# Turn Lane Warrants: Concepts, Standards, Application in Review

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

2 Standards AASHTO standards are typically applied by most states where they are available. These standards provide minimal guidance on turning lane warrants. There is repetition of Highway Capacity Manual 7 advice at signalized intersections: at hourly volumes of 100 and 300 for left and right turn lanes respectively, auxiliary lanes should be considered. But different criteria apply to unsignalized intersections and AASHTO guidance is limited to left turn lanes on two-lane highways. AASHTO Exhibit 9-75 (shown as Figure 1) from the 2001 Greenbook summarizes leftturn lane warrant information from 16 of Harmelinks original graphs. AASHTO guidance is thereby provided for two-lane roadways with speeds between 40 and 60 mph, left-turn volume percentages between 5 and 30 percent, and total hourly volume in a single direction of 800 vehicles or less. Maximum advancing volume without a left turn lane can be read from the AASHTO summary table given a known left turn percentage and the opposing volume. At 5 percent left turns opposed by 800 vehicles the maximum advancing volume without a left turn lane can be read from the table for three speeds: 330 vehicles per hour at 40 mph, 280 at 50 mph, and 230 at 60 mph. Minimum warranting left turn volumes within the AASHTO table are derived from the 5 percent left turn column. When opposed by 800 vehicles, the minimum suggested left turn volume requiring a left turn lane is: 17 left turns per hour at 40 mph, 14 at 50 mph, and 12 at 60mph.. Figure 1: ASSHTO Guide for Left turn Lanes on Two-Lane Highways 2

3 Most states provide this information in a graphical form that summarizes Harmelink warrant thresholds by roadway speed. Curves for specific left turn percentages are shown. Each is like that shown for 40 mph in Figure 2. Figure 2: Typical State Design Manual Graph of Left Turn Lane Warrant Conditions on Two-Lane Highways at 40 mph. 3

4 Most states include a graph in their design manuals for determining warranting volumes for right turn lanes at unsignalized intersections (Figure 3). This graph typically relates only to two-lane highways. This graph of right turn volumes and total design hourly volume (DHV) presents a threshold line above which a right turn lane should be considered. The minimum hourly right turn volume where a right turn should be considered is 80 of 300 or 40 of 600 or more approach vehicles. Speed is not a factor except for a correction when posted speeds are below 45 mph (sometimes stated operating speed of 40 mph or design speed of 50 mph), the approach volume is less than 300 and right turns exceed 40. The correction reduces the right turn volume by 20 before entering the chart. Figure 3: Typical State Design Manual Guideline for Right-Turn Lanes at Unsignalized Intersections on Two-lane Highways 4

5 VTrans has adopted an alternate right turn lane volume warrant 8, which is based on the Harmelink left turn warrant (Figure 4). A limited probability of a right turn vehicle delaying a through vehicle is set to derive a design chart with curves for speeds of mph on two-lane highways and one curve for four-lane highways. When approach volumes are 800 vehicles per hour, the warranting right turn volumes range from 25 vehicles at 60 mph to 90 at 30 mph for two-lane roadways and 60 right turn vehicles on four-lane roadways. Figure 4: VTrans Right Turn Auxiliary Lanes Traffic Volume Warrants 5

6 Concepts Harmelink s model for left turn warrants at unsignalized intersections is based on probability theory. A description of some of the parameters and an outline of the concept will provide the understanding needed to interpret the ASSHTO table or the original curves. As shown in Figure 5, the concept is based on the arrival of a vehicle on the advancing approach that queues behind a left turning vehicle that is waiting for a gap in the opposing approach flow. Figure 5: Harmelink s Arrival Event on a Two-lane Highway The arrival event on a two-lane highway involves a compound probability: first the probability of the presence of a left-turn vehicle, and second, the probability of the arrival of one or more through vehicles. The probability of this dual occurrence should not exceed for 40 mph and 0.015, and for operating speeds of 50,and 60 mph respectively. On a four-lane divided highway, the design condition is probability of no more than one left turn vehicle stored in the median space (P = 0.030). On four-lane undivided highways, the design condition is the probability of a left turn vehicle waiting in the through lane (P = 0.005). These limiting probabilities and the application of queuing theory enable the determination of the utilization factor, which is the ratio of the arrival rate to the service rate. The ratio must be less than 1 for the theory to apply. The arrival rate is a function of the advancing approach volume, the percentage of left turns, the average wait time (a function of opposing volume and the critical gap), the time for a left turning vehicle to clear the lane on the advancing approach, and median headway of the advancing traffic. Critical gaps of 5.0 and 6.0 seconds were used for two-lane and four-lane highways. 6

7 Time to clear the lane is 1.9 sec. The service rate is equal to unblocked time, which in general constitutes gaps longer than the critical gap and additional capacity calculated from the remaining unblocked time recognizing the time required to complete a left turn (3.0 seconds for two-lane highways and 4.0 for four-lane highways). It should be noted that Harmelink based his assumptions on field observations and later checked his results with additional field studies. Harmelink developed 18 graphs for left turn lanes under two-lane conditions and one for four-lane conditions. Each graph related to the same roadway operating and percent left turns and presented a lane-warranting curve and lane storage lengths. The plotted curves reflected a negative exponential form. Harmelink s four-lane highway graph, which is shown below as Figure 6, presents a curve for the undivided left turn lane warrant roughly defined by 13 vehicles turning left across 800 opposing vehicles and 25 turning left across 200 opposing vehicles. The four-lane divided curve contains points associated with 25 left turns into 900 opposing vehicles and 50 left turns into 300 left turns. Figure 6: Harmelink s Figure 1. Warrant for Left-Turn storage on four-lane highways. 7

8 The Cottrell right turn lane warrant model was prepared around 1981 after surveying state DOTs and determining that volume based warrants was used by the greater number of DOTs that used any consistent criteria. His research involved field data collection and previously established state DOT standards. It may be noted that during this same time period, the Virginia Transportation Research Council documented a similar pair of graphs with plots of thresholds for a full width lane and for taper treatment. These are presented in Figures 7 and 8. Figure 7: Cottrell s Two Lane Right Turn Treatment 8

9 Figure 8: Cottrell s Four-Lane Right Turn Treatment. VTrans alternative right turn lane volume warrant is based on the Harmelink left turn warrant. All of Harmelink s speed related probabilities were held for two-lane highways. For four-lane highways, Harmelink s value of 0.03 for undivided highways was used. The time required to make a right turn maneuver was assumed to be 2.1 seconds which compares with Harmelinks left turn times of 3.0 for two-lanes and 4.0 for four-lanes. Under four lane conditions the warrant is met when the volume of right turns is greater than 50 and the two- lane warrant is met. Application Interpretation is typically required to use the ASSHTO guide for left turn lanes because volume conditions are often off the chart while not clearly exceeding turn lane thresholds. One caution is provided with the ASSHTO table: For the volumes shown, left turns and right turns from the minor street can be equal to but not greater than, the left turns from the major street. By the words for the volumes shown it can be assumed that a left turn lane could be warranted when lesser volumes are present. This note is not 9

11 Figure 9: NCHRP 279 Figure 4-12 Volume Warrants for left turn lanes at unsignalized intersections. Kikuchi and Charoborty conducted a notable research work containing a review of the Harmelink model. They cited two specific problems with Harmelink and offered modified turn lane volume thresholds. First, Harmelink s definitions of arrival rate and service rate relate to arriving through vehicles and left-turn vehicles respectively. They point out that proper application of queuing theory would have the same type vehicle arriving and serviced but note that the Harmelink model would still hold for conditions that would result in only one through vehicle queuing behind a left turn vehicle. Kikuchi and Charborty s second problem concerned the calculation of the left turn capacity. Harmelink calculated unblocked time and divided that by the time to turn left to determine capacity. In his calculation, gaps greater than the required time to turn are counted. Then, each of these gaps were reduced by one half the critical gap and the time 11

13 9. ITE District 1 State DOTs use a variety of volume based right turn lane warrants and guidelines. 10. The most common right turn volume-based warranting concept is derived from research presented by Cottrell in TRR 855. The Cottrell research includes graphs for two-lane and four-lane conditions that indicate full width lane warranting thresholds and a lane taper treatment. More often, state design manuals contain only two-lane highway graph for only full width lane treatment. 11. VTrans has developed and uses a right turn lane warrant based on Harmelink probability model for left turn lanes. 12. Although field research is cited in Harmelinks 1967 work, the limiting probabilities used to define turn lane volume thresholds are described as the collective judgment of several people. Recent research of the applicability of these probabilities and other assumptions such as acceptable gap time was not found. 13. Turn lane requirements at unsignalized and signalized intersections are based on different criteria. AASHTO guidelines suggest thresholds for turn lanes at unsignalized intersections are significantly less than at signalized intersections. 13

14 References 1. Traffic Engineering Handbook, Fifth Edition, Pline J.L., Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington D.C., A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., Harmelink, M.D., Volume Warrants for Left-Turn Storage Lanes at Unsignalized Grade Intersections, in Highway Research Record 211, Highway Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Cottrell, B.H. JR., Guidelines for treatment of Right-Turn Movements on Rural Roads, in Transportation Research Record 855, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Agent, K.R., Warrants for Left-Turn Lanes, in Transportation Quarterly Vol.37, No.1, ENO Foundation for Transportation,Inc., Westport, CT, Kikuchi,S., P.Charkroborty, Analysis of Left-Turn-Lane Warrants at Unsignalized T-Intersections on Two-Lane Roadways, in Transportation Research Record 1327, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington D.C., Highway Capacity Manual, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington D.C., Traffic Volume Warrants For Right Turn Auxillary Lanes At Unsignalized Intersections, (Willey, L.B., 1989), in Vermont Agency of Transportation Guidelines for Engineering Issues, Attachment G, Neumann,T.R., NCHRP Report 279: Intersection Channelization Design Guide, Transportation Research Board,National Research Council, D.C., Koepke, F.J. and H.S.Levinson, NCHRP Report 348 Access Management Guidelines for Activity Centers, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Pline, J.L., NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 225, Left-Turn Treatments at Intersections, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Oppenlander, J.C. and J.C. Bianchi, Guidelines for left turn Lanes, in 1990 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 60 th Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL. 14

### Design of Turn Lane Guidelines

Design of Turn Lane Guidelines CTS Transportation Research Conference May 24, 2012 Howard Preston, PE Minnesota Department of Transportation Research Services Office of Policy Analysis, Research & Innovation

### Issues Relating to the Geometric Design of Intersections Vergil G. Stover

Introduction Issues Relating to the Geometric Design of Intersections Vergil G. Stover This paper presents five issues, or topics, that the author suggests be addressed in the design of intersections.

### THE FUTURE OF THE TxDOT ROADWAY DESIGN MANUAL

THE FUTURE OF THE TXDOT ROADWAY DESIGN MANUAL Kenneth Mora, P.E. (Design Division) 10/10/2017 Table of contents 1 2 Reduction in FHWA design controlling criteria Innovative Intersection Guidance 3-7 8-42

### Topic No January 2000 Manual on Uniform Traffic Studies Revised July Chapter 8 GAP STUDY

Chapter 8 8.1 PURPOSE GAP STUDY (1) The Gap Study is used to determine the size and the number of gaps in the vehicular traffic stream for unsignalized intersections and access points, pedestrian studies,

### WYDOT DESIGN GUIDES. Guide for. Non-NHS State Highways

WYDOT DESIGN GUIDES Guide for Non-NHS State Highways 2014 GUIDE FOR Non-NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM (Non-NHS) STATE HIGHWAYS PRESERVATION REHABILITATION RECONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION This Guide is directed to

### Practical Application of Turn Lane Design Criteria in Developing Suburban & Urban Corridors

Practical Application of Turn Lane Design Criteria in Developing Suburban & Urban Corridors Presented by Gilmer D. Gaston, P.E., PTOE October 14, 2014 San Antonio Austin Houston Fort Worth Dallas When

### Traffic Impact Study. Roderick Place Columbia Pike Thompson s Station, TN. Transportation Group, LLC Traffic Engineering and Planning

F i s c h b a c h Transportation Group, LLC Traffic Engineering and Planning Traffic Impact Study Roderick Place Columbia Pike Thompson s Station, TN Prepared March 2016 Ms. Gillian L. Fischbach, P.E.,

### Right and Left Turn Lane Warrants

Right and Left Turn Lane Warrants TRS 1406 Published April 2014 Introduction The genesis of this project stems from a perception by city and county engineers that there is a lack of guidance relative to

### CHAPTER 3A. GENERAL PAGE CHAPTER 3B. PAVEMENT AND CURB MARKINGS PAGE

Virginia Supplement to the 2009 MUTCD Revision 1 Page TC-3-1 PART 3. MARKINGS CHAPTER 3A. GENERAL PAGE Section 3A.01 Functions and Limitations Section 3A.02 Standardization of Application Section 3A.03

Roadway Design Manual Manual Notice Archive by Texas Department of Transportation (512) 302-2453 all rights reserved Manual Notice 2009-1 From: Manual: Mark A. Marek, P.E Roadway Design Manual Effective

### CHAPTER 1 STANDARD PRACTICES

CHAPTER 1 STANDARD PRACTICES OBJECTIVES 1) Functions and Limitations 2) Standardization of Application 3) Materials 4) Colors 5) Widths and Patterns of Longitudinal Pavement Marking Lines 6) General Principles

### Geometric Design Tables

Design Manual Chapter 5 - Roadway Design 5C - Geometric Design Criteria 5C-1 Geometric Design Tables A. General The following sections present two sets of design criteria tables - Preferred Roadway Elements

### SCHOOL CROSSING PROTECTION CRITERIA

CITY OF MADISON TRAFFIC ENGINEERING SCHOOL CROSSING PROTECTION CRITERIA AUGUST 1990 Adopted as Policy on August 31, 1976, by Common Council by Amended Resolution #29,540 Amended on September 14, 1976,

### SCHOOL CROSSING PROTECTION CRITERIA

CITY OF MADISON TRAFFIC ENGINEERING SCHOOL CROSSING PROTECTION CRITERIA January 2016 Adopted as Policy on August 31, 1976, by Common Council by Amended Resolution #29,540 Amended on September 14, 1976,

### GUIDELINES FOR EMERGENCY TRAFFIC CONTROL

GUIDELINES FOR EMERGENCY TRAFFIC CONTROL TABLE OF Contents Page Introduction...1 Chapter 6I of the 2009 MUTCD...2 Reason for Control...6 Components of Incident Management Area...7 Traffic Control Devices

### CIRCLE DRIVE TRAFFIC AND ACCESS MANAGEMENT POLICY GUIDE. Management Principles and Implementation Concepts

CIRCLE DRIVE TRAFFIC AND ACCESS MANAGEMENT POLICY GUIDE A. PREFACE Management Principles and Implementation Concepts The intent of this policy guide is to provide interim guidance on the implementation

### Addressing Deficiencies HCM Bike Level of Service Model for Arterial Roadways

Petritsch, et al 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Addressing Deficiencies HCM Bike Level of Service Model for Arterial Roadways Submitted July 31, 2013 Word

### TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY And A TRAFFIC SIGNAL WARRANT ANALYSIS FOR A SENIOR LIVING AND APARTMENT DEVELOPMENT

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY And A TRAFFIC SIGNAL WARRANT ANALYSIS FOR A SENIOR LIVING AND APARTMENT DEVELOPMENT DEERFIELD TOWNSHIP, WARREN COUNTY, OHIO Nantucket Circle and Montgomery Road () Prepared for: ODLE

### RIGHT TURNS AT INTERSECTIONS: ARE THERE ALTERNATIVES?

RIGHT TURNS AT INTERSECTIONS: ARE THERE ALTERNATIVES? R.C. Pyke, J.D. Sampson and K.G. Schmid Stewart Scott International, P O Box 784506, Sandton, 2146 TTT Africa, P.O.Box 109, Sunninghill, G.D.P.T.R.W,

### CITY OF SASKATOON COUNCIL POLICY

ORIGIN/AUTHORITY Clause 1, Report No. 1-1980 and Clause 4, Report No. 22-1990 of the Works and Utilities Committee; Clause 6, Report No. 17-2004 of the Planning and Operations Committee; and Clause D5,

### Access Management Regulations and Standards

Access Management Regulations and Standards Efficient highway operation Reasonable property access Concept of Access Management The way to manage access to land development while simultaneously preserving

### Clear Zone Conflicts in AASHTO Publications

Clear Zone Conflicts in AASHTO Publications Dick Albin Washington State Department of Transportation Presented at the AASHTO Sub Committee on Design Meeting June 2007 Burlington, Vermont Clear Zone is

### City of Prince Albert Statement of POLICY and PROCEDURE. Department: Public Works Policy No. 66. Section: Transportation Issued: July 14, 2014

Page: 1 of 8 1 POLICY 1.01 The City shall follow all of the specifications in the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Canada, prepared by the National Committee of Uniform Traffic Control, and

### PAVEMENT FUNCTIONAL SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS

PAVEMENT FUNCTIONAL SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS Midwestern Pavement Preservation Partnership Updated 12-01-04 By Roger M. Larson, APTech Phone/Fax 703-455-7681 rlarson@pavementsolutions.com Pavement Functional

### BI-DIRECTIONALS FREE-ACCESS

BI-DIRECTIONALS FREE-ACCESS Dimensions may vary depending on design vehicle and turning movements. See GEO-650-Series for addtional details. SPECIAL Special situations, i.e., See Notes 4 & 5 wide streets,

### The Corporation of the City of Sarnia. School Crossing Guard Warrant Policy

The Corporation of the City of Sarnia School Crossing Guard Warrant Policy Table of Contents Overview And Description... 2 Role of the School Crossing Guard... 2 Definition of a Designated School Crossing...

### CROSSING GUARD PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS AND GAP ASSESSMENT

CROSSING GUARD PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS AND GAP ASSESSMENT Many factors contribute to the need for a Crossing Guard. General federal guidance, provided by the FHWA MUTCD, states that adult crossing guards

### Dakota County Transportation Department Roadway Guidance Signing

Dakota County Transportation Department Roadway Guidance Signing Background There are three types of permanent traffic signs. Regulatory (stop, do not enter, and speed limit) signs are signs that direct

### Median Design. Course No: C Credit: 4 PDH. Debra Kennaugh, P.E.

Median Design Course No: C04-041 Credit: 4 PDH Debra Kennaugh, P.E. Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877) 322-4774 info@cedengineering.com

### POWELL BUTTE HIGHWAY/NEFF ROAD INTERSECTION Interim Report: Existing Conditions, Needs, and Alternatives Review

POWELL BUTTE HIGHWAY/NEFF ROAD INTERSECTION Interim Report: Existing Conditions, Needs, and Alternatives Review Date: December 30, 2013 Project #: 13963.0 To: Chris Doty PE and George Kolb, Deschutes County

### COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND LARGE CENTRAL ISLAND ROTARIES IN MINNA, NIGERIA

Part-I: Natural and Applied Sciences ISSN-L: 2223-9553, ISSN: 2223-9944 OMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRAFFI PERFORMANE OF SMALL AND LARGE ENTRAL ISLAND ROTARIES IN MINNA, NIGERIA M. Abubakar 1, P. N. Ndoke 2

### Form DOT F (8-72) Technical Report Documentation Page. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 1. Report No. FHWA/TX-11/

1. Report No. FHWA/TX-11/0-6402-1 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDELINES FOR PEDESTRIAN SAFETY TREATMENTS AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Technical

### ALLEY 24 TRAFFIC STUDY

ALLEY 24 TRAFFIC STUDY in City of Frostburg, Maryland January 2013 3566 Teays Valley Road Hurricane, WV Office: (304) 397-5508 www.denniscorporation.com Alley 24 Traffic Study January 2013 Frostburg, Maryland

### Texas Transportation Institute The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas

Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. FHWA/TX-06/0-4618-1 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle COMPARISONS OF CRASHES ON RURAL TWO-LANE AND FOUR-LANE

### New in the MUTCD: The Flashing Yellow Arrow Presented at the 57 th Annual Traffic and Safety Conference May 17, 2006

New in the MUTCD: The Flashing Yellow Arrow Presented at the 57 th Annual Traffic and Safety Conference May 17, 2006 David A. Noyce, Ph.D., P.E. University of Wisconsin - Madison The FYA Story Research

### URBAN QUARRY HEADQUARTERS 2717 STEVENAGE DRIVE CITY OF OTTAWA TRANSPORTATION OVERVIEW. Prepared for: Urban Quarry 4123 Belgreen Drive, Ottawa K1G 3N2

URBAN QUARRY HEADQUARTERS 2717 STEVENAGE DRIVE CITY OF OTTAWA TRANSPORTATION OVERVIEW Prepared for: Urban Quarry 4123 Belgreen Drive, Ottawa K1G 3N2 February 27, 2014 113-584 Overview_1.doc D. J. Halpenny

### Roundabout Model Calibration Issues and a Case Study

Roundabout Model Calibration Issues and a Case Study TRB National Roundabout Conference Vail, Colorado, USA, 22-25 May 2005 Pictures modified to show driving on the right-hand side of the road Rahmi Akçelik

JUNE, 2000 ROAD DESIGN MANUAL 5-0(1) CHAPTER 5 AT-GRADE INTERSECTIONS 5-1.0 INTRODUCTION 5-1.01 Definition 5-1.02 Policy 5-1.03 Design Considerations 5-1.04 Vehicle Characteristics 5-1.04.01 Turning Radii

### Implementing Complete Streets in Ottawa. Project Delivery Process and Tools Complete Streets Forum 2015 October 1, 2015

Implementing Complete Streets in Ottawa October 1, 2015 The Essentials Complete Streets Implementation Framework will become part of the routine delivery of City transportation projects Approach uses every

### 4.0 TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDIES

SECTION 4 4.0 TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDIES 4.1 TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY REQUIREMENTS The City has established Traffic Impact Study (TIS) requirements for the purpose of ensuring that both the quantitative and qualitative

### Saturation Flow Rate, Start-Up Lost Time, and Capacity for Bicycles at Signalized Intersections

Transportation Research Record 1852 105 Paper No. 03-4180 Saturation Flow Rate, Start-Up Lost Time, and Capacity for Bicycles at Signalized Intersections Winai Raksuntorn and Sarosh I. Khan A review of

### Pavement Markings (1 of 3)

Pavement Markings (1 of 3) DESCRIPTION AND DEFINITION Disadvantages Relatively high cost (over typical Crash reduction as yet unknown painted edge line) No tactile effect The STOP AHEAD pavement marking

### Intersec ons. Alignment. Chapter 3 Design Elements. Standards AASHTO & PennDOT: As close to 90 as possible, but a minimum of 60.

Intersec ons Intersec ons pertains to mul ple design elements concerning intersec- ons, including: alignment, channeliza on, grades, off set, radii, sight distance, signaliza on, spacing, and traffic control

### INNOVATIVE INTERSECTION SOLUTIONS. Jay Bockisch, PE, PTOE Senior Associate

INNOVATIVE INTERSECTION SOLUTIONS Jay Bockisch, PE, PTOE Senior Associate INNOVATIVE INTERSECTION SOLUTIONS Innovative intersection overview Case studies Continuous flow intersection Modern roundabouts

### Traffic Conflicts and Level of Service at Four-Legged, Signalized Intersections in Sacramento Introduction Background

Traffic Conflicts and Level of Service at Four-Legged, Signalized Intersections in Sacramento Addisu Workineh, Kevan Shafizadeh, Ph.D., P.E., PTP, PTOE, and Ghazan Khan, Ph.D. Department of Civil Engineering,

### MEASURING PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENTS (PCE) FOR LARGE VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

MEASURING PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENTS (PCE) FOR LARGE VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Md. Mizanur RAHMAN Doctoral Student Graduate School of Engineering Department of Civil Engineering Yokohama National

### Benefits and Limitations of J- Turn Intersections

Benefits and Limitations of J- Turn Intersections Ernest B. Perry, Eric Oberhart, Steven Wagner, and Teresa Adams Mid-America Freight Coalition National Center for Freight and Infrastructure Research and

### Addendum to SDDCTEA Pamphlet 55 17: Better Military Traffic Engineering Revision 1 Effective: 24 Aug Crosswalk Guidelines

Addendum to SDDCTEA Pamphlet 55 17: Better Military Traffic Engineering Revision 1 Effective: 24 Aug 2017 Crosswalk Guidelines Warrants for Uncontrolled Crosswalk Locations Crosswalks at Midblock Locations

### Estimating Base Saturation Flow Rate for Selected Signalized Intersections in Khartoum State, Sudan

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 7, Issue 12, December 2017 119 Estimating Base Saturation Flow Rate for Selected Signalized Intersections in Khartoum State, Sudan

INTERSECTIONS 1 AT GRADE INTERSECTIONS INTERSECTIONS INTERSECTIONS = INTERRUPTED FACILITIES Definitions and key elements An intersection is defined as an area where two or more roadways join or cross.

### This Chapter sets forth the minimum design, technical criteria and specifications to be used in the preparation of all roadway plans.

4.1 GENERAL This Chapter sets forth the minimum design, technical criteria and specifications to be used in the preparation of all roadway plans. These Roadway Standards are for new construction and modification

### Gaps Accepted at Stop-Controlled Intersections

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH RECORD 1303 103 Gaps Accepted at Stop-Controlled Intersections KAY FITZPATRICK Gap-acceptance data are used to determine intersection sight distance, capacity, queue length, and

### APPENDIX F. Access Management Design Standards for Entrances and Intersections

APPENDIX F Access Management Design Standards for Entrances and Intersections PREFACE The access management regulations and standards do not apply in cities, towns of more than 3,500 and in counties (Henrico

### REDEVELOPMENT TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY

REDEVELOPMENT TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY For Wendy s Parker, Colorado January 215 Prepared for: Sterling Design Associates, LLC 29 W. Littleton Boulevard #3 Littleton, Colorado 812 Prepared by: 1233 Airport

### Queue Jump Lane, Transit Signal Priority, and Stop Location: Evaluation of Transit Preferential Treatments using Microsimulation

Queue Jump Lane, Transit Signal Priority, and Stop Location: Evaluation of Transit Preferential Treatments using Microsimulation Burak Cesme (corresponding author) AECOM 1 Wilson

### VDOT Crash Analysis Procedures for Roadway Safety Assessments

Crash analysis is a critical component of road safety analysis. The crash analysis procedures defined in this document will help: Identify where to target resources for detailed crash analysis Assess the

### 2009 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices

2009 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices Tori Brinkly, PE Highway Safety Engineer WFL-FHWA April 20, 2010 Paragraphs are numbered. Standard Statements are bolded. Guidance statements are italicized.

### FHWA Experimentation #4-298(E) Modified HAWK Signal and Bike Signal - Draft Report

FHWA Experimentation #4-298(E) Modified HAWK Signal and Bike Signal - Draft Report August 2, 2010 Table of Contents Preface... 1 Problem Statement... 1 Study Objectives... 2 Data Collection Methods...

23 rd ARRB Conference Research Partnering with Practitioners, Adelaide Australia, 2008 SPEED CONTROL AT ROUNDABOUTS USE OF MAXIMUM ENTRY PATH RADII Dr Owen Arndt, Queensland Department of Main Roads, Australia

### Analysis of Factors Affecting Train Derailments at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

Chadwick et al TRB 12-4396 1 1 2 3 Analysis of Factors Affecting Train Derailments at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings 4 5 TRB 12-4396 6 7 8 9 Submitted for consideration for presentation and publication at

### Use of Additional Through Lanes at Signalized Intersections

Transportation Research Record 869 1 Use of Additional Through Lanes at Signalized Intersections PATRICK T. McCOY AND JOHN R. TOBIN One method sometimes used to increase the capacity of signalized intersections

### 4.1 CONTEXT. The existing terrain and sight conditions will affect available sight lines and approach speeds of bicyclists and motorists.

4 INTERSECTION DESIGN This chapter provides key principles that should be used to develop and evaluate design approaches and treatments that will result in intersections that support all ages and abilities

### AN ASSESSMENT OF THE HIGHWAY CAPACITY MANUAL EDITION 6 ROUNDABOUT CAPACITY MODEL

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE HIGHWAY CAPACITY MANUAL EDITION 6 ROUNDABOUT CAPACITY MODEL Rahmi Akçelik Director, Akcelik & Associates Pty Ltd Email: rahmi.akcelik@sidrasolutions.com Phone: +61 3 9830 7123, Fax:

### Warrants for Right-turn Lanes/Treatments on Two-lane Roads

2008-25 Warrants for Right-turn Lanes/Treatments on Two-lane Roads Take the steps... Research...Knowledge...Innovative Solutions! Transportation Research Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No.

### Introduction to Transportation Engineering. Discussion of Stopping and Passing Distances

Introduction to Transportation Engineering Discussion of Stopping and Passing Distances Dr. Antonio A. Trani Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

### ANALYSIS OF SATURATION FLOW RATE FLUCTUATION FOR SHARED LEFT-TURN LANE AT SIGNALIZD INTERSECTIONS *

ANALYSIS OF SATURATION FLOW RATE FLUCTUATION FOR SHARED LEFT-TURN LANE AT SIGNALIZD INTERSECTIONS * By Peng CHEN**, Hideki NAKAMURA*** and Miho ASANO**** 1. Introduction In urban corridor performance evaluation,

Design 101: Capacity Issues Part 2 March 7, 2012 Presentation Outline Part 2 Geometry and Capacity Choosing a Capacity Analysis Method Modeling differences Capacity Delay Limitations Variation / Uncertainty

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS ON TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC SAFETY IN ASIAN COUNTRIES EFFECTS OF RICKSHAWS AND AUTO-RICKSHAWS ON THE CAPACITY OF URBAN SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Md. Mizanur RAHMAN Izumi OKURA

### HCM Sixth Edition. Plus More. Rahim (Ray) Benekohal University of Illinois at Urban Champaign,

HCM Sixth Edition What s New in the HCM Sixth Edition Plus More Rahim (Ray) Benekohal University of Illinois at Urban Champaign, 65 th Traffic Engineering and Safety Conference October 19 20, 2016 Institute

### TRANSMITTAL LETTER. Revision to Publication 149, Chapter 20 (Criteria for the Design of Traffic Signal Supports) - March 2009 Edition

OS-299 (7-08) TRANSMITTAL LETTER PUBLICATION: Publication 149 - Traffic Signal Design Handbook DATE: 10/14/10 SUBJECT: Revision to Publication 149, Chapter 20 (Criteria for the Design of Traffic Signal

### Appendix B Transportation Report

Project File Report Appendix B Transportation Report Town of Whitby HMM Project No. 327878 Final Report October 2014 Revision and Version Tracking CP Rail Crossing at New Coronation Road Class EA Study

### INTERCHANGE RAMP TERMINALS

CHAPTER 26 INTERCHANGE RAMP TERMINALS CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION...26-1 Types of Interchanges...26-1 Diamond Interchanges...26-1 Partial Cloverleaf Interchanges...26-1 Influence of Interchange Type on Turning

### TRAFFIC IMPACT ANALYSIS

TRAFFIC IMPACT ANALYSIS FOR THE CHAMPAIGN UNIT#4 SCHOOL DISTRICT PROPOSED HIGH SCHOOL (SPALDING PARK SITE) IN THE CITY OF CHAMPAIGN Final Report Champaign Urbana Urbanized Area Transportation Study 6/24/2014

### Development of Left-Turn Operations Guidelines at Signalized Intersections

TxDOT 0-5840-1 http://itri.tsu.edu/reports/txdot_5840-r1.pdf Development of Left-Turn Operations Guidelines at Signalized Intersections August 2008 By Lei Yu, Ph.D., P.E., Yi Qi, Ph.D. Hongxi Yu Lei Guo

### Road Markings. Lecture Notes in Transportation Systems Engineering. Prof. Tom V. Mathew. 1 Overview 1. 2 Classification 2

Road Markings Lecture Notes in Transportation Systems Engineering Prof. Tom V. Mathew Contents 1 Overview 1 2 Classification 2 3 Longitudinal markings 2 3.1 Center line.....................................

### Road Safety Assessments. Lt. Bob McCurdy Williamson County Sheriff s s Office Marion, IL.

Road Safety Assessments Lt. Bob McCurdy Williamson County Sheriff s s Office Marion, IL. Why Are We Here? 2005 US Traffic Fatalities = 43,443 1429 4329 1361 1616 1534 3504 1729 3543 Illinois Annual Fatallities

### 5. Requiring cross access between development parcels. This section shall apply to the following:

CHAPTER 900. SECTION 901. DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS TRANSPORTATION 901.3. Access Management A. Intent and Purpose The intent and purpose of access management is to provide safe access to land development while

### Route 7 Corridor Study

Route 7 Corridor Study Executive Summary Study Area The following report analyzes a segment of the Virginia State Route 7 corridor. The corridor study area, spanning over 5 miles in length, is a multi

### PART 7. TRAFFIC CONTROLS FOR SCHOOL AREAS CHAPTER 7A. GENERAL

2012 Edition Page 825 Section 7A.01 Need for Standards January 13, 2012 PART 7. TRAFFIC CONTROLS FOR SCHOOL AREAS CHAPTER 7A. GENERAL 01 Regardless of the school location, the best way to achieve effective

### To Illuminate or Not to Illuminate: Roadway Lighting as It Affects Traffic Safety at Intersections

To Illuminate or Not to Illuminate: Roadway Lighting as It Affects Traffic Safety at Intersections Mark Rea Lighting Research Center Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Eric Donnell Dept. of Civil and Environmental

### Off-Road Facilities Part 1: Shared Use Path Design

Off-Road Facilities Part 1: Shared Use Path Design Presentation by: Eric Mongelli, P.E. Tom Huber October 9, 2012 FOLLOW THE CONVERSATION ON TWITTER Toole Design Group is live tweeting this webinar @tooledesign

### Development of Professional Driver Adjustment Factors for the Capacity Analysis of Signalized Intersections

TECHNICAL NOTES Development of Professional Driver Adjustment Factors for the Capacity Analysis of Signalized Intersections M. Mizanur Rahman 1 ; Tanweer Hasan 2 ; and Fumihiko Nakamura 3 Abstract: Various

### Township Signing Practices

Township Signing Practices The average Minnesota township has approximately 30 miles of roadway with an average of 6 total traffic signs per mile (both directions) 1 At a replacement cost of approximately

### Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon Guide Recommendations and Case Study. FHWA Safety Program.

Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon Guide ecommendations and Case Study FHWA Safety Program http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov A pedestrian hybrid beacon (PHB) is a traffic control device similar to a European pedestrian

### Synthesis of Practices of Geometric Design for Special Roads

Transportation Association of Canada Primer Synthesis of Practices of Geometric Design for Special Roads Introduction Special roads is a category for roads that tends not to fit into the standard definition

TRAFFIC FEASIBILITY STUDY Route 28 (South Orleans Road)/Route 39 (Harwich Road)/Quanset Road Intersection Orleans, Massachusetts Prepared for: Town of Orleans Prepared by: Fay, Spofford & Thorndike, LLC

### Texas Transportation Institute The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas

Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. FHWA/TX-04/0-4278-2 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient s Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle LEFT-TURN AND IN-LANE RUMBLE STRIP TREATMENTS FOR RURAL

### Team #5888 Page 1 of 16

Team #5888 Page 1 of 16 Abstract Over the past couple decades, growing amounts of research in the United States and especially in Europe have been devoted to developing modern traffic circles. It has been

### GDOT Cross Section Elements. Course ID: GDOT PDH Credits

GDOT Cross Section Elements Course ID: GDOT-01 2 PDH Credits Civil Engineer Educators LLC 1026 Timberwolf Lane Juneau, AK 99801 Email: support@civilpdh.com Chapter 6 Contents 6. CROSS SECTION ELEMENTS

### Traffic Control Inspection Checklist Segment:

Traffic Control Inspection Checklist Segment: Simon Contractors Simon Contractors Originator: Description Reviewed by: Initials Date Distribution: Traffic Quality Manager, Site Assistant Traffic Manager

### Coquitlam Cross-town Bike Route Improving Bicycle Facilities in a Mature Suburban Environment

Coquitlam Cross-town Bike Route Improving Bicycle Facilities in a Mature Suburban Environment Sarah Rocchi, Vice-President, Projects, Opus International Consultants (Main Presenter) Catherine Mohoruk,

### SIGHT DISTANCE GUIDELINES

SIGHT DISTANCE GUIDELINES According to the 2011 AASHTO, 2011 MMUTCD, and Michigan Department of Transportation Guidelines PREPARED BY GEOMETRICS AND OPERATIONS UNIT TRAFFIC AND SAFETY April 22, 2015 Providing

### Chapter V TRAFFIC CONTROLS. Tewodros N.

Chapter V TRAFFIC CONTROLS www.tnigatu.wordpress.com tedynihe@gmail.com Lecture Overview Traffic markings Longitudinal markings Transverse markings Object markers and delineator Traffic signs Regulatory

### GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF ROUNDABOUTS AND TRAFFIC S IGNAL SIGNAL CONTROLLED

TD 16/07 and TD 50/04 GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF ROUNDABOUTS AND TRAFFIC SIGNAL CONTROLLED JUNCTIONS DMRB Vol 6 File 6 0 ROUNDABOUTS: INTRODUCTION Principles Roundabout Types Entry Deflection Capacity Visibility

### AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ACTUARIES MEDICARE SUPPLEMENT WORK GROUP SUBTEAM REPORT ON LOSS RATIO CURVES FOR REDETERMINATION OF REFUND BENCHMARKS

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ACTUARIES MEDICARE SUPPLEMENT WORK GROUP SUBTEAM REPORT ON LOSS RATIO CURVES FOR REDETERMINATION OF REFUND BENCHMARKS March 10, 2004 The American Academy of Actuaries is the public