Modes of prey detec-on by predators

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1 Preda(on can control prey, even eliminate species restrict prey s, reduce prey and growth, shape prey strategies, cause top down I. Direct lethal effects of predators II. Sub lethal (indirect) effects III. Trophic cascades Modes of prey detec-on by predators e.g., fish (trout, sculpin) e.g., stonefly nymphs e.g., bullhead barbels e.g., electric eels, elephant fish 1

2 Strategies predators use to capture prey sit & wait, i.e., Odonata: dragonfly and damselfly nymphs, Coleoptera: dy(scid beetle larva, Hemiptera: water scorpion stonefly nymphs, Hemiptera: giant water bugs, backswimmers, water striders How do prey avoid predators? Behavior e.g., amphipods and backswimmers (good swimmers) usually freeze (but this can increase detec(on) Bae(s nymphs driv when contacted by stonefly Heptageniid mayflies scoot across rock surface Increase scorpion posture blackflies 2

3 How do prey avoid predators? Shape and size Armoring Caddisfly cases Bae(sca (spiny mayfly) Drunella (spiny mayfly) Crypsis Lack of colora(on Factors affec-ng predator prey interac-ons Stoneflies switch from smaller chironomid midges (Pagas(a) to larger mayflies (Bae(s) as they grow 3

4 2) Predator/prey (e.g., gape limita(on) Predators have a preferred size of prey Figure what is op-mal ra-o of prey/predator size? 3) (e.g., scorpion posture ) Predators 100 (mes larger than prey 4) condi(ons Light intensity (controls behavioral driv) Substrate complexity (hiding places for prey) Current velocity Larval blackflies less vulnerable to preda(on by planarian flatworms at higher velocity (Fig. 1, 10 Hansen et al. 1991) fast slow edge center 4

5 Predator prey linkages A B effects Predator induced mortality resul(ng in decreases in abundance or biomass of prey effects Non consump(ve effects of predators on prey behavior and/or life history traits (i.e., growth rates, body size, fecundity). [Also known as trait mediated effects ] Direct lethal effects example e.g., Flecker (1984) experimental manipula(on of adding fish (sculpin) on chironomid density (Fig. 7.8) What does graph show? 5

6 Indirect sublethal effects of predators Restric(on in habitat use and reduced foraging (me of prey minimize µ/g (ra(o of mortality risk to growth) to maximize fitness Power et al. s work in Oklahoma (algivorous fish) Life history response of prey Peckarsky s work at Rocky Mountain Biological Sta(on Indirect example 1 Restric(on in habitat use: Algivorous minnows (Campostoma) eat algae growing in stream pools. But they avoid risky habitats (center of stream pools) where largemouth bass predators occur. [Power et al. 1985] Experimental Design shallow deep shallow 6

7 What happens aver introduc(on of largemouth bass? All Campostoma shiv to water. minimize! What preda(on risks do Campostoma face? Small Campostoma very vulnerable Small minnow: stay to avoid piscivorous. Large minnow: go to avoid predator Prefer larger Campostoma 7

8 Indirect example 2: Life history response of prey Rocky Mountain Biological Sta(on (Gothic, CO) Fishless Trout Photos courtesy of Bobbi Peckarsky Brook Trout (Salvelinus fon(nalis) Predators trout and stoneflies Perlodidae: Megarcys signata Photos courtesy of Bobbi Peckarsky Prey mayflies Bae(s bicaudatus 8

9 OBSERVATION: Size at emergence of bivol(ne Bae(s bicaudatus differs between trout vs fishless streams Dry weight (mg) 2 1 Fish streams Fishless ( mayflies) 0 Stream Site From Peckarsky et al OBSERVATION: Mayflies in trout streams develop than those in fishless streams Weeks weeks GRATEM N :0.02 Fish Fishless From Peckarsky et al

10 Predators induce changes in life history Trout Streams Develop and emerge Increase, but reduce fecundity Fishless Streams extend development (me to get larger fecundity Ques(on: Do predator also modify prey behaviors and/or life histories? mesocosms Photos courtesy of Bobbi Peckarsky 10

11 Experiment: Whole stream manipula(on in 10 fishless streams: Trout chemicals dripped into 5 streams Response variable: mayfly size and life history From Peckarsky et al Fish odor mesocosms: mayflies also develop 11

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