic Railway traffic through a work area must be coordinated through the track operator. Contact the track operator to advise of work activities and obtain approval. Roadway Surface Travel over dusty gravel or snow covered roads can reduce visibility and present additional hazards to employees (e.g., flying rocks and gravel). More warning signs and lower speeds may be required. Routing Route traffic through the work area in the manner that most closely resembles normal conditions and protects the safety of employees. Speed Limits Avoid imposing speed limits unnecessarily. This will confuse and annoy motorists, and may lead to disregard of speed limits where traffic truly presents a hazard. Sight Distance Make sure motorists have sufficient warning to reduce speed safely without creating a hazard to following motorists or the work area. Post signs a reasonable Page 10 February 2005, Revision 1

17 SECTION 300: TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION PLAN distance ahead of the work area for smooth deceleration of traffic. In low visibility conditions, use more warning signs to increase available reaction time. Traffic Control Devices (selection) Use only those signs necessary to clearly warn, advise and control the traffic. Signs placed when/where no work is being performed can reduce the effectiveness of the signs that are actually needed. Traffic Control Devices (stability) Stabilize signs, cones and barriers against air currents that may otherwise blow them over and render them useless. Use only sandbags for this purpose. Traffic Volumes Disrupting high volumes of traffic can create hazards for both motorists and employees and increase the risk of incidents. If possible, schedule disruptions for off-peak hours and avoid planning work during special events. B. Developing the Plan Include the following in the traffic accommodation plan: Posted speed and traffic volumes; Traffic accommodation through the work area; Placement of traffic control devices where they are unobstructed by trees, shrubs or other signs; A means of separating vehicle and pedestrian movements from the work area and making sure pedestrians are protected from traffic and falling object hazards; and Illumination and other measures to protect the work area after dark, as required. Refer to Appendix B: Standard Signing for diagrams to assist in determining traffic control device and flagperson requirements. February 2005, Revision 1 Page 11

18 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS 302 Notifications and Approvals Before starting work, each of the following must be notified: local police; fire department; appropriate road authority; and any other agency that may be affected by the work activities. Obtain the necessary approvals and/or permits from the road authority. 303 Implementation All elements of the traffic accommodation plan must be in place prior to starting the job: Make sure appropriate and sufficient traffic control devices are available at the work site, and check that all are clean and in good working condition. If a flagperson is required, make sure they are trained and have the proper protective equipment. Identify on the tailboard which signs are installed and when they are to be removed, including times. Check every two hours to make sure the signs are still standing. Page 12 February 2005, Revision 1

19 APPENDIX A: Traffic Control Signs, Devices and Protective Equipment Description Diagram Specification Dimensions (cm) Alberta Infrastructure Standard (AIS) WD-101C AIS WD-A-45 Sign - Utility Construction AEL Catalogue # 80 X Sign - Flagperson 75 X AIS RD-156 Sign - Maximum Speed 50 Passing Workers 60 X AIS WD-A-33L Sign - Road Narrows Left Lane Ends 75 x AIS WD-A-33R Sign - Road Narrows Right Lane Ends 75 x AIS SEQUENTIAL ARROW BOARD Sign - High Visibility Traffic Advisory 66 x AIS TRAFFIC CONE 70 cm high with 5 cm white reflective tape AIS TRAFFIC CONTROL PADDLE 45 X mm letter size Series "c" February 2005, Revision 1 Page 13

20 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS Description Diagram Specification Dimensions (cm) AIS FLAG- PERSON CLOTHING - Orange Hard Hat - High Visibility Vest AEL Catalogue # or AIS SIGN STAND - White Coveralls Approved Wind Resistant Sign Stand Local Purchase AIS SIGN STAND Approved Sign Stand Page 14 February 2005, Revision 1

21 APPENDIX B: Standard Signing B.1 Off Roadway (2 or 4-lane) WORK AREA Do not use flashing, rotating or strobe lights in this instance. Sign WD-101C is not required if work is more than 15m from the centre of the roadway. Space all signs 100m 150m apart unless otherwise indicated. February 2005, Revision 1 Page 15

22 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS B.2 Road Shoulder More Than 30 Minutes (2 or 4-lane) WORK AREA Maintain a minimum 3.5 m lane width. Use 4-way flashers and strobe lights or rotating beacon where available. Cone taper is 5:1 (move 1 metre over for every 5 metres back). Space all signs 100m 150m apart unless otherwise indicated. Page 16 February 2005, Revision 1

23 APPENDIX B: STANDARD SIGNING B.3 Road Shoulder Less Than 30 Minutes (2 or 4-lane) Maintain minimum 3.5 m lane width. WORK AREA Use 4-way flashers and strobe lights or rotating beacon where available. Cone s req d for work >30 min. and/or if parked on shoulder Cone taper is 5:1 (move 1 metre over for every 5 metres back). February 2005, Revision 1 Page 17

24 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS B.4 Slow Moving Vehicle (2 or 4-lane) PLANNED OPERATIONS Use arrow board, 4-way flashers and strobe lights or rotating beacon. WD-101C required within 3.2 km if no arrow board. EMEGENCY OPERATIONS Add warning signs as required for specific site conditions. Use 4-way flashers and strobe lights or rotating beacon where available If required to stop: - use an approach; or - use a field entrance; or - move off-road as far as possible and install cones or signs as required. Page 18 February 2005, Revision 1

25 APPENDIX B: STANDARD SIGNING B.5 Highway Lane Interruption No vehicles may be parked in the driving lanes. No vehicles may be parked anywhere on the road surface unless required for actual operations. Use traffic cones to mark any vehicles parked on the shoulder of the road. When no work is being performed, remove or cover all signs. Space all signs 100m 150m apart unless otherwise indicated. February 2005, Revision 1 Page 19

26 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS B.6 Rural Roads and Low Volume Traffic No vehicles may be parked in the driving lanes. Use traffic cones to mark all vehicles parked on the shoulder of the road. A traffic hazard spotter must be used to warn of approaching traffic. Work must yield to traffic. When no work is being performed, remove or cover all signs. Space all signs 100m 150m apart unless otherwise indicated. Page 20 February 2005, Revision 1

27 APPENDIX B: STANDARD SIGNING B.7 4-Lane Highway Interruption GAZETTED HIGHWAY SPEED WORK SEQUENTIAL ARROW BOARD February 2005, Revision 1 Page 21

28 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS B.8 4-Lane Highway Manlift If the speed limit exceeds 70 km/hr, no work may be done from the traffic lane. Use the shoulder, the turning lane, or work off the road. Highway km/hr Highway km/hr - turning lane - - shoulder - off-road Spotter ensures work activity yields to traffic WD-A-33L when working on left side of road Cone taper 40:1 Page 22 February 2005, Revision 1

29 APPENDIX B: STANDARD SIGNING B.9 4 lane Urban Manlift Less Than 50 km/hr Spotter required if work activity may interfere with traffic February 2005, Revision 1 Page 23

30 ATCO ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ACCOMMODATION IN WORK AREAS B.10 Intersections Near Work Area WORK AREA ADDITIONAL SIGNS AS REQUIRED ADDITIONAL SIGNS AS REQUIRED Page 24 February 2005, Revision 1

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