Fountas-Pinnell Level N Nonfiction. by Geoffrey C. Saign

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1 LESSON 25 TEACHER S GUIDE by Geoffrey C. Saign Fountas-Pinnell Level N Nonfiction Selection Summary The Sherpa people live high in the mountains of Nepal. Many Sherpas serve as guides for people who want to climb Mount Everest, the world s highest mountain. Some famous Sherpas have set their own records climbing this mountain. Number of Words: 610 Characteristics of the Text Genre Nonfi ction Text Structure Eight sections with headings Organized into a few simple categories of information Content The Sherpa people Climbing Mount Everest Famous Sherpas Themes and Ideas People who live at high altitudes are well suited to serve as mountain guides. Mountain guides have set their own records as mountain climbers. Language and Clear language with conversational tone Literary Features Meaning provided through integration of photos with text Sentence Complexity A mix of short and more complex sentences Vocabulary Target vocabulary words highlighted in text Some possibly unfamiliar terms not defi ned in text, such as guide, base camp, oxygen Words Proper nouns that may be diffi cult to decode: Sherpa, Mount Everest, Nepal, Tensing Norgay, Lhakpa, Ming Kipa Illustrations Photos closely linked with the text Book and Print Features Photos on all pages Captions that extend the text Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Permission is hereby granted to individual teachers using the corresponding (discipline) Leveled Readers to photocopy student worksheets from this publication in classroom quantities for instructional use and not for resale. Requests for information on other matters regarding duplication of this work should be addressed to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, Attn: Contracts, Copyrights, and Licensing, 9400 SouthPark Center Loop, Orlando, Florida Printed in the U.S.A If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited. Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format.

2 by Geoffrey C. Saign Build Background Build interest by asking questions such as the following: How hard do you think it is to climb a tall mountain? How might a guide help climbers reach the top of a mountain? Read the title and author and talk about the cover illustration. Explain that Sherpas are famous for their mountain-climbing ability and have helped many climbers. Introduce the Text Guide students through the text, noting important ideas and nonfiction features. Help with unfamiliar language so they can read the text successfully. Give special attention to target vocabulary. Here are some suggestions: Page 2: Read the heading, and explain that Mount Everest is the world s tallest mountain. If a map or a globe is available, point out the location of Nepal and Mount Everest. Suggested language: Captions can give clues about information in the text. The caption on this page tells us that Apa is a Sherpa guide who has climbed Mount Everest 17 times. I wonder if he survived any avalanches. When large amounts of snow and ice slide down a mountain, people can be swept along too. Can you imagine how frightening it would be to experience an avalanche? Page 5: Read the caption. Why do you think each part of the climb must be approached with care? What kinds of equipment do you think climbers need to help them? What equipment do you see in the photo? How do you think the climbers and Sherpas will use the ladders? Page 6: Have students study the photo. Explain that the higher people go on a mountain, the less oxygen there is in the air, which makes the air thinner and hard to breathe. You have to go slowly, or even halt, when it s hard to breathe. Stopping to catch your breath is a good idea on a mountain! Now turn back to the beginning of the book and read to fi nd out who Sherpa guides are and what they do. altitude height measured from the Earth s surface, p. 3 approached came near, p. 5 avalanches large amounts of snow or rocks that slide down a mountain, p. 2 equipment things that are needed for a particular activity, p. 5 halt to come to a stop, p. 6 increases becomes greater, p. 9 section a part of something, p. 6 slopes stretches of ground that slant upward, p. 7 succeed to manage to do what you tried to do, p. 10 tanks containers that hold liquids or gases, p. 6 2 Lesson 25:

3 Read Have students read silently while you listen to individual students read. Support their problem solving and fluency as needed. Remind students to use the Question Strategy questions before, while, and after they read., and to think of Discuss and Revisit the Text Personal Response Invite students to share their personal responses to the book. Suggested language: What information about Sherpas did you find the most interesting? What more would you like to know about Sherpas? Ways of Thinking As you discuss the text, help students understand these points: Thinking Within the Text Thinking Beyond the Text Thinking About the Text Sherpas live in Nepal, a country with high mountains. Sherpas are skilled at mountain climbing. Many Sherpas work as guides for mountain climbers from all over the world. Living at high altitudes and breathing thin air makes people well suited to be mountain guides. Mountain guides set climbing records themselves. Helping someone do something new is rewarding Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. Captions help to explain the photos. The photos contain a lot of visual information. The headings tell what each section of the book will be about. Choices for Further Support Fluency Invite students to choose a passage from the text and demonstrate phrased fl uent reading. Remind them to use pauses, pitch, and stress to get across the meaning the author intends. Comprehension Based on your observations of the students reading and discussion, revisit parts of the text to clarify or extend comprehension. Remind students to go back to the text to support their ideas. Phonics/Word Work Provide practice as needed with words and word parts, using examples from the text. Remind students that different spellings in words can stand for the same vowel sound. For example, on page 2 the words freeze, breathe, and people all contain the long e sound, spelled ee, ea, and eo. Have students look through the book to fi nd other words with the long e sound spelled in different ways (reason, sleep, reached, week). 3 Lesson 25:

4 Writing about Reading Vocabulary Practice Have students complete the Vocabulary questions on BLM Responding Have students complete the vocabulary activities on page 11. Remind them to answer the Word Teaser on page 12. (Answer: tanks) Reading Nonfiction Nonfiction Features: Text Clues Remind students that nonfiction has many features to help readers find and understand important information. Text clues are one of these features. Explain that text clues are words and phrases that signal something important. Text clues such as first, next, and in the past are signals to when something happens or is done. Phrases such as for example and such as indicate that examples are coming up. Because and therefore are clues to cause and effect. Explain that looking for text clues in a nonfiction book can help readers recognize important points the author is making. Have students look through the book to find text clues. Examples include This is one reason (page 3), Near the top (page 6), For example (page 9), and In the past (page 10). Work with students to create a chart of text clues. Suggest that they add clues to the chart from their reading during the year. Writing Prompt: Thinking Beyond the Text Have students write a response to the prompt on page 6. Assessment Prompts In the caption on page 5, fi nd the word that means almost the same as came near. What is paragraph 2 on page 9 mostly about? Which words in the caption on page 10 help the reader know the meaning of the word succeed? 4 Lesson 25:

5 Read directions to students. English Language Development Reading Support Check regularly on students oral reading to determine accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Cognates Use cognates such as these to aid students understanding of the target vocabulary words: altitude-altitud, avalanches-avalanchas, equipment-equipo, increasesincrementa, section-sección, and tanks-tanques. Oral Language Development Check student comprehension, using a dialogue that best matches your students English proficiency level. Speaker 1 is the teacher, Speaker 2 is the student. Beginning/Early Intermediate Intermediate Early Advanced/ Advanced Speaker 1: Who are the people this book is about? Speaker 2: Sherpas Speaker 1: Where do Sherpas live? Speaker 2: They live in Nepal. Speaker 1: What work do many Sherpas do? Speaker 2: They are mountain guides. Speaker 1: What makes Sherpas good mountain guides? Speaker 2: They live high in the mountains and know the mountains. Speaker 1: Which mountain is the tallest in the world? Speaker 2: Mount Everest is the tallest mountain in the world. Speaker 1: How do Sherpas show that they respect the mountains and want to take care of them? Speaker 2: The Sherpas clean up the garbage that other mountain climbers have left behind. Name Date Lesson 25 BLACKLINE MASTER 25.1 Write if the sentence is true. Write False if it is not. 1. Mountain slopes are flat. False 2. A mountain has a high altitude. 3. Ice cream is in the frozen foods section of the grocery. 4. When an airplane approached the ground, it flew high. False 5. If recess comes to a halt, it is time to go inside. Vocabulary approached section avalanches increases equipment tanks slopes altitude succeed halt 6. If you press on bicycle brakes, the speed increases. False 7. Tanks are used to hold gas or liquids. 8. You don t need equipment to play baseball. False 9. Avalanches are dangerous on mountainsides. 10. People who succeed in climbing mountains follow safety rules.. All rights reserved. 3, Unit 5: Going Places 5 Lesson 25:

6 Name Date Thinking Beyond the Text Think about the question below. Then write your answer in one or two paragraphs. Imagine that you are a Sherpa guide. What are some of the things you will do to help a climber reach the top of Mount Everest? Describe a day on the mountain, and how you helped a climber succeed. 6 Lesson 25:

7 Name Date Lesson 25 BLACKLINE MASTER 25.1 Write if the sentence is true. Write False if it is not. 1. Mountain slopes are flat. 2. A mountain has a high altitude. 3. Ice cream is in the frozen foods section of the grocery. 4. When an airplane approached the ground, it flew high. 5. If recess comes to a halt, it is time to go inside. Vocabulary approached section avalanches increases equipment tanks slopes altitude succeed halt 6. If you press on bicycle brakes, the speed increases. 7. Tanks are used to hold gas or liquids. 8. You don t need equipment to play baseball. 9. Avalanches are dangerous on mountainsides. 10. People who succeed in climbing mountains follow safety rules. 7 Lesson 25:

8 Student Date Lesson 25 BLACKLINE MASTER LEVEL N Running Record Form page Selection Text Errors Self-Corrections 2 The wind is so cold on Mount Everest your toes and fingers can freeze. The air is so thin that you ll find it hard to breathe. And if you re not careful, avalanches can bury you! Meet the people who live in this harsh place. 3 The Sherpa people live in Nepal, a small country with many high mountains. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in Nepal and in the world. Many Sherpas live in villages near the mountains. This is one reason Sherpas are great climbers. They live in the hills at a high altitude and are used to the thin mountain air. Comments: Accuracy Rate (# words read correctly/ ) % Total Self- Corrections Behavior Code Error Read word correctly cat 0 Repeated word, sentence, or phrase Omission cat 0 cat 1 Behavior Code Error Substitution cut cat 1 Self-corrects cut sc cat 0 Insertion the 1 Word told T 1 cat Lesson 25:

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