ADJUSTING TO, FOLLOWING, AND MEETING URBAN TRAFFIC

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1 Lesson 4 Student Notes 1 ADJUSTING TO, FOLLOWING, AND MEETING URBAN TRAFFIC 1. What two main factors make city driving difficult? There are more cars, buses, trucks, and pedestrians per mile. City hazards are closer to you than they are in rural areas. 2. What are the four advantages of having an adequate following distance in city driving? You can see further ahead to get the big picture Others can see you better You have more time to use the SIPDE method You are in a better position to avoid the car ahead if it stops suddenly 3. What are the three steps for the three second following distance? Pick a fixed-stationary checkpoint on the road ahea Road marks make good fixed checkpoints. When the vehicle ahead of you passes your checkpoint, count: one-one thousand, two-one thousand, three-one thousand for you three second count Check to see that your vehicle is still short of your fixed checkpoint. If not, slow down and add more distance. 4. When should you increase your following distance? High speeds When you are first learning to drive If you have a tailgater You are approaching a line-of-sight restriction ie semi-trailers, cargo trucks e. Traction is low f. You are carrying a heavy load g. The driver ahead seems unsure h. You are following a motorcycle 5. What are some high risk areas where closed zones and sudden stops can occur? Intersections where drivers may have to stop for traffic or pedestrians Lanes next to parked vehicles Business driveways with high-volume traffic Construction 6. What are the proper steps to insure that it is safe to look away from the road while searching for an address or similar situation? Make sure the zone ahead is stable and open. If you are following another vehicle, increase your following distance to more than three seconds Lower your speed even further when you have line-of sight restrictions Keep your eyes moving; take split-second glances rather than one long look 7. If you are being tailgated by someone, what are the four steps you can do to ensure your safety? Increase your own following distance to at least four seconds. If the car behind you hits you and pushes you into the car in front of you, this puts you in a position to get a ticket as well. Move slightly to the right. This allows the car behind you to see that you have vehicles in front of you Signal early for turns, stops, and lane changes. In extreme situations, change lanes, or remove yourself from the situation.

2 Lesson 4 Student Notes 2 8. Should you engage a tailgater with confrontation? 9. What are some instances when a driver might cross the center line? Driver impairment Poor judgment Poor visibility Reduced space e. Sudden moves by others f. Vehicle failure g. Turning buses or trucks h. Double parked vehicles MANAGING SPACE IN URBAN TRAFFIC 10. How far ahead should you be looking while driving in the city? About a block or more ahead of you. This way you will be able to protect your path of travel, notice any zone problems and be able to adjust your speed or position accordingly. 11. What do you do when you see a RED traffic light? 12. What do you do when you see a GREEN traffic light? 13. What is a stale green light? A light that has been green for some time. You can look for the cross walk sign to see if it is blinking Don t Walk. 14. Should you speed up if the light changes to yellow? 15. What actions should you take to identify and respond to parked vehicles? Cover your brake and move left in your lane Look for drivers through the windows of parked vehicles Be alert for the parked vehicles brake lights, exhaust, or wheels turned out Lightly tap on your horn if needed e. Be ready to stop, swerve only if you have room to move 16. What is one of the most common skills you will need for city driving? 17. What are the techniques for selecting your best driving speed? Drive with the traffic flow Stay within the speed limit Adjust speed and position ahead of time for other drivers who might block your way 18. What are the techniques to position your vehicle in multilane city traffic? Think ahead so you don t have to make sudden lane changes Increase your following distance to more than three seconds in heavy traffic Adjust your speed and lane position as needed to stay out of other drivers blind-spot areas Move to another lane if your front zone closes 19. What are the steps to change lanes? Signal Check Traffic Check blind spot

3 Lesson 4 Student Notes 3 Change lane e. Cancel signal 20. What are some common things you must be looking for in city traffic? Pedestrians Cross traffic Signals Line of sight restrictions 21. Is it illegal to pass at an intersection or over the double yellow lines? SPECIAL URBAN SITUATIONS 22. What are some indicators of a one-way street? One way signs are posted on most one-way streets All moving traffic and parked cars point in the same direction Broken white lines are used to separate lanes Most traffic signs will be facing the same direction. If you are driving and the signs are facing away from you, you are driving the wrong way. e. There may be signs stating WRONG WAY 23. How do you enter a one-way street for each turn? Left: Right: 24. What are some complications when turning onto a one way street? 25. What can you do if you encounter a vehicle headed toward you on a one-way street? 26. Are you required to stop for a pedestrian in a cross walk even if you have a green light? CHARACTARISTICS OF RURAL TRAFFIC 27. What are some types of roads that you may be faced with while driving in rural areas? Paved Gravel Dirt Combination e. Concrete 28. How do higher speeds in rural areas affect your driving? Your line of sight Your stopping distance Your vehicle control

4 Lesson 4 Student Notes 4 The amount of damage and injury in the event of a collision 29. Is there a difference between safe speed and posted speed? 30. What factors should you consider when determining if you can go the posted speed limit? Other highway users Inclement weather Hills Curves e. Intersections f. Narrow roads g. Narrow lanes h. Lack of Lighting i. Animals 31. What are some things that traffic controls or warning devices may alert you to in rural driving? Intersections ahead Unusual or hazardous conditions (curves, animal crossings, farm, cattle crossing) Traffic channeled into reduced space 32. What are some hazards that you might face in rural driving? Shoulders may be uneven with the edge of the roadway, narrow, or soft (gravel or sand that might give when pulled onto) Bridges, guardrails, bushes, or trees may be near the roads edge Sign posts may only be a few feet from the road A steep slope might run from the shoulder down to a drainage ditch e. Entrances for businesses, homes, or fields might be blocked from a clear view f. Trees, shrubs, or piles of plowed snow create line of sight restrictions g. Drivers trying to enter the roadway may not be able to adequately see traffic USING BASIC SKILLS IN RURAL AREAS 33. Is maintain vehicle control at higher speeds more difficult than at lower speeds and why or why not? 34. How far ahead are warning signs usually placed before curves? 35. What does a warning sign for a curve look like? 36. Is it true that the sharper the curve of the arrow means that the curve is just as sharp? 37. What are the steps to approach a curve? Check your rear zone Check you left-front zone for oncoming traffic

5 Check you right-front zone to determine if it is open or closed to your line of sight and path of travel. Adjust your speed before entering the curve. e. Once you are beyond the mid-point of the curve, begin to accelerate gently if conditions permit. f. Evaluate you new target area and search for zone changes. 38. Are hills usually marked and what problems might you face on a hill? Unless the hill has a very steep slope most are not marke Problems that you might face are line of sight restrictions to oncoming vehicles. 39. What are some clues that you might be approaching a driveway? Loose gravel projecting into the main road Electrical, phone, and other utility lines crossing the road Reflectors marking a driveway Mailboxes 40. What is a median? 41. In a multilane highway which lane should you drive in? Lesson 4 Student Notes How do you make a turn to a multilane road when leaving a multilane road? Right Turns: Turn into the right lane from the right lane. Check your rearview mirrors for any possible conflicts in your rear zone. Signal your intention to turn at least five seconds before the actual turn because speeds are much higher on rural multilane roads. Left Turns- If turning left, turn from the left lane to the left lane. Keep your wheels straight until you start your turn. If you are hit from behind you will not be pushed into oncoming traffi You will be pushed straight across. 43. What should you do if you see a vehicle approaching in your rear zone at a high rate of speed and you are turning? Forget your turn Accelerate quickly Proceed straight across the intersection to avoid being hit from behind Note: however you must be aware of the surrounding conditions before making this move 44. What are the procedures for entering a multilane road from a side street or business driveway? Right Turns: i. Check to the left and right of where your target area is located ii. Make sure the left front and right zones will be open iii. Enter the nearest right lane as you turn iv. Steer toward your target and accelerate quickly to the prevailing speed v. Change lanes only after you clear the intersection and reach the speed limit Left Turns: (REQUIRED LARGER GAPS IN TRAFFIC) i. Cross the lanes on your side of the road ii. Choose a time when no traffic is approaching in the lane just across from the center line iii. Turn into the nearest lane to you iv. Accelerate more quickly to the prevailing speed than you would for a right turn PASSING AND BEING PASSED ON RURAL ROADS

6 Lesson 4 Student Notes What is the three step procedure to pass another vehicle? 46. What three questions should you ask yourself before actually passing another vehicle? 47. What are the steps that you should take in order to pass another vehicle on a multilane road? Turn on your turn signal in the direction that you want to go Check roadway markings and signs ahead to make sure it is legal to pass Look ahead to your target are Check roadway conditions. If traction is limited you may not want to pass e. Check the roadway shoulders and sides ahead that might cause the vehicle you are passing to swerve to the left f. Check your rearview mirrors for any potential conflicts to your rear zone. If a vehicle is rapidly approaching delay your pass. g. Glance quickly over your left shoulder. Make sure there are no vehicles in your blind spot. h. Check oncoming traffic lane again. Make sure there are no vehicles approaching and there is enough space for you to pass safely. i. Check ahead for any driveways and side roads. Make sure no vehicles will be entering the roa j. Make the move k. Turn your signal off 48. What signs will you see to indicate no passing and what do they look like? 49. When is it illegal and unsafe to pass? 50. How far from the top of a hill is passing not allowed? 51. What is the distance from an intersection where it is illegal to pass?

7 52. What are other situations in which passing is prohibited or should not be attempted? Within 100 feet before a railroad crossing On a two-lane bridge or underpass On curves, where your line of sight is so restricted you cannot see around the curve when the vehicle ahead is traveling at or near the speed limit e. when your line of sight is restricted by fog, snow, or rain f. when several vehicles are ahead of you, pass only one vehicle at a time g. when you cannot complete a pass before the start of a no passing zone h. any time oncoming traffic is too close i. when you will be stopping or turning soon j. k. l. 53. How many lanes do you want to check before changing lanes or passing? Lesson 4 Student Notes Can you pass a person on the right side? 55. Should you be aware if a car is passing you and how can you check if the vehicle is going to pass? You should be constantly aware of your surroundings. You can check the vehicles behind you by checking your mirrors every seconds. 56. Can you intentionally speed up to block the vehicle behind you from passing? RURAL SITUATIONS THAT YOU MIGHT ENCOUNTER 57. What is a slow moving vehicle? 58. How can you tell if the vehicle is considered a slow moving vehicle? 59. What should you do if you see warning sign where large animals are common? Evaluate your left and right zones for line of sight restrictions from which animals could enter Check your rear zone to determine if you will be able to slow or stop quickly Check your left front zone to see if it will be open for an escape path 60. What are the steps that you should use when meeting on-coming traffic in rural areas? Separate the hazards in or next to your path of travel. Adjust your speed to deal with only one hazard at a time. In most situations slowing down is your best action. Meet on-coming traffic where the most space is available. When you must meet traffic, try to select a location where you have an open right-front zone to move into if you need to swerve to avoid conflict. If you are meeting a line of vehicles, slow down and move into the right side of the lane to provide a little more space between you and the approaching vehicles.

8 Lesson 4 Student Notes 8 SPECIAL DRIVING ENVIRONMENTS 61. How does gravity affect driving in the mountains? 62. A series of sharp curves in mountainous regions are called switchbacks, what are they exactly? 63. What are the procedures for driving down a steep slope? 64. What are the procedures that you should do if your line-of-sight is restricted around a curve? 65. What are some reasons why you should be cautious when approaching a curve on a mountain? An oncoming vehicle could cross into your lane because it has built up too much downhill speed before the curve. Driving too fast is a leading cause of collisions in the mountains. 66. What is brake fade? 67. What are runaway vehicle ramps? Runaway ramps provide a place for vehicles, especially large trucks, to safely get out of traffic and stop when their brakes are no longer effective. 68. How does thin air affect the driver? Shortness of breath fast heartbeat head ache loss of concentration e. drowsiness f. effects can be amplified if you are already tired 69. How does the altitude of the mountains affect your vehicle? Climbing power is reduced Acceleration can become sluggish The temperature of the water in your radiator may increase and cause overheating (You can turn on your heater to help circulate the heat off of the engine)

9 Lesson 4 Student Notes What is a flash flood and how do you handle the situation? A flash flood is a sudden unexpected rush of water from heavy rain. If you encounter a flash flood, seek high ground immediately and wait for the water to recede. Stay away from creek, natural drainage areas, and rivers. NEVER NEVER NEVER cross water. You will not know how deep it might go. CHARACTARISTICS OF EXPRESSWAY DRIVING 71. What are some different names for expressways? e. f. 72. What is an Interstate? 73. What is a highway? 74. What are a Toll roads or turnpikes?. 75. What type of roads are expressways? 76. What is the advantage of the expressway? 77. What is the main purpose of the expressway system? 78. Can the U.S. shut down them down? 79. Why do expressways have fewer collisions? No crossing traffic They have median strips or concrete barriers No pedestrians No slow moving vehicles e. Predictable traffic flow 80. How are expressways engineered for safety?

10 Lesson 4 Student Notes What are the types of entrances and exits? 82. What direction do odd numbered expressways go? 83. What direction do even numbered expressways go? 84. What direction does a 3-digit number, with the first number even go? 85. What direction does a 3-digit number, with the first number odd go? 86. How do you know that you might be going down an exit ramp? 87. What are the 3 parts to an expressway entrance ramp? 88. What are some entrance ramp problems? People don t stay to the left side of the entrance ramp People don t look back soon enough People don t get up to speed before entering the lane If there is a curve on the ramp you must adjust your speed before you get to the curve 89. Should you stop on an entrance ramp? 90. Is it acceptable to pass the car in front of you when entering the expressway? 91. How do you determine which lane to travel in? 92. How many lanes do you want to check when making a lane change on 3 or 4 lane expressways? 93. What is a wolf pack?

11 Lesson 4 Student Notes How do you get out of wolf packs? 95. What is wrong if you are continually being passed? 96. What do you do if you become disabled on the expressway? Put your emergency flashers on Place warning devices ( flares, reflective triangles) Open your hood Use cell phone and call for help 97. What are rumble strips? 98. What are the 2 kinds of tollbooths? 99. Does Ohio have toll any toll roads? 100.How can you prepare yourself for a long trip? 101.Entrance and exit numbers start from what side of the state? East West expressway North-South expressway- 102.How can you avoid being stranded on the expressway? 103.In Cincinnati what can be a problem with your entrances and exits? 104.What yellow signs would you see on the exit ramp? 105.How far from the exit ramp do they put the 1 st exit sign? 106.How far from the exit ramp do they put the 2 nd exit sign? 107.When do you slow down to get off the expressway? 108.What are the parts of the exit ramp? 109.What do you do if you missed your exit ramp? 110.What is the weave lane?

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