BOWLING LEAGUES - "KEY for SCORE RECOGNITION"

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1 BOWLING LEAGUES - "KEY for SCORE RECOGNITION" Bowling leagues are advised to check their bowling rules, that utilize the handicap system to evaluate "points & scores competition between teams with varying abilities." A surprising number of leagues do not use the handicap format correctly. Every team in the league should receive a handicap value, every week, for every game bowled. Bowlers have been misled by some handicap instructions found on many league recap sheets. The United States Bowling Congress (USBC) became the "administering" organization, January 1, This file updated: APR 26, 2018 ( Updated Section 10: Bowling Tips - - Added Links for VIDEO Education Topics) JUL 28, 2017 ( Updated for: USBC Rulebook + League Operations Handbook ) NOTES: Section (9 &10): Your Browser Version may impact access to Bowl.com links. Notice will be given. (Your Browser Font and Size may also impact the original text formatting and page breaks in this file.) You can download a PDF format file (10 pages) to facilitate printing the original version. Documents in.pdf format require Adobe Reader before download. Get the newest version FREE at Hopefully, viewers may discover interesting aspects that they had not previously realized or considered. As some may enter, while looking for other information, "Section Target Links" are not utilized here. Relevant items may catch their eye as they scroll through the file. The aim is to improve knowledge. "FILE SECTIONS" have information or links for the following frequent questions (FAQ) or subjects: 1.) Be sure your league is using the recommended handicap system. How to determine correct handicap. 2.) Examples: How to fill out scores recap sheet for scheduled team competition (Individual or Team Handicaps.) 3.) Handicap methods found to be used in leagues. Several are detrimental for league competition for awards. 4.) Table comparison showing examples of the recommended and detrimental handicap systems. 5.) How to change a league rule. Also a 2-page "handicap explanation sheet" to be used for league meetings. 6.) Prize fund payouts, formulas to calculate values for position or points money, also team-members shares. 7.) "Don't miss any fun." Comments: Operations, Procedures, UBL, FAQ Divisions. Leagues Decline & Future 8.) References where to find important information in League Rules, Sanction Kits and the Operations Manual. 9.) Handicap calculator charts, Team schedules, Team & Personal games sheets (+ other PDF files at Bowl.com) 10.) Links information & many resources, USBC Records & Stats, 11.) StatCounter statistics for search keywords that were used to reach this website. 1.) THREE SEPARATE TIERS. visualized as a PYRAMID. constitute the bowling world. The broad base contains the largest portion, the handicapped leagues that use a system: Designed to allow equitable competition between teams with widely varying abilities. Full involvement in all opportunities of league competition should enhance experience. The center portion is classified and more compact with a set-range for team averages. Average targets could disqualify bowlers who prefer to stay together as a team. The narrow top where highest caliber teams bowl 'scratch' - - thrive on the challenges of the game. (A national proprietor president estimated it will never be more than 5%, maybe 10%.) A comment about the bowling pyramid: It is a good structure. The broad base encompasses most bowlers. Some move up to the other levels. In addition to bowling in leagues using handicap, this author also enjoyed competition in scratch (no handicap) team leagues: 5 person, trio, doubles and singles formats. Over the years, "simultaneous participation" in handicap leagues continued to provide good competition. At the start of a game, some bowlers get psyched-out by a handicap. They should always remember that handicap IS based on average. Few people get inordinately "lucky" during the process. Don't beat yourself. Keep an open mind and do your best. See the results at the finish. Page 1 of 10

2 WHAT IS THE KEY for recognition of accomplishments in bowling leagues that use a handicap system? The league standing sheet shows all statistics (points won, scores, averages for teams and individuals). Points seem to get the most attention for games and series won. Usually a 4-point or 7-point system. (Examples: 1 point for games, 1 for total series, or 2 points for games, 1 for total series.) (Or: "Match Points" compete "head to head" Rule 100k, "Peterson Points" see section 7 below.) "Bowling league high scores" can provide numerous opportunities for team and personal satisfaction. The points race for league championship may involve a small percentage of the league's teams. Adopting the CORRECT handicap method should help ensure that every team does have a REAL OPPORTUNITY to be involved in the competition for other league awards available. The "2x2 RULE" - - is the Key that Improves Competition for Handicapped Leagues: EVERY LEAGUE determines its own criteria (which should be set properly) for handicapping. Use two parts (percentage allowed and the same basis for every team) covering the two aspects of competition, points & high scores. BOTH are IMPORTANT. Prizes should be awarded to those who truly deserve this recognition for accomplishments! (Suggest an * for NEW season high scores on standings sheet, show LATEST HONOREES.) LEAGUE HANDICAP COMPONENTS: Suggested League Rule: Handicap will be % (such as 90%) of the difference between average and a basis figure of (base or scratch figure set higher than the highest average in the league) When figuring handicap or averages, fractions are to be dropped. (see Rule 100g Handicap) Handicap shall not be limited, unless otherwise provided by league rule. The handicaps (team or individual) will change as averages fluctuate. Individual Method - Set basis higher than any person's average in the league, such as 210. If 90% handicap is allowed, single game handicap (210-Average) x Percentage, such as ( ) = 35 x.90 = 31.5 (use 31) Team handicap for a single game would equal the sum of all of the handicaps of the team's players. Team Method - Set basis higher than the highest team average in the league, such as With 90% handicap, the single game handicap would equal (1050-Team Average) x Percentage. ( ) = 200 x.90 = 180. The 2 Handicap Components - (additional comments) (+ See how applied on Sample Recap Sheet ) BASIS might be set as often done for bowling tournaments, as a function of team size, Leagues may set it closer to the league s actual ability by setting the value: a.) GREATER than the HIGHEST AVERAGE for the league, b.) with ALLOWANCE added to provide for improvement (estimate 10 pins for player), c.) and finally rounded up to a CONVENIENT NUMBER for ease of use. [Example: High team average 720, five-per-team (add 5x10=50) yields 770, use 800] A league may rule a negative handicap be used, if any Average Exceeds the Basis selected, PERCENTAGE, such as 80%, 90%, 100% ( Handicap Tables file links for USBC & others available.) USBC Rule 100g sets percentage at 100%, unless otherwise provided by league rule. (Handicap Percentage) Many years ago, ABC and WIBC analyzed statistics for a four-year period, the impact of percentage on the team points accumulated towards winning the league championship. Page 2 of 10

3 the impact of percentage on the team points accumulated towards winning the league championship. The study included numerous leagues sanctioned at that time - - men's, women's and mixed formats. The results showed that, even at 100%, the higher average teams or bowlers have a decided edge. A handicap of 116% was found to be needed to even out the competition to a probability. League Handicap Percentage Championship Won by Team with Average Below Median in the League Championship Won by Team with Average Above Median in the League 70 0 out of out of out of out of out of out of out of out of out of out of out of out of out of out of 100 +Bowl.com Mythbusters.pdf has this Handicap Information (See Myths #21, #22, #23) Score Calculation Including Handicap: (BASIS - TEAM AVERAGE) X PERCENTAGE = HANDICAP [( ) x.9 = (80) x.9 = 72 pins per game, drop fractions], [72 x 3 = 216 total for a 3-game series] Then, if the team bowls a 770 game scratch, their total score +72 handicap, would be = 842) The "scratch + handicap process" provides fair comparison of scores across the whole league. Leagues using handicap charts for 3-game series, would be better involved using Single Game Handicap. The handicap tool that should help keep all teams involved... is not being fully utilized. AVERAGES: (See Rules & CAQ 118a to 118e): Various aspects to consider regarding Averages. Guidelines for Entering Averages (as noted in the Operations Handbook - Sample Adult Rules #7): 1. Average established in this league last season, based on 21 games or more. 2. Highest average from the previous season in any USBC league, based on 21 games or more. 3. Current average from another USBC league, based on 21 games or more. 4. Bowlers who do not have a qualifying average outlined in items 1-3, establish average the first time they bowl. 2.) BOWLING LEAGUE RECORD (also called a bowling Recap Sheet for each scheduled session) Examples show how to fill it out: handicaps used, scores & how points won. As games progress, telescorer boxes indicate scratch and handicap scores to the current frame position. 3.) HANDICAP METHODS (Individual / Team / Combinations) "FOUND TO BE USED BY LEAGUES:" (Correct) Every league team does receive a handicap value (Proper Points + Scores) (Wrong) Handicap based on Average Difference of Opposing Team (Proper Points, but Scores Distorted) An important key to sustain bowling membership, is often degraded. A.) Individual method of handicapping is used in many magazine articles for examples, because it is the Best means to get everyone involved in all aspects and the fun of competition. More opportunities for teams & individuals to get recognition for their achievements. The team handicap is then calculated as the sum of the individual members' handicaps. B.) Team method of handicapping is most common. Many leagues use the recommended method, but others introduce problems into league management, by using distortions of the handicap system. Examining standing sheets posted on the Internet provides many examples of questionable practices. The handicap tool that should help keep all teams involved... is not being fully utilized. Following are 5 examples of distortions that have a major impact on league scores competition: * BEWARE of handicap based on "Difference Between Team Averages" of "Team and Opponent" Page 3 of 10

4 * BEWARE of handicap based on "Difference Between Team Averages" of "Team and Opponent" *** Do not be misled by insufficient handicap instructions found on some league recap sheets. Team average difference handicap can only determine which of 2 teams wins their scheduled games. Score comparison really has no significance for the whole league, because half of the teams have ZERO handicap and the rest get a DUBIOUS number based on whom they happen to bowl. The fact that every team is not using a handicap is a significant indicator that a major problem exists. Competition for high scores is distorted. Accomplishments deserving recognition are overlooked. Team Games and Total Series Scores: Will not reflect "how well the teams actually bowled." - - >> (See team score examples in Section 4 below, for a detailed example of the problem.) * BEWARE of league formats with a "Combination of Individual & Team and Opponent Methods" Some leagues have adopted "Individual Handicap" for Individual Scores for Game/Series Awards, with "Difference" between "Team & Opponent" Averages for Points & Game/Series Awards. The true team handicaps would best be calculated by adding the individual handicaps for a team total. The WORST leagues have rules to use Individual Handicaps, but never use those scores on standing sheets. These leagues also only used SCRATCH Scores for all Team & Individual awards. * BEWARE of HANDICAP LEAGUES "only using scratch scores" (NO handicap scores posted). Some handicap leagues only post "scratch scores" for team high game and series honors. This severely degrades "equitable evaluation" of scores for all of the teams across the league. USBC Rule (117b Item 3) Prize Qualification - Handicap Leagues is an indication of the importance of this issue: All special prizes should be awarded on a handicap basis. Leagues can add additional scratch prizes, if covered by league rules or prize list. (Use the recommended handicap methods where every team has handicap for every game and series.) * BEWARE of YOUTH LEAGUES (that do not use the recommended handicap procedures). Some YOUTH HANDICAP LEAGUES also are found using questionable practices, including: using "team and opponent" or "difference between team averages" handicap procedures, only posting "scratch scores" for team high game and series honors in their HANDICAP leagues. Kids trust that their leaders are teaching them correct bowling procedures, but miss that opportunity. Possibly, the Industry's joint project (YES - Youth Education Services), will improve these problems. * BEWARE of LEAGUES that "only post Points and Individual Games & Series " (NO TEAM SCORES) Recently noticed some areas that have this format exhibited across many leagues & bowling centers. maybe trying to avoid the "scores impact of bad handicapping" but causes another proiblem. It is counter-productive, as the possibility to post a high team game or series helps to maintain interest. Members may not be able to compete on an individual level, team accomplishments are overlooked. 4.) COMPARE HANDICAP METHODS Basis (Regular or Team and Opponent Average Difference) (a.) Team numbers correspond to team-average-ranking, (b.) Team schedule has these teams bowling each other (1-week during each round, or segment), (c.) Assume that every team bowls a game 100 pins-over-their-average, for this example. (d.) "Regular handicap" uses basis=800 and percentage=90%, Regular Handicap = (800 - TeamAvg) X.9 (and drop all fractions) Example: ( ) = 96, (96 X.9 = 86.4) drop fractions, so use 86 for game. Page 4 of 10

5 Example: ( ) = 96, (96 X.9 = 86.4) drop fractions, so use 86 for game. Team & Opponent Handicap (where the higher average team gets zero for handicap) Example: ( ) = 49, (49 X.9 = 44.1) drop fractions, so use 44 for game. Team Avg 100 POA Game * Game Hdcp Reg 90% Hdcp'd Total Score * Game Hdcp T&O 90% Hdcp'd Total Score *** Re-calculate T&O POA Needed for "League High 853" these Percentages 80% 90% 100% Scores Range: Results Not Fair The team and opponent average difference handicap method defeats the purpose of handicapping. Every team is in jeopardy. their true achievements are misrepresented and will not be recognizable. Also, leagues should not use "total pins" as a tiebreaker. (See Mythbusters.pdf #33) Every team should receive a handicap for every game, during the league schedule. League scores are just like a tournament. Important NOTE Rule100g - CAQ (100g /3) average difference method is Not Recommended. (A "pins over average" POA tournament is not a different format, it uses a 100% handicap allowance. If 100% "Regular Handicap" had been used Every team would have showed a score of 900.) 5.) HOW TO CHANGE A LEAGUE RULE: League Handicap Explanation Sheet (PDF format 2 pages), to aid league discussion of methods. Rule 122: Rules shall be adopted at a meeting prior to the start of the league schedule by the board of directors, unless the league elects to have its rules adopted by the membership. After the league schedule begins, a change in the league rules and approved prize list can be made only with the written consent of every team captain or designated representative. (CAQ 122/1: If adopted after schedule starts, rule is effective immediately and cannot be retroactive.) 6.) PRIZE LIST FORMULAS for distribution of bowling prize money between teams and members' share. 7). LEAGUE OPERATIONS: "DON'T MISS ANY OF THE FUN" important parts of league competition: TWO CATEGORIES FOR TEAM AWARDS (using both Scratch and Handicap basis) can provide the best means for everyone to have their achievements be recognized, reflecting "how much they were able to bowl over their averages." Higher average teams may sometimes complain about how many pins they have to give away for handicap. Close examination would show that when the team and opponent average difference method is used, it is the majority of other league teams that are giving away pins. (Possibly, complainers should join or start their own scratch league.) It is very important that every team receives correct handicap, for every week of the schedule. EVERYONE DESERVES to have their REAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS receive proper recognition. Most leagues divide their schedule into 2 halves, or use rounds where every team bowls every other Page 5 of 10

6 Most leagues divide their schedule into 2 halves, or use rounds where every team bowls every other team within a segment and also include "team position weeks" to fill scheduled contract. At season's end. the "team champion" is determined by a "roll-off" scheduled between the half or round winners. League high scores may be determined for each half or round, for handicap and scratch recognition. Usually leagues set a rule that a team is eligible for only 1 game and 1 series, and determines which score (for the handicap or scratch categories) should take precedence for posting on the standing sheet. Usually the prize of greatest value is used; if the scores are of equal value, the scratch award is used. It is good to divide the honor periods. It is harder to "bowl over average" as average becomes more established. Using periods, more teams and individuals could share the fun of posting a good score. The league directors would resolve any questions, if any issues develop during the season. League Standing Sheet (Choices): Computer software for league standing sheets, usually provide for many different possibilities. It is good to choose options for the best opportunities for everyone to be involved & understand. Team Positions: Points Won/Lost/Unearned. (Scratch&Handicap Total Pins, Highest Game & Series) Members: Bowler's Average (+Handicap), Number of Games, High Game&Series for Scratch&Handicap. Season High Scores (1-2-3) Scratch&Handicap: Team Game&Series, Individual Game&Series +Average. Previous Week: Teams competing together, Each Team's Games & Series, Showing Points Each Won. Previous Week: High Scores (1-2-3) Scratch&Handicap: Team Game&Series, Individual Game&Series. An interesting singles format was the Peterson Points system. In addition to points awarded for winning games/series, bonus points are earned for bowling well during matches, for a determined pin-block-size. If the size was set at 50 pins, an individual bowling a 573 scratch series, would earn extra points. A 5-person team level approach could use a 250 value for 1-point additionally earned The system is used usually for scratch leagues, but handicap leagues would include handicap in the pin-block determined. Adopting 100% handicap percentage improved league competition and increased enthusiasm of the teams. Trust the system. When all aspects of league competition can be fully utilized, it works well. The best leagues are organized in a way that every team has a "genuine opportunity" to really share the fun and prizes!!! Ultimate Bowling League FAQ information about UBL How to Setup Divisions for League Competition. A Div-Dbl-League used a Division format that also awarded points for both Scratch & Handicap competition. Comments about historical items (including recap sheets), possible changes "Bowling Leagues of the Future" 8.) REFERENCES FOR INFORMATION regarding Season: You can obtain materials to sanction (USBC new term is certify/certified) your league (application and membership cards) from local representatives. If there is no contact information posted on the bulletin boards, ask someone on the bowling center staff, or contact USBC at BOWL Documents in.pdf format require Adobe Reader before download. Get FREE application at USBC League Operations Handbook All aspects of league management, including the following topics: ( Version) (PDF has 45 pages) (print version is no longer available) Table of Contents (Page 2) show topics - - (as indicated below) Page 3 - League Quick Start Checklist Page 4 - Running Successful Leagues (See Handicaps comments on Page 9) Page 6-7 Youth Membership Eligibility (Rule 400) + Youth Singles Competition Prize Waiver & SMART Enrollment Form Page 10 - Board of Directors (Duties & Responsibilities): President, Secretary, Treasurer, Other Officers, Team Captains Page 17 - Committees - Audit, Prize/Awards, Banquet, Nominating, Postponement + (Audit Procedures & Worksheets). Page 22 - Meetings (Quorum, Agenda, Routine, Reports, Motions) - Organizational, Protests, Nonpayment of League Fees, Elections Page 29 - League Finances - Worksheet, Bonding, Prize List, Tax information, Sample Accounting Forms, Financial Statement Page 36 - USBC Awards Page 38 - Alternative League Formats (Baker,NoTap,3-6-9,Mail-o-graphic,Scotch Doubles) + Baker additional PDF Page 39 - Sport Bowling Information & PBA Experience Program Page 40 - USBC Adult League Rules (Rule #8 relates to handicap / scratch league format) Page 43 - USBC Youth League Rules (Rule #6 relates to handicap / scratch league format) Page 6 of 10

7 Page 43 - USBC Youth League Rules (Rule #6 relates to handicap / scratch league format) See Handicap References ( See Items on PDF pages 4, 8, 9, 13, 30, 41, 43, 44) The Operations Handbook (Note the full sets of Sample League Rules) or see Sample Files version ( ): Adult League Rules / Youth League Rules The USBC Rulebook has all the competition rules (or you can check the following links): (Rules effective August 1, 2017) Separate PDF file: ( 100 pages ) PlayingRules (Save it as a PDF to use) Rule Changes are noted at the beginning: (Rulebook Page 3) "Commonly Asked Questions" (follow the rules items to which they refer) Index has a special format specifying (General, League, Tournament) items. To see a chapter that was in the version, use this link regarding handicap procedures. USBC Playing Rules (100 PDF pages) includes the following references and league management topics: Pages below indicate "Rulebook Actual Page" (PDF has 2 extra pages at beginning that are not numbered.) Page 1 - Table of Contents Page 2 - USBC Contact Information Page 3 - Rule Changes for Season ( Rules: 9, 16a, 17a, 100g, 200, 201, 319d, 327a ) Page 4 - Chapter 1 - USBC Introduction Page 9 - Chapter 2 - General Playing Rules Page 21 - Chapter 3 - Awards Page 24 - Chapter 4 - League Rules Page 67 - Chapter 5 - Lane Condition Designation Page 69 - Chapter 6 - Tournament Rules Page 85 - Chapter 7 - Bonding, Burglary & Holdup Insurance Page 88 - Chapter 8 - Equipment Specifications Page 90 - Chapter 9 - American Wheelchair Bowling Association Rules Page Index Page 96 Etiquette Information NEW BOWLERS MAY BE LOOKING FOR INFORMATION REGARDING: Rulebook Page 9 Bowling Game - Score Definitions for Strike, Double, Turkey, Spare, Open, Split How to Score a Bowling Game (Frame By Frame example in a PDF file, at Bowl.com) Bowling Score Sheet (format - 3 games, 6 bowlers) (PDF file, at another website) HANDICAP IS REFERENCED IN THE CHAPTERS, TOPICS, Rules & CAQ NOTED: (Check ALL ASPECTS related to the RULE NUMBERS indicated below, at the STARTING PAGE indicated.) General Playing Rules Rulebook Page 16 - Rule 15 - Gambling Rulebook Page 16 - Rule 16a - Member Responsibility Rulebook Page 16 - Rule 17a - Unfair Tactics USBC League Rules Rulebook Page 26 - Rule 100g - Handicap Leagues (+see CAQ Box 100g / 3 - Important Information) Rulebook Page 34 - Rule 103b - Board of Directors - Duties) Rulebook Page 38 - Rule Absentee and Vacancy Scores Rulebook Page 41 - Rule 107c - Team Composition ( Substitutes and/or Replacements ) Rulebook Page 50 - Rule 111e - Procedure for Prebowl - Postponements Rulebook Page 53 - Rule 113b - Playoff Procedures Rulebook Page 59 - Rule 117b - Prize Qualifications Rulebook Page 60 - Rule Average How Determined Page 7 of 10

8 Rulebook Page 60 - Rule Average How Determined Rulebook Page 62 - Rule 118c - League Entering Average Rulebook Page 64 - Rule Position Matches USBC Tournament Rules Rulebook Page 70 - Rule 301c - Adult/Youth Tournaments Rulebook Page 76 - Rule Handicap - Youth Competition Rulebook Page 76 - Rule 319a - Averages - Conditions That Apply Rulebook Page 77 - Rule 319c - Average Adjustments (Rerating) Rulebook Page 79 - Rule 319e - Average Adjustment for Entry Rulebook Page 80 - Rule 322b - Absentee/Vacancy Scores Rulebook Page 82 - Rule 327d - Scoring Process (Handicap) Rulebook Page 82 - Rule Changing Delivery in Handicap & Classified Tournaments Index Rulebook Page 92 - Index (Competition Types) Rulebook Page 94 - Index (Handicap) 9.) LEAGUE HANDICAP TABLES, TEAM SCHEDULES, INDIVIDUAL GAME SHEETS: If your Browser Version is not up to date, some links may result in a message that you have been re-directed to a Bowl.com (Lite Version) for links. The majority of the links work ok...a few others will get the re-direct. To use the original link, you might try the computer at your local library. The links below may help to find information for topics directly, in PDF format. USBC Handicaps 300 values, for (Single or 3-Games) in (PDF or EXCEL formats) PDF for Single Game 95 Percent PDF for Single Game 90 Percent PDF for Single Game 85 Percent PDF for Single Game 80 Percent PDF for Single Game 75 Percent PDF for Single Game 70 Percent USBC Team Lane Schedules download PDFs for 4&6, 8, 10, Increasing by 2, up to 48. USBC League Standings Sheets: Options: (8 Teams or less) or (9 Teams or more) NOTE: 9+ Teams, add Record-keeping sheet (below) for Average Data listings. Record-keeping sheets for games, series, averages as bowled by Individuals or Teams. MYTHBUSTERS has link to download PDF (12 Pages) Covering 59 Questions Noted Below are Samples of Other Items Available Averages (Entering) Considerations for Season for New & Returning Bowlers Board of Directors Bowling Game - How to Mark the Score (Explanation of Terminology & Procedures) Canceling/Postponing The Entire League (For Season or Emergency Situations) Center Closing or Destroyed League Options Elections Etiquette Financial Statement (2011 Sample) Handicap Facts What Is A Fair Handicap League Certification Application League Committees Audit, Prize/Award, Banquet, Nominating, Postponement League Issues Audit, Absentee, Pre/Post Bowl, Playoff, Subs/New, Protest, Withdrawal Page 8 of 10

9 League Issues Audit, Absentee, Pre/Post Bowl, Playoff, Subs/New, Protest, Withdrawal League Operations Checklist Quick-Start Basics to Setup League Nonpayment of League Fees and/or Improper Withdrawal Letter Nonpayment of League Fees/Improper Withdrawal League Checklist Parental Consent Form (including Rule 400) President Worksheet to Verify League Account Monthly (League Audit Sheet) Prize List Information (When to Adopt, What to Consider, How to Vote) Protests A League Bowler Guide to Filing a Protest Rules to Consider Important Items for Consideration Rules Adult League (Sample) Rules Youth League (Sample) Youth (Rule 400) Youth Membership Eligibility Aspects 10.) OTHER RESOURCES: BOWL.com Bowling Tips & Training (New Bowlers, Intermediate and Advanced Techniques) Links added for Videos (see list for Numerous Topics) Rules & Resources United States Bowling Congress (USBC) information links, items such as, Running Successful Leagues, Directors Duties, Committees, Meetings, Finances, League Rules Samples for Adults or Youths, Guides for League Issues, Mythbusters, Sport Bowling Information (Resource Center) Unique League Formats (Survivor, etc), Guides for Officers (President, Secretary, Treasurer), League Officer Certification, Contact the USBC Rules team, available between the hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. (Central), Monday through Friday, at BOWL ext or by at League Standing Sheets (Link for leagues that post their weekly competition results.) Check Season Scores (Top Team Scores Reported) (Select: Men, Women, Mixed, Youth) USBC Records & Stats Official Records (Individual or Team), and other unoffical scores reported. Other files for numerous categories that have been reported. State Records: Individual/Team Participation & Leadership, Oddities for Honor Scores and Miscellaneous Categories. Find A Member (Must Login for Links: find Memberships, League Averages, Achievements) Note: Season averages here, NOT TO BE USED as official. Verify Official at local associations. Bowling's Team Concept (1997 book by Charles Martin, PhD) ISBN (pbk) Covers numerous Competition aspects. (Find Bowling's Team Concept in preferred search engine.) International Bowling Museum and Hall of Fame at Industry's Joint Campus, Arlington TX ( ) History of Bowling in the U.S Interesting tidbits, ancient to contemporary times. Bowling League Secretary - BLS League software available from CDE Software. League Secretary Another web site for leagues to post their team standing sheets. Perfect Secretary League software available from Treasure Software. Bowlers Journal International 2013 was this magazine's 100th year. (Issue Jan-2011: contains the BJI 2011 Bowling Almanac 16-Pages) : Ultimate Bowling Hall of Fame, Certified Centers & Bowler Counts , All American Teams, Major Tournaments Winners, Pro Bowling Awards, Pro Money Winners. Canadian Tenpin Federation web site for the Canadian Provinces. Bowling Organizations (historical timelines): YES (Youth Education Services) Joint Industry Project - Dedicated to Youth Development & Marketing United States Bowling Congress (USBC) combined ABC, WIBC, YABA, College and USA Bowling Contemporary Bowling Association (Bowling Proprietors Association of America - BPAA) College Bowling moved to be under the direction of the ABC and WIBC USA Bowling - United States Tenpin Bowling Federation (USTBF) for international competition Team USA Page 9 of 10

10 Team USA Young America Bowling Alliance (YABA) combined AJBC, YBA and Collegiate groups Collegiate division to bridge gap between youth and adult bowling, Youth Bowling Association (YBA) Federation Internationale des Quilleurs (FIQ) (currently has 80 member nations) American Junior Bowling Congress (AJBC) Bowling Proprietor's Association of America (BPAA) Women's International Bowling Congress (WIBC) American Bowling Congress (ABC) 4340 Certified Centers (2017 Estimate) 3375 BPAA Centers (2016 BPAA Report) 11.) " StatCounter.com " Statistics have been a great tool for adding content to this website. That is a service provided by Aodhán Cullen and his team, located in Dublin, Ireland. It checks country, state, city, search engine and keywords, or direct links from other websites. The bowling file was created, in 1997, and has grown over the years. StatCounter added April 12, Statistics ( to ) for this website (over 8 Seasons of USBC administration): 88.34% viewers located in the United States, 11.46% for 144 other countries, 0.20% undetermined. The U.S. is followed by Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, Malaysia, Phillipines and Singapore. Every state is represented in the viewer counts, led by CA, NY, TX, VA, IL, FL, MI, OH, PA, and NJ (Note: the real locations can be distorted by the way that service providers route their connections.) Learning what keywords were used by www searchers helped determine items to be added. The most unique addition was the formulas to help divide a league's prize money (Sept 2004). 17% of the searchers entered the keywords "bowling league" or the search string was not decoded. 83% of the searchers were looking for more specific information regarding numerous bowling topics. 483 keywords or phrases were examined for this analysis period. Not difficult to reach this number. (Consider that numerous related topics, often have a number of variations for words evaluated.) Data for 30 most relevant keywords or phrases, relating to league competition, are presented. Results, checked over many years, tended to be consistent, with only slight adjustments. You can see: Statistics regarding bowling search keywords (File Stats to ) Now, some search engines block showing keywords utilized. (Earlier data was more revealing.) (Therefor, this analysis was not continued.) StatCounter places a cookie, just to determine which viewers may return to the site at a later date. StatCounter does not store personal information. Viewers' geographical location is the main interest. It blocks recording loads done by me for any of the files, so statistics are not inflated. If you entered the URL address directly yourself, that is shown as "No referring link." If you have saved the URL, I hope the information that you found here has helped you to enjoy bowling!!! Appreciated using Fetch 5 Macintosh program for Mac OS X to transfer the files to the Internet server. Page 10 of 10

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