Simple Machines. Work (in) = Work (out)

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1 Simple Machines Work (in) A simple machine uses a force to do work against a single load force. Ignoring friction losses, the work done on the load is equal to the work done by force Work (out) Work (in) = Work (out)

2 Types of Simple Machines A simple machine does work with only one movement. Simple machines can be combined to form more complex machines

3 Overview of the 6 Simple Machines Lever Pulley Wheel & Axle Inclined Plane Screw Wedge Match the tool... A. B. C. D. E. F. Knife Crowbar Pencil Sharpener Elevator Wheelchair ramp Lid to a jar

4 Levers ---- A bar that is free to pivot or turn at a fixed point. --- The fixed point is called the FULCRUM --- The output force produced depends on the length of the arm

5

6 4 cm 12 cm Mechanical Advantage = Length of Input Arm (Effort Arm) Length of Output Arm (Load Arm) What is the mechanical advantage of the lever above?

7 Calculate the mechanical advantage of each of the levers. 8 cm 16 cm 12 cm 12 cm 12 cm 6 cm

8 Work (in) = Work (out) Force x distance = Force x distance Calculate the work (in) and work (out) for this system.

9 1st Class Lever Fulcrum is located between the input and output forces Examples: Crowbar Seesaw Scissors are two class 1 levers

10 2nd Class Lever Effort and fulcrum are on opposite sides, load is between them Examples: Wheelbarrow Bottle opener

11 3rd Class Levers Effort is applied between the fulcrum and the load Ex. Baseball bat, tweezers, fishing pole

12 Levers (3 Classes) Which class is a: 1. Wheelbarrow 2. Scissors 3. Fishing Pole 4. Refrigerator door 5. Shovel 6. Baseball bat

13 MEMORY TRICK *remember the word FLEx* 1. F = fulcrum in the middle 2. L = load is in the middle 3. E = effort is in the middle x is just for fun

14 What is a pulley? 1. Consists of a wheel and a rope 2. A fixed pulley is attached and doesn't move. Ex. Elevators, flagpoles 3. Moveable pulleys multiply force

15 The Block and Tackle System of pulleys consisting of fixed and movable pulleys. Basically the weight of the object is spread over multiple ropes, meaning less force needs to be applied to raise it. Essentially the rope is longer, and you must pull it a longer distance to raise the object. Work = force x distance How Stuff Works has an excellent explanation of this.

16 Multiple Pulleys Increase Mechanical Advantage By spreading the force over a greater distance (using more than one pulley) you will reduce the effort required to raise an object. In each case, the length of the rope gets longer, and the effort required to lift the block gets smaller 1 pulley = 100 N 2 pulleys = 50 N 3 pulleys = 25 N

17 Check for Understanding 1. Which design will give you the greatest mechanical advantage? 2. If F1 = 100 N, what is F2? 3. Identify the movable and fixed pulleys in each design.

18 Work (in) = Work (out). still! The effort is spread over a longer distance. W = force x distance

19 What is a Wheel and Axle? Shaft or axle attached to a larger wheel Examples: door knobs, screwdrivers, faucet handles, pencil sharpener

20 Mechanical Advantage of Wheel and Axle IMA = radius of wheel radius of axle You can increase the advantage by using a larger wheel

21 Gears = multiple wheels that interlock together, one turn of a larger wheel causes the smaller wheel to turn multiple times In which figure(s) will the F rotate clockwise?

22 Inclined Planes - a sloping surface, such as a ramp, that reduces the amount of force required to do work Like all machines, the principle is to spread the FORCE out over a longer DISTANCE. Ideal Mechanical Advantage IMA = length of slope height of slope Walking up the hill in a zigzag will require less effort than walking straight up the hill. Where else do you see inclined planes at work?

23 Which of the following designs will produce the greater mechanical advantage? IMA = length of slope height of slope Show calculations below:

24 1. Energy and work are measured in 2. For exertion, the greater the distance, the [ greater / lesser ] the force required. 3. The "sloping flat thing" is actually the

25 1. What is the pivot point of the teeter totter called? 2. If you double the distance, you can the forced needed. 3. Archimedes said: "give me a and I will move the

26 1. The lever gave Professor B a mechanical 2. Mechanical Advantage = output divided by 3. The inclined plane is less efficient due to the force of

27 The Screw - an inclined plane wrapped in a around a post Examples: bolts, screws, lids, spiral staircase The Wedge - an inclined plane with two sides Examples: Axes, knives

28 QUIZ TIME!

29 1. What type of machine is a wheelchair ramp? 2. What type of machine is a crowbar? 3. The fixed point for a lever to pivot is the. 4. If the LOAD is in the middle of a lever, it is called a [1st, 2nd, 3rd ] class lever. 5. What type of lever is pictured? [ 1st, 2nd, or 3rd class ] Effort 6. A system of pulleys that reduces the force needed to lift an object is called a

30 7. Give an example of a wheel and axle: 8. How can you increase the mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle? 9. A consists of multiple wheels that interlock 10. A wedge is an with two sides.

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