Culvert Design for Low and High Gradient Streams in the Midwest. Dale Higgins, Hydrologist Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest

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1 Culvert Design for Low and High Gradient Streams in the Midwest Dale Higgins, Hydrologist Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest

2 Overview Culvert Design Considerations Hydraulic Terms Culvert Impacts Low vs High Gradient Design Low Gradient Culvert Design High Gradient Culvert Design

3 Culvert Hydraulics Terms Plunge pool Invert, Headwater (HW), Tailwater (TW) Headwater/Depth Ratio (HW/D): HW / pipe depth Supercritical Flow: high velocity, shallow water Subcritical Flow: low velocity, deep water

4 Aquatic Organism Passage Culvert Impacts Depth, Velocity and Exhaustion Barriers Jump Barriers

5 Sediment Sources Culvert Impacts Road Surface Erosion Frequent Failures Scour Embankment Erosion

6 Upstream Ponding Culvert Impacts on Channel Morphology Caused by culverts set too high or sediment deposits from frequent failures Result in stagnant water and upstream sediment deposition of muck, silt and sand Can increase water temperature

7 Culvert Design Methods Low Gradient: No Slope, Tailwater Control High Gradient: Stream Simulation

8 Low vs High Gradient Low Gradient = Tailwater Control Key Considerations Channel slope and bedform lengths Culvert length (fill ht, skew, side slope) Headcut potential (slope, channel type/material) Tailwater control Approximate Slope Breaks Low gradient < 0.3 percent High gradient > 1.0 percent

9 Water Surface Slope ~ 0.1% Low Gradient Low vs High Gradient

10 Water Surface Slope ~ 1.4% High Gradient Low vs High Gradient

11 All Good Culvert Designs Require: Complete Field Survey Stream profile Stream x-sec (2 up, 2 down) Road profile (and x-sec) Plan view sketch and/or topographic survey with total station Hydrologic Analysis Design flood flow (100-yr with HW/D<1, check 500-yr) Frequent flood flow (1.5 or 2-yr to check model accuracy) Fish passage flows (1 and 99% duration, ave daily flows) By-Pass flows during construction (ave monthly, median)

12 Culvert Size and Bankfull Width Low Gradient Culvert Design Bankfull Width Straight segment Narrow Unaffected by road crossing Bankfull Width - Riley Cr Example Min = 7.0 feet Mean = 9.2 feet Range = feet, n=6 Select Culvert Width > BF Width Compare H&H Width to BF Width

13 Low Gradient Culvert Design Field Survey Hydrologic Analysis Select Invert Elevation (and Skew) Hydraulic Analysis - Model Flows Finalize Design

14 Culvert Skew Low Gradient Culvert Design Determine culvert skew Affects culvert length May affect stream profile

15 Culvert Elevation Low Gradient Culvert Design Set flat (on low gradient streams) Check profile for channel morphology impacts Consider channel adjustment and restoration Consider plunge pool and tailwater longevity Ensure tailwater will provide good depth and low velocity in culvert

16 Elevation (ft, local datum) Specify Invert Elevation Low Gradient Culvert Design Riley Cr at FR 2161 Stream Thalweg Water Surface Road Surface Existing Culvert Invert Existing Culvert Top New Culvert Distance (ft)

17 Elevation (ft) Specify Culvert Elevation Low Gradient Culvert Design Stream Water Road Culvert Invert New Culvert Invert Distance (ft)

18 Low Gradient Culvert Design Field Survey Hydrologic Analysis Select Invert Elevation (and Skew) Hydraulic Analysis - Model Flows Finalize Design

19 42 x29 CMP Profile Low Gradient Culvert Design Riley Cr at FR 2161 Example

20 87 x63 CMP Profile Low Gradient Culvert Design Riley Cr at FR 2161 Example Culvert 7.25 ft wide BF Widths: Min=7.0 ft Mean=9.2 ft Max=11.5 ft N=6

21 72 x54 CMP, Culvert Table Low Gradient Culvert Design Riley Cr at FR 2161 Example

22 Low Gradient Culvert Design Field Survey Hydrologic Analysis Select Invert Elevation (and Skew) Hydraulic Analysis - Model Flows Finalize Design

23 Finalize Design Low Gradient Culvert Design Culvert Elevation, Size, Type, Shape, Length and Skew Flood and fish passage flows Channel morphology Channel restoration Fill height and side slopes Stream-road alignment Road Construction Surfacing, low point, ditches, side slopes Erosion control: riprap, silt fence, by-pass, re-vegetation

24 Stream Simulation High Gradient Culvert Design Premise: provide a channel through the structure that will present no more of a challenge to organisms than the natural channel. (i.e., pass water, organic matter, sediment and aquatic organisms) How? Use a reference reach to guide design of a simulated channel through the structure 24

25 Stream simulation does not provide: Riparian functions especially bank vegetation Light Lateral channel and floodplain processes Passage of some aquatic, semi-aquatic or terrestrial organisms

26 Stream Simulation Design Process Assess stream simulation feasibility Examine profile and alignment Find reference reach Unstable channel Determine bed shape and material Define structure width, elevation, details Mobility / stability Design profile control Aggrading or alluvial fan

27 Suitable for stream simulation most sites in the midwest

28 Stream Simulation Design Process Assess stream simulation feasibility Examine profile and alignment ID reference reach Determine bed shape and material Define structure width, elevation, details Evaluate mobility/stability Design profile controls

29 Elevation (ft). Longitudinal Profile Phase 2: Pre-emption at FR Preemption Cr at FR 377 Chequamegon-Nicolet NF Existing Culvert 5.0' x 3.0' Bend 1.0% Bend w/ Some Wood (# 5) % Woody Debris (# 4) Debris Jam (# 1) 2 2.4% Boulder Step and Log (# 2) Step at Base of Cobble/Boulder Cascade (# 3) Culvert Plunge Pool Stream Thalweg Water Surface Road Existing Culvert Invert Existing Culvert Top X-Section Locations Distance (ft)

30 Elevation (ft). Design Slope and Vertical Adjustment Potential Phase 3: Pre-emption at FR Preemption Cr at FR 377 Chequamegon-Nicolet NF Existing Culvert 5.0' x 3.0' Bend Bend w/ Some Wood (# 5) Woody Debris (# 4) Ave Slope = 2.25% Culvert Plunge Pool Debris Jam (# 1) Boulder Step and Log (# 2) Step at Base of Cobble/Boulder Cascade (# 3) Stream Thalweg Water Surface Road Existing Culvert Invert Existing Culvert Top X-Section Locations Distance (ft)

31 Design profile control, transitions Stream Simulation Design Process Assess stream simulation feasibility Examine profile and alignment Find reference reach Determine bed shape and material Define structure width, elevation, details Mobility / stability

32 Selection of reference reach Represents stream type through crossing Gradient Width/depth Channel materials pebbles count and key pieces Bedforms Provides design parameters for stream simulation Out of influence of existing crossing Try to avoid very complex channels

33 Channel Cross-Sections 5-3 Phase 2: Pre-emption at FR 377

34 Design profile control, transitions Stream Simulation Design Process Assess stream simulation feasibility Examine profile and alignment Find reference reach Determine bed shape & material Define structure width, elevation, details Mobility / stability

35 Stream Bed Particle Sizes Duck Creek at Hwy 139 Particle size distribution from pebble count Perform pebble count Measure 10 key (largest) pieces Streambed mix from particle size distribution

36 Design profile control, transitions Stream Simulation Design Process Assess stream simulation feasibility Examine profile and alignment Find reference reach Determine bed shape & material Define structure width, elevation, details Mobility / stability

37 Structure type and width (width >BF to allow for bank rocks and floodplain) Bridge Box Pipe Arch Bottomless Arch Embedded Round

38 Structure Selection Phase 3: Pre-emption at FR 377 Options: 12 x8 5 Ellipse 9 x12 Concrete Box 12 3 Aluminum Box Invert Elevations: Up = 91.2 Center = 90.5 Down = 89.8 Bed Elevations: Up = 94.2 Center = 93.5 Down = 92.8 Fill Over Pipe = 3 ft

39 Stream Simulation Design Process Assess stream simulation feasibility Examine profile and alignment Find reference reach Determine bed shape & material Define structure width, elevation, details Sediment mobility/stability Design profile control, transitions

40 Sediment Mobility and Stability Hydraulic modeling (HEC-RAS) and modified critical sheer stress equation Primary Considerations: Key pieces must be stable: bank rocks, grade controls Simulation and reference bed mobilize at same flow If upstream replacement unlikely, need most of bed stable 40

41 Stream Simulation Design Process Assess stream simulation feasibility Examine profile and alignment Find reference reach Determine bed shape & material Define structure width, elevation, details Mobility / stability Design profile control, transitions

42 Profile control options grade controls rock bands Riffle or riffle/step structures Constructed with a band of primarily larger (D84-D100) size unsorted rocks. They help form channel cross-section and profile shape.

43 Elevation (ft). Design Profile: Culvert and Bed Elevations Phase 3: Pre-emption at FR Preemption Cr at FR 377 Chequamegon-Nicolet NF Existing Culvert 5.0' x 3.0' Streambed Bend Bend w/ Some Wood (# 5) Debris Jam (# 1) 2 3 Boulder Step and Log (# 2) 4 Step at Base of Cobble/Boulder Cascade (# 3) Culvert Plunge Pool Culvert Woody Debris (# 4) Ave Slope = 2.25% Stream Thalweg Water Surface Road Existing Culvert Invert Existing Culvert Top X-Section Locations Distance (ft)

44 Project Construction Duck Creek at Hwy 139 Painted bed and bank lines Walk behind front-end loader Streambed and bank rocks

45 Culvert Design Methods Low gradient: Set it low and let it flow! (No Slope -Tailwater Control) High gradient: Simulate the stream! (Stream Simulation)

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