Oregon Spotted Frogs 101. Deanna Lynch U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

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1 Oregon Spotted Frogs 101 Deanna Lynch U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

2 Oregon Spotted Frog Background Current Protected Status Federal - Proposed as threatened and proposed designation of critical habitat (August 29, 2013) Washington - State Endangered Oregon - Sensitive/Critical More info available at: Gary Nafis

3 Oregon Spotted Frog Range Washington Low elevation (40-620m) 6 sub-basins Whatcom, Skagit, Thurston, Klickitat Counties Oregon High elevation ( m) 8 sub-basins Wasco, Lane, Deschutes, Klamath, Jackson Counties Extant site Historic site Lower Fraser Sumas River S Fork Nooksack River Samish River Black River Trout Lake Conboy Lake Lower Deschutes McKenzie River Upper Deschutes Middle Fork Willamette Little Deschutes Williamson River Klamath Lake Upper Klamath

4 Oregon Spotted Frog Background Identification Hind foot webbing is from toe-toe, not concave Ridges along back (dorsolateral folds) Black spots with indistinct edges and light spots in center Eyes are bright yellow-green and upturned (can see both pupils from above) Coloration cannot be used for identification

5 Oregon Spotted Frog Background Natural History PNW s most aquatic frog Breed late winter and early spring; eggs hatch in 2-4 weeks Tadpoles spend ~4 months growing and developing Tadpoles metamorphose in mid-to-late summer Juveniles and adults remain in aquatic habitat year round

6 Male Calling Underwater Video from Conboy Lake NWR (Lisa Wilson/USFWS)

7 Oregon Spotted Frog Background Habitat impacts Threats to Oregon Spotted Frogs Wetland conversion or degradation Hydrologic changes (water diversions, beaver removal, etc.) Predation by non-native species Changes in vegetation community, quality, and structure Population factors: Small size and isolation of populations, low genetic diversity, concentrated breeding efforts Disease: currently inconclusive, but could be future concern Cumulative: all locations experiencing more than one threat

8 Oregon Spotted Frog Background Early Successional Habitat Short, herbaceous vegetation in floodplain connected to permanent water Historical Factors 1. Naturally meandering rivers through floodplains 2. Beavers felled trees and shrubs, scraped vegetation, flooded areas 3. Summer fires led to shallow water wetlands in spring

9 Mating pair by egg mass cluster Oregon Spotted Frog egg masses: About grapefruit sized Usually laid in communal groups Unattached to vegetation Very shallow water (~ 6 in) Direct sun exposure Amplexus Photo: Kelly McAllister

10 Small cluster of egg masses in shallow water Photo: Megan Cook

11 Medium-large cluster of egg masses Communal clusters could have 2 to 100+ egg masses Photo: Deanna Lynch

12 Egg Oregon mass Spotted surveys Frog at Conboy Background Lake NWR Photo: Deanna Lynch

13 Female carrying male to breeding habitat Photo: Deanna Lynch

14 Oregon Spotted Frog Background Summary of Habitat Requirements 1. Standing bodies of fresh water Shallow water areas for breeding 12 inches (30cm) Permanent water year-round 2. Hydrological connection 3. Gradual topographic gradient 4. Emergent wetland vegetation 5. Sub-surface vegetation for cover 6. Full solar exposure William Leonard

15 Oregon Spotted Frog Proposed Critical Habitat

16 Potential Conflicts with Restoration General Riparian Restoration Goals Cold, clear water (generally aimed at salmonids) Improve water quality Erosion control for stream banks

17 Potential Conflicts with Restoration Restoration Actions Planting trees that shade Oregon Spotted Frog habitat Stopping all vegetation management, allowing dense reed canarygrass to grow Removing livestock grazing No mowing/haying No flooding/inundation Fish Passage, allowing nonnative fish access to frog habitat, dewatering frog habitat, increasing flow

18 Tree plantings will shade otherwise suitable breeding habitat

19 Maintain shallow water areas with submerged vegetation Photo: Megan Cook Reed canarygrass that was moved, then maintained by grazing Reed canarygrass growth one year after bull grazing stopped

20 Oregon Spotted Frog Conservation Habitat Management Recommendations (WA) Consider potential for Oregon Spotted Frogs to occur Manage vegetation to maintain early successional habitat Avoid plantings that will shade shallow wetlands Manage reed canarygrass Mow & hay Utilize beavers? Consider grazing Retain water through breeding season Maintain aquatic connectivity between shallow breeding habitat and deeper permanent water Jennifer Bohannon

21 Oregon Spotted Frog Conservation Other Amphibians will Benefit Northern Red-legged Frog Pacific Treefrog Megan Cook Northwestern Salamander Long-toed Salamander John Sullivan

22 Species ID Confirmation Oregon Spotted Frog N Red-legged Frog Cascades Frog Nick Baker Egg Mass Photos 1. Habitat where egg masses were observed 2. Number and size of egg masses 3. Water depth 4. Whether egg mass(es) are attached to vegetation

23 Species ID Confirmation Oregon Spotted Frog N Red-legged Frog Cascades Frog Nick Baker Juvenile and Adult Photos 1. Clean hands (NO sunscreen, lotion) 2. Hold frog between groin and leg joint 3. Don t let frog dry out 4. Take photos as quickly as possible

24 ADULT JUVENILE Species ID Confirmation Juvenile and Adult Photos Dorsal view Side view Ventral view JUVENILE ADULT

25 Send photos to the experts! Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Statewide: Whatcom/Skagit: King/Snohomish: Thurston/Pierce/Lewis: Skamania/Klickitat: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (WA) (OR) (OR)

26 Questions? K. McAllister

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