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1 mm Exs^Bsr 0^ ^msum G^mTi mmi&

2 mi m^^m OF S^-BLIHO coossf Sr^mmmto^ to the WmmX^^ ^ ti^ araaaate HiTiaiaa o tl»e '^mmm fea^iaaxaelaal OelXa^ la ti^rtiax talf IXXiseat of %h0 Mi far the B»03rae of MJk^mM Of Mm Ira L«tKikli»i«B«JU fareaiiy Si»caa Ai^puit^ xtat ItXAS TEP' lubbock, LIBRARY

3 f\.fl^'nu^- AC V ^ 1«SJHJKfiPiU^lull-JUiIAS ilshiod *» 1 indiaa triboe t0^9y Hill tiiasaiu^ the vonct-.c Ulr^r Bofeert B«I»eo in aterxiae. County ^ Oapt&ir. «uterll<it^ iiaie Jaaoe Eroth^r.: r^ j<^«ee uoiio* BafffiQ.0 h^/jters Camp KXieabet^ CoX* 3ehafter 2hrou^:h ^t^rxixi^ BerX^P" X&M grants a^iti ^0X7^-$^ isdusliag ^^XlOaat ^^ouutain ^' ^-."' lerxy raaoiioro ^'-^a^- ateriiajj BarXy raaa]i»eaa-li iurllrig <Joimt/ proper i/idia^ii. a a our «<' of aonoyano^ to early raaohere Coalng jf tue a^uiurs Ae^uiijitic*.^ of liuiu; tr^^..iiq ^ith the eat tie kia^^s Houedii of early eeiixore Qaae. tmffaxo. wilu hora^w; Eaaoaing oa tha op^n ra ^e} I'^MiAx^m trail 'irifi.^^: Drouth o5 IGSe tuu\ 136? IntreduetioA of t a \^ir.u.iiii iiariy eu<*<&p rai^iii^ ^arly treci^^g caatora Har4l Xot oi' the pi--ii;.*«r vno..:an OhiXibirtli uv ciioxueaa JbefXaain^ >^' 5 oometorlea Social iixe 0 1' t';0 pivaaera o> fi

4 III. U.Gii.l»:^AJlvi. -^ Di. V.'J.OrlJ'^J 6? the Ooujoty before orv^kaisatl: n larxy toi^ne legiaains of ^toiiuifc Olty Oreoitiaa ana >r9aaisation 1' a^unty ^Xeotioa of the eoouity i &t I:ir«t oou;it> ol:ioial» Cii;;jja rate of Cit»sil2ie i»2]4 ^^atvale iiarl;/ iiobtoxixo^q?^iirxy i*yiat;i;xe -torliii^- Ooimty^e neoad o^urtii'^juae cygtarahee iie^'^ai^are Xatro4u«iti:-:i jf Iri's wire f»aoa.a^aiiaci auttiiig Xradi--j-..tijj,i oi: ih^ tlait v«lilt or f-'^.odliiis Agrio'/ataya ^teriiag getu a i%;i^xi'^-*ad Otkar ii;dprat»^$at&

5 MiP8 JubSmBm u^^bff X Map of MOatraXe mmmmm^mm..,^^m^m^m^^^».^ 70 ft Ilea of larxy dterxiag Oounty tost offiaae -M^ -i«>-^ * ax 3 Um of Barly aterlldg Ooaaty ieho lia«rem of 0mp BXiiabetH -»- &o

6 file atary of taa pioaear is ax^aya a thrixxiag elii^tair la Aaeriaaa history* Haary saatioa of oar natloa haa had ite pxeaaara, aad eaaiy eeetian frods the Ippa^ Xaahlaa ^tmtaiaa ta the iraalfia Oaeaa haa beeu«at oae ti»e or emitiier^ tl»e ^^o tera froatier of A^aerlaa* ^^a hardy pi^s»0w»^ in ^unryiag the jbroatier ^eatward^ ia brariag tbe mukjm^n teat^ la atktfariaa iaardehipa aad l^iai^i«ea«aad in xxvias ia aanataat daa^ar frea the TwiiiMiy flaaxxy a^i^aared a ^IXden^a > e^id befomithad It to i.^arim^ ta dae^xap eoa^ eajoy* la tl^ ^eatward ^xj^emiou of the Uaited :^tatea^ S^xas ataada m^ aitn aimaaal pieaaeria^ axperleaaee* fi9t 0ix fxai^y h^t tea yaars as a repahxia, her mrlj apaaxeh hiatary, hmr Xadiiyi^^ ^r great oattxe kiag* das^a, aod the i^aaat devexapaeat of Heat?aras ^LX aoabiaa ta wmim the atary ef Sexaa a roaaatia oae* She faat that ':»at T9mm ie the meat reaaatxy MttXed part of the atataideeg aot seaa that thia aeatxaa ef the atate hae a^hiaf H im^r1»»»e to aff^r of hiatorieax iatereat^ On the aeatrary, ^'^eat ^es^sa ^aa the firat part of the atate ta hm irialtad 1^ the i^aaiarde* It tka& a faforita rai^e i^ the toffalo aaft a heiatiag graiaid far the ladiaiu

7 u It affera a fertile field tor hieteriaax iareetigatiaa, tat aa yet timt fiexd haa aot beaa dayelaped exteaiifaxjr. She hiatary of ^eat Sezaa oay ha e^ipraaahed thraagh a etady of the hiatarlaa of ttm rarioaa ^eat 2exaa aeaatiea. Stmh haa its o«a partiaaiar atary to telx^ aad aaoag thaae with aa iatere&tiag paat la aterxiag Ooaaty* Shie aeaaty ia Xaaated aat off the aep raak of the ^takad FXalae in OeatraX d^t!sejtae* ^T the a^oat part the tapagrapiqr af the eaaaty ia ralxlag pxaiain» ^SbA Worth Gm^t^io liiar rmm thraagh the eanaty* headiog Jaet.^aat af tha aaataxa ho«eitary of the aaaaty* the isaia StarlXac trihalmuriaa of ti^ Ooi^iho tat^ atarxl&g Creek aad Laey 9n^«iiaatalte gm»m rather ahaadaatxy throagheat tha aei»l^, mm a great aai^ pmmum mxe foaad axaag tha ^ater ^mraas* fba ft»aaty ia il^ax far graalj^ parpaaee* Stariiai^ l^n^ty mmm omae a fatorita haatiag reasa far the ladieai^ fha regiaa ahaasidc^ la ^ixd gaae-^hmuttala^ def^^ 4iXd tmtis9^^ m&sk f iah» It at i> km tiaa «ae a gmxt af tha ^aatara froatier a»d «^aa axao far a tlae in tha Xiae ef tmrtm «hiah dsjuirtad f^r the parpaae of pravaatins Xadieia dapredatiaae oa the aettxera forthar eaat«it ie the parpaaa af the aathor ia thia etody to tzaaa the hiatory af aterxiag Oawkty aith tha rietar of preaerviag aalaahxe iaforaatiaa ia the iateraet af tha^ fatara aitiaazui of the aoaaty «he laay be iatareated ia leaypiag aei^thl^ af the aatitltles of their fatieara^ aad also «lth the Yle^ af aahlag a eaaxx aaatrihatiaa ta tha hxatavy af feet SeocM*

8 iu S&e writer «iahea to expreaa appreoiatlon to tha fexxa«iag for iaraxaahxe asaietaaae he has reeeired fro&a them ia prepariag this atody: lh:«^. 0* EoXden ib2d Br* 0* A* Kiaehea of the Eiatory Department of SesKas faahaexagieax SolXege aad the soterax pioaeera of ^# Xi»?aater^ 6* 0«Aiiia-* i^rth«hra* rie Oeai^r, 0«L* Coaleoa, J. L«OXaaa^ lira* BaiX fiead«aad ^» f* laxxia, ^ithoat whoee aasiatanoa thia j^^er #aaxd ^t hare been poaaibxe* AXao the ^«rlter srish^s to t^aii:^ t/ie oooaty affiaialsof t&m Qreeri Ooimty a^d atorliiig Ooimty^ aapaaiaxly tnsb Prebble Durheur., for tneir «ixltngne88 ta aaaiet him in aaiag the aoai^y reaorde*

9 leiig he;l^re the eaaiag af the vnite ^aa to ^eat :aaxaa that jmyrt af the aoaatry ^hiah ia ao^ :starllag Oaaaty «aa a i^mparita hadtiag grai»d of tha iaerioaa ladieaaht M raamad thia ^rea^ aaaeare of the lighter aes^aaioaed pai^la of other i^ntiaaata <ihoae ;.ateni^«latia ambitiaxm mti» Xeiar ta briag a^at eaah a great mhmmt^ ia tha life of tlis red mm&m ir^^ia ahaage ia tha daari^iya IMiaa^a M^wXi^ hegaa «ith tha aoaiag of %m %aaiah aiqpxai^ra m^ siaaiaiaybriaa to the Sour iorxd xa the early peart af ti^ aixteeati^^ aeatai r«jtw^m 1 S6 iihea 0mkmm- M faaa '^m al^a^^d oa the ^^axas eoaat aath aearly three b»al^ed yeara Xator^ the hiatory of feat feaaa ia to a gr^^t daga^ns trie atary of tha re«latiaaa hatiieaa tha ^aaiarda aad tha Xadlaaa* daeag ^a ladiaa tribea «hiah hare roamed aad mem^ <»^ ^^rliag aah are tm l<ipa ««lialo^^aoa,'^ Ilae«e«mmSk QGsmm&immm It la hellewed by ao^ that wmmftimmmmm imw* XW9» P* 9»m rlalm«iax«adale^ Xaaa)^ p* da^ ^Qm a* iaatar«o^^ Jli*«f«^^*

10 tha Vlehltae axao Xired ia thitt area befoia tiia aaaing ef the dpaaiarae*^ fhm llpaaa aad JCiehapeaa roeiaed the raxxeya of the (bloredot Saa Saba^ aad Ooaaho aivera# She aatire hoiae of tha Klmkm^^ou mmm aocjieahere aaet of the uiaaieaippi aad iiuaeouiri BUt^va^ bat ^iien tha AneXo»daxone begaa te eettxe that regi m theae Xaaiaae ^^ere poai^ieu eeet and aaathaeiit iirito feacaa«^ She Xlpaaa ^ere at first frieadly >«ith the ^'hite man of.e^t!i;exaa lut beoa:^e hia eaei!^ when their ahiikf^ fxaeao, ^rae murdered b^ a white iftaa«as long m the Xipeaa tiere on f iieadi^ tensa with the «irhite ^mx tm^ aided the latter in hia oonfxieta aith tha hoatlxa Oomaashe^ of i'liqi^aa* ^nla eamity and intermitteat #arf^re bet^^aea i.ipan aad Ooaaaaha^'waa aaded by a peaae trdaty ia l^» She Mai&apeoa ^ere at tiisa^ frieadly.vith the Ooaaaehea aati at otljar titaes aade -^ar on thea# :ehey posaeaaed gm:^ obtained fraa ior&aaaaa Hirer traders* Xhe Ooaaiiehee tm^r^q and raa paatad thaae Matapeo guna and as a roxe tried to aroid troabie tilth that tribe*!^e Oaaanohee oe^^io to Sexas from the aorthitest* ^hea t^ie #hite settxers t^^^ba to wove into t is apper Miaaiaaippi fluxey, they pushed the ^ioax Indiaas out of ^Grace Bitner, "Early History of the Concho, Con- Cho County and x'om Green County," West l^exas Hist. Assn. Yrbk., (Abilene, 1923), p. 3. ^R. lu Bichardson, 0..CTt., p. 171.

11 that aoaatry into the area of tha ^tat^ of Colorado. She Siaaa^ ia tarn^ pa^ed the aoaianol:^a out of that seetian dourn iatd aartl^eat ezaa# She Coiaaaohea tnen taak ap their aain zaage ia the headwaters of the Oanadian^ Aritaaaaa^ Braaoa^ am Colorado I irere«sterling Oooaty t/^as ia an area ^hlah rooghxy saarks the southera edge of Iiipaa aad ICiaicapoo rangoa«apparentxy no gr^t ai&aber af OosAaahea erer hanted farther soath than the Borth woaaha Mrer«the Kio^as originated in the Berth fexxo^atoae Gouaty aad drifted soath into the PanhandXe of :^e3cas«xa ^exab the io^a& aad Cos^uoahea slashed and the two tribea ^j^arred vm^^ years until aba at 1790 ^aen they ruada peaae* ^ne Eio^i^ drifted farther soath than the l^anhaadle«-«at least as far aoath as the Ooaaho Eirers* ^be names of t«a tributaries in the Ooaaho Hirer System bear iritaess to the proaeaae of tao Indian tribes in / this seat ion in early daya«eioaa Creek, ^hieh heada in aoath aterxiag County, ia a tributary to the ^iddxe ^aeho, and lula^i^^o Oreek ia a tribntcury to the 3oath Ooaaho* AXao«near the alty of Sii AngeXo ia to be foaad a seat ion of the e^antry kno««'n as Lipaa fxats* Shas it seems that Indians from the fonr abore aeatioaad tribes, Lipans, Kiskapooa, Klowaa, and Coaanebes^ hare roamed and haa ted at one tiae or another oa ;5terXing Qoaaty soix* Bheth^r they sharsd the Berth Ooaaho haat«iagipreaads or whether eaoh tribe oaaapied it at different

12 tiaes is a aattar ef amijaataxa* perhi^pa «hen tribes «ere aa friaadxy terae they anared it. aad ^shaa oa aai* friaadxy teraa t^ atreag^r tribe axaiaea it«if tha arra«i haada ehiah i»tarliag Ooaaty boys piok 19 aoald i^peak«mr if 1g»mmT EilX aaaxd ead^aaxy f iad a mmjf of ralaaaiag its searata, ao doabt ^^^e «oaxd staaa aaaaed at atariea of a imxtare ai^ a airixisation ehiah l^rsmilm oa the rary greaad ^hera «e ^alk arary day«shat alyildihktiaa ia (s^sm^ aad eaxy ia ear iaagiaatiaa aaa «^a r^m»mitrast tha dra^sa t^t #aa eaaatea ia #hat la i^sm oar a^^ra baak yardf bat if ^ aoise magia aira«uv» ataaea^ aa^^ far ijsita^ie^ a sip of a Madiaval iiitah*a brew«mm mmmm hmm that Xadiaa paaorepmik pxasad before ear eyaa^ this is <ihat mm aeald seet de asald eea t^ ladlaa oa hia pai^ ^i^iag the aighty baffala^ ffe eoaxd Iwar the aaisysx^s dsath<«^)ean As %m haater*s apear pleraed hia aide* da mm^^ aae the carrier take the baffalo skla And fsaa it ^^ce hia rabe^ hia shield^ his ^ig^mmi Aad tha ladlaa fishing in the Qon^ho^ tlhi Oalorade^ Aaft Starllag Ora^^, i»hiah «aa than a rippxiag atreaai l^axd haar the si^i^la^ arrassr aaa ita dall thad da it atnn^ tha baandlag da^^ fwsm #hii^ the w ^naa ^t mmt aad baaki^aa* «a aaald see hia l^ylag flat«^j^aahiag JUa thirat sith tiia axear, aeal waters of Srippiag %riag«

13 Xn the Tllla^ on the Oonaho la aoald t^o the ^omen grinding aorn, for omklng bread Cooking ate. of haffalo and deer meat ia slay raa^els, Preparing hoaiay and s^aaah; and other <^oiaea Sorklic^^ iu the eornf ield palling ^eed; Children pxayiag la the rixxags ^^irowiag tsod at eaeu otiiari J9ogs Xying in trie ^ay OXd oen Sitting in the t^u.i«le aouxd see the XMian ^adlag a i^ssage ia the rnrnkm ooda Prom the top of So^er HiXXi i^^m him steaxthixy ari^piag xxp bahiad a meaber Of an aaei^ tribei Or Xarking in the ahado*s Bear the Pioneer's XoneXy sab in, Coiaiteaaaae dark, aeeklag rengeanae Igidnst the isan.ho took his hosis, Eis hnating groaad, hia &mm^ Sa aoaxd see him ^^atahing tlim thiaidar axoud^ listeaing to the oaiaaaa raabxa Of %m eoming ataiai, Oraetiag the risiag saa,»aarahiag tsm hot aad axoudxess sky Far algas of raia. Standing atop the rugged hill,

14 Ar»B oatatrstahad, fa<^ toward the hearena, Xa haaeat ai^pliaatioa 2m the Oreat father* Ve aaald sea the ^rataa^aaxy laaaktd Itediaiae ima ^ith hia isagia o«l feathersi rhe robed aati feathered ahief tela Xa aoaaail «ith hia i^isa fsmni Wim tribs in aex^oaial arxay JQaaaiag the Bsffalo eaae, the Oreea Corn Dsnea, Bm Bftia laaae^ the M^st Haaasi Could heisr the st^uly baatlag of the toa^tosi QmX4. see a ssare ef r^ftlmia featg^ BXmi^m and faathex^ bobbing. As the Xadiaa gars ax^^easlaa ^ his aeathetia aatare«ia aaald «mo the «arro#smker JBiMiy ahi^lag arrays; «^eiian wearing baskets^ ^killfally bemlng rea4^ ^ tmkm a handred difxerei:it ahai>aa Aad laat^ m aoald see the hardy pioneer, Eaar hia laabariag «agaa Aa he aa^ft ta tal^ tha Xadlaa'a plaaai AjsUI aee the red laan diaappearing.

15 radiag aaay to take m^ his aboda Oa tha reaerration, dad ti^re adopt ha white Stan's ^ays» Xatareating Xadiaa re^iialns hare bsen foaad in dtsrllag 0«saty» dboat fourteen alios soath of sterling Cit7 is Donpping Spring, /hiah li. reaant years has ^^mm^ to fla^* At this plaae are to be found signs vhiah indlsata that the spot was Qti&m a farorite oaapiag groaad of the ladian# on oae roek are found t^^o siaoothly rofysded out hales vhlo i i^pear to been used fui aortare ia whiah tha Vidians groaad their eora, Saoeroaa arro«i^i2d»s m^ik flint ehipa in the rlaiaity indioate that arrows were oaee iiia&afaotiired there, Aaother iatereating Isad^aark yielding remaiaa is tm^mx Bill, XoiMsted aboat fire mixes south of ^terxiag Clty«fhis hill is aaationed ia the field notes of an earxy land Surrey of ti^e area in X8&d*^ it ^as a for tifiad hixx, ths fortifiaationa being intaat ^hea tha first aettxers oaas to the dtarxlag aoimtry, it is easily aaaassible oaxy from the ^at aide^ the east aide baiag aoas^ihat preaipitatia* a^hs hixx»as therefora easy to dafaad* M mtx^ kao^^stfhaaor by rhojsi tha hixx ^m& aamad or «hea or by ^"^h&isl it «ae fortified. It is It Bsaerd of neld ^tee> is»terling Couaty, I, p«&m#

16 8 a^ppaasd, fr^s the type of fortifiaatioa (roak «alls 1th la<^ halss to flare throagh) that it ^ma fortified byttfhiteaaa* If that ^mta ao» it poadibly aoald hare bean fortified by aoldiers from ^ort Oiiadboame, ^aimh smm aatabxiahed ia X85, or by soxdiers i^tmm sai&e other anay aatpaat. IXao it la paaalble that the Senas iangera aoald hsae fortifieu it«share haere been fonad oxd l^alxets and old buxxet marks on the rooks of tm hixx and alsa abont a mommn oxd gsaa barrexe of the sap«andp ball type* ^hasa are all iadimktioaa of a battle or battles at this plaaa«a^mt the year IS^W i«f and ^om S»lXls dag up a iticeleton, aappoa«^ to Itfnre been that of a Oomanshe ohief, «l^ bma bean buried ia a s^e^x aare on the east side of the hill aear tha top«ftm i^caxx ^as enrexoped ia a beaded aaatex, the ^mppieaa of «ihiah ^as a sixrsr e^ irith this laseription on its pedeatax: ^;J i\ ior tha beat terlyle Colt 1^K>«* *r, araer"^ A totem in tna tmrm mi a «raa^lag bear, mm^ of red pipeetoaa, amm baea identified as a Oosanahe tote^^ Poar flager rings of braas, a aosa ring of air karat ^oic:, fear brass ankle riaga, a ailrer ornament ^obde of a Spanish dollar, aod»iqioroas lao^i baa^ &ere aasng the reu^aiaa«a ballet ^lis taken fro^ a hole ia the base of the skull. It showed t^ "nealtf of the mold and the rifling marka aa ths bullet, fioubtlsss tne Xadiaa was killed by thia»«im XeiXis, XaterTie«, August 2, 193d,

17 baxlat whiah s^pareatxy was fired fras a '*a«fy six** Gait rarolrer of tha aap-aa^nball type, 2he bulxet aaed ia thia type of gaa aasaa lato ass in X846 and was replaoad by ths brass aartridge in 18f0* 2hia ^ould iadleate that ths Xadiaa waa kilxsc soaetiae bet^iaan I6d6 cmd the time i»ttlera begaa to ooae ia* Xadiaa psasaaaloa of 'lest!s!aras laads a^ die* tarbed by tha aoolag of tha wjute man, the first of whaa ^Kmwm tha ^aaish mcplarera, Siiere ie no reaord of the first ^paaiar<ia to m^t foot oa dt«rliag Ooaaty soil* (M»«i^ de fia«s ^sa likely the first white raan ia ieat l^msm^ teriag beaa atreaded on the Saras Coast ia IMSI^m On hia route ta Mariao he ptmme^ through tha waatei^ pajrt of the state, but it seems that he did aot ao^ as far i»»rth as ths Ooaaho lurara* for the aext two hnadred years after 1&3& ^aay Spanish exploring erpaditioas aroseed ai^ rearossed ^aat i^xaa, sad rery likely aaay ef them traversed sterling Oosaty territory, Xa IMO Oeraaada ^est!9^a aa in his mm^xmh for the Cxan %airera, a riah aad pmpaomnm ladi«o Piatriat* ^Niaa ^ oaate in 1601, ^ho ^*'mm searaning far the ae^aa Oltlea of CiNila, areased the buffala plaina* JtMtn da aalaa, bet^aaa tha years Idll aad 16&9, led an axpeditioa iato the riainity of fort lelknap* Penalosa ia 166 Mm # IdXXiS, QJ^

18 10 aaat lato ths <iuirira aoaatry, trarallag fr^ lie.. Mxiao through the hoart of ^aat Zexmrn and tha i^laina,^ Spttsiah»:plorara #ho ifmr^ liksxy aroacad eterllag Ceisnty ^mrm Oast ilia ia IdSO and Oaodalajara la 1654* Sbly mrm rapartad to have aoine aaroa«i the plains la a aaathsaaterly direatioa frcm Sm^ i^ociao, passing near MXg ^xlag and aa aaross ;iterling Caanty* Oae aigaiflaaat ^itaei^ to aarly ripimiai^k aeaapation of dterlii^ County aad rlaini^ is the aaihi ahish ths Cocsiho Hilars binurs* It is tr.e Spaniaii irord for "ahalx" "^ a id doubt tne rirer j^ae aa^a^i hf the ^paaiai;>-.' t^a:^ aexras, but J«yst #hea it mmm aa^tn^d no aae aan bu sure. One aaaauat IM^ thai ^r&imsi^ on hia expeditiaa t.^irough fiacas ia XHQ aastlana a riwer whiah he salla the "iuddle fmtk (^naha^** baaasiw of ths ^^tmmmnmm of an unusuax a^^ber mt Xarg^ i^^ixa, so le of ^himh ik)>ataxaad pearxs* A m^mom aaao^st rexats^ that t vo raaaisaaa fathara wiaitad tl^ Oani^os in X^IO* f^y ^^mre on ti^ir ^m^ tt^m m l^mm to riait ^emt mlmm ladii»s«a me^ ia tha toaeral Arahiwaa at Mealao City she 0 tao rir^rs»aiah ths pairea are aspi^oaed to ha^e a^f^ed* ^^ha aorta oaa tl^y aaxled Eio Ooasho ar girer of ^heixa aad the sautli mmm tbey MXXed Bio ^erla or Bir#r ^f faarla,^ <Eitill ^<r* C, i^ksronali-. m^ est ;:axaa.roatler> Oasatta Priat, j^aaksbara, JJMIS, i7p74# 10 asi jte^m Jiii^iii. ^^«^^ ^^.. xt36* u ^m Crsaa Coaat>^ library, ^'Loaal liatory ^iles," iaa Aa^Xo axatorr.

19 a third aaaoant tells us that about 1581, the ;>paaibh alaeieaaries of the rlairaty of t/ie preeent to^n of Presidio were told by the Indians there y^mx& almndant flah aad gaas aad saaxqr pearls on a rirer **twenty sleeps" to the aaat* Ouided by the Indians^ the mia^ioaaries fitted oat A searahing sxpedltloa aad sent it eastward to find tha eorcted pearls, Isgead has it ti ut after araasiag tl»s Xilaao :Sstaaado the expedition straok ths waters of tha north Oonoho at a poiat n«2sr the plaaa wheza the 9 Hanah hsadituarters no i stand*?hey found fish and gaae in plenty and pearls beyond their ex* pastatioas* 2hey i^kplored the three tributarlea of the k>naho and oaxxed the south fork Bio rerxa dex i>ur or South lilaer of Bearla* 2hey e&xled the inlddxe fork Elm Perla dax MiMUa, or Middle Hirer of Pearla^ and ths Sorth Ooaeho tl^ey ^lulled Bio x'erla del Sorte, or J^rth Eirer of iearls* Afterguards, other 2panlah ex«plarers ahaogeu ths uam&b to Berth, ^outh, and Jiddla Conaho Hirers beoaaee of the saperhibua4anaa of shells IE in the al^es^s* Frosa these aa<k>uats one vould eon* mltam that there is little doid;it that the Spanish nazsed the Ooaaho Mwmr^ aad that thie i^reas &msi faailiar to aot a tern of ^»eat ^sxas* early 8paniaa rlsitora* axx txie dpaaiah oaaupanay of SterXiag County it appears IT i.? SeUis, 1.00* Cit. 11 In

20 that they >^mr& after all only riaitors* 1 Any effort aa tlia part of the padres to establish ilssioas ia tha Conaho aoaatry or to bring airixisation to the Indians was futixs beeaaee of t e extrofse hostility of the tribes of this seat ion of Sexaa«espoaially hostile to the rdssionsries* 2he Oosianehes ^ere After tha long period of Indian and Danish oaoi^anay of the Sterling area, white ssan of Anglo* Saxon de&osbt begau to filter in, so&eti^e in t' o early X800*e* Hfe do not kao^ mho the first AngXo*«^axon jas to Tisit ^tsrliag County but likexy he %as ^itii so^ e axploriag ejq^ditioa» Sterliag ia 1^* (me suah expedition passsd aa&r fhe Ooreraor of Ohihuahua wanted to establish a more direst trade route from Chihuahua to 3%m lauia, whiah vouxd exl^iaate an out«of«>tneway jomramis^ to KX laso. A ^«hite wmxx^ Br«n«c* OoniiaXly, headed thia expeditioxt ^hleh ^aat fra. Chihuahua to the present site of Presidio, i^exas; then t roue'^ these fast :Sexas soontiee: Presidio, Brewster, faaos, XarreXX, Croakstt, <o" leic'er, 33om i^tqbu^ finanexls, la and CaXsmaa*'^ _ feasibly, also, ^erxing County niay hare been erossed by fur trading expeditions «hidh operated axtenairexy ia tim Boutlsiest during the first naxf of tha lineteeati^ Caatory* 2exas Banger a, too, in tha "U J«C, riacoaaexx, 0» Cit«> p. ds«

21 XB aapaaity of Indian fighters, ^ere a ong the early AngXo'^^axona to risit the Coni^o aonatry* Chief among the Baagers «Nho sa. serrioe in thie eeetion»as Xuak Imrrfm A aeinber of arry*s fa^ious Ooapany, A* Earriaoa^ «ho realded in thia area ia the late '60*8 and early *70*a, onoe tola this story of a '^terxing Couaty Xadiaa exporlenoe: turn Hangers were oaisped at a spriag n ar (^Ksp ''lisabet garrison as a^ay from ea^p skianij^ a buffalo when he^ %aa attaeked by a bwiah of Oomanah^s* Es aouatsd tie hor e and tried to esaape, but in running do,n a roaky hill north of ths mt^ his horae fell, and oxij ji Harrison's Isgs ^as broken* B^ firing brought the rangers to the resaue, and after a sharp akir^lsn, the Indiaas flsd* Earrisoii «tas brought to oe^ap»hexm he liad to Id regain two ^m^ikm before he aould rids, Aftsr the aaaiag of tne laagers to this seat ion was ths iatrodmatlon of federal troops* CansraX Bobert Mm lee arossed SterXing Coimty during %h0 sui^iior of X8&6* lea mmm stationed at tiie tiae at Qmmp Cooper. He «as in ao^a^^^uid af an Indian aaarahing expedition, 18 aad hia route took in Sterling County* I'lie firat «iihite :mu to settle tor say leat^ti of time on dterxing aoix «as Captain ^«S«Sterling, for i^ ^V» ^* I^Xiis, 1.00* Clt* X8 ^^an Aia^eXo j4orninfc gitaeb. January EO, 1888.

22 Xd whaa the aouaty ^mm named* LittXe is k^.o^n about him bsyoad ths faat that he «.as a buffalo hunter, ranshur, and ladiaa filter, and that sonietinie in the sixties t^ pitahed his aa^ip on a oreek ia /oat is no^ J:UO a aa sterling Cbunty* Hera he hunted buffalods for their hides. He shipped ths hides to ^ort Oonoho and en^ gaged in the business as long ae there 'Sre aay buffaloes Id in the eouiitry* 2hm l^ort.ortii Oasette in its.^aii- Centonriial Edition in 1^3 aa^s of Ct^tain LterXing that he vvus an old frontiersiian ^itliout t^mr and was distinguishsd for his unasxfish dsrotioi^ to the oausa of Jastlae mm imgi^smity* Indians feared hi t far hia saox eourag^ em the deadxy eraoii of hia ^y^lnsheatar* 2hl6 pubxiaatlon atates th&t Captaii^ ^terxing ^^a in Xlf the aterling County area In 18&6* sojourn in sterling Cks^unty Captain Sterling Ariaona and Q&Tfm^ as United Ltatee karahax* ao^setime after his e.t to was e^bushed and slain ty Apaaha Indians aaar ifort i^ashe, Arisoaa* lu 1^8, *4* :*«HiXer, *ho oaae to Here ha 3terXing County ia X878, pointed out to -i* P, ijexxia the remijua of a haxf-^klugout near the ^outr. of Sterliag Creek mm Captain atsrxing's l»>me during him stay here. 18 ' Latter to author from Harriet ;^alther, (Aroairiat, ^tate library, Austin), JoXy E^, 18^8* ^'jhe aterling Warier, April X8, X8»S» "w* f. isftuis, iag. Cii*

23 18 Moat aaoooats giro t is sixtiss aa ths period : e.. Oaptsa.. Sterllag lired ia tne area «niah.^aa na-ea for hia, tut STidentXy ne nad at Xeaat Tiaitud that aeation, if not aattxed there, prior to X860* dterllag Oraek, aaaad far Captain Sterling, ia mentianed in tha 19 aarreyar'e field notea a<3 aarx> ae tte year 1888* Aaoag ether earxy eettxera ia hterxlag Csanty «are the «eii kno^u iirslak and Jeas^a J&.:)ea, for.^no i a tributary of sterling Cr^d^ *as na.jed* r.^a drtfi, whlo' runs Just aoath of ths prea«r.t ranan hoi^ie of.atert Paster, ie kao^a as Jai^s Hallow* it see ia that ths teaes Brothers.ere dodging the lau> ^hile thwy.are here aad aanaeaaantly did not etay long*-«fe«yasura at test* *hlxe tf^y «ere nere t*%e>- ongaged ia."^orpe rauahlag, and many teliere t ^y axeo nuaded buffaxoea* ;>ettxer8 oo^ir.g to the raxley of ^iterxiag %:reek iu X88X found great diaatse of buffaxo boae^ on Jasiee BalXa«and aoaaxaded tnat theee bones nad likexy been left there by ths Ja^aes boya* iagous oa-^w to ths rana!i far tne hidaa, for the brothera aouxd not risx?^aaxiag thasi to aarket t:>e3sextes beoaaeo of the daagar SO af beiag raasgnised aad aaptared, e* J, Caaby«firat tax aeeassor of ^tarllx^g County, relatae ta "Cnale Bill* JusUis that tns faaed ostxa^s eatabxianed tneir T ms^rm ^ /ield Bates, Sterling Oeanty, I, p* 54, ^0*6* Aiaswarth, Intsrne^, sterxiag wity, July ST, xsat*

24 X8 ranan ou the aterxlng Creak tributary ao^otic^e in ths *70*a, Xa passing thraugi tras ooontry froo Missouri to liexiso, they notio^d tue fli^e gras:^ and ^^aterijog pxaaes and alao ths great aaaber of >«ild!.crs s on tha Berth Ooaaho Eirer aud Sterling i^aek* later Xm^ had a herd of fine Lrood i^iares brought froii ijsouri to this range* fl* J, Cosby..6 serred «lth the Jsaes boya under <iuantrell during tra ClTll ar am «aa ther^ore ^uita friendly mitik the faatous taxadlts* During ths ti:^ thay rmx^trnm In this aroa they boarded a great deal 1th the ^i^y*s, who tsre looated a littla way bela^ the moiitn of sterling Creek* ^Shey neyt^t Slept there beaause of the proxiraily of Coaby's plaoa to traffio VLp ms^ do«in the Berth Oonoho irer* ^ one seeiia to knoa inhere the ^&:^s boys lent upon laaring thia area* Sterling Count:' had its share of buffalo hunters daring the perioc, of the great ^eat Xsxas buffalo alaaghter ihxmh took plaae m the middle serentie8* Asaong them.vas ^.* l* ii^asbury ana a ]^rty of aunt era who aa^e froa ^aard in X87d* 2he part^ hoxed up for ths wiater in a augout at t te.outh of terxi.^g Creak* laabury «i.aa only about sixteex. years oxu lut he sho^^ad his ability as a buffaxo hunter by averaging lorc buffaxoea Bj v.* y* laixxia, j^, cit*

25 17 par day than any oti.er of the party* He ^tu» m&ikm aamp hunter* He aooouatsfor as taany as tosntyflte to forty iuffaxoee in a siiigxe day* 2he party aiar^ceted their hlces at ^ort Coaofio.>hsre the/ seoured prorisions for tiieir huiit* Aiaong ths other buffaxo huntera.ere & J*»'iXey and hia brother lie brought a hunting party to oterxing County in the winter of 1876* ^ i.e /-ixaya later beoai^ permanent settlers in this oounty, Buffalo hunters In tre Sterling seatioii obtalx^ed t.^ir euppliea fro-a either fort Ooaeho or llg spring, Jhlah ^as at that time lathing more than a buffalo supply aa^p* irostsibxy, ho«erer, :iioat hunters obtained their supplies fro^ fort Conono, for that settlo..ant.*aa their ohief.ar.r^t for hldea* Port Conaho had bean eatalxished in X887, a foh> yaars prior to the period of inteu^o buffaxo hunt lug* Ifirat it v^as aatlsd Ca^p Hatan, thsn camp Kelly, and finalxy lu X8&8 it.>as na.ued ^'ort Conaho* It \&as ^StabXished in good tirte, for t e perlou from 1867 to X8?d sa^. uxi unususl ni^siber of ladiaa aspredatione in *est l^axaa, fhe fort.aiiitalaed an outpost ^efansa about fifty mil as up tie Berth Conaho* It.^as Xooated about axeren i^lxes i^ the river fras tha present site of aterxi^ City* ^hia outpoat was Cas^p <KXisabat^, and * M ^an AageXo 8taadard> ii&y 3, 193* lira* ixaxinda. itahaxx, Intsrvie., dterxlng City, August 6, XV38*

26 X8 and it is thought that the date of its estabxi^o^^ut gees baak fartner tfian tne legim.i.^ of iort Conaho la 1887* It is texiarec that Q^if Jisabeti -as first eatabxishs«l as a l^aa^er oalip ^T Zaxmm.isua^^era about 1888* la 1874 it «i&s tsikma. brer by ifort Oonoho, aad used mainly as an outpost hospital until X^6, ti)s date of ita luiaxidon^iient* It aonsiated of offlaera* fuartara, hospital, farrisr shop, ana. roek aorrsls* ^khe buildings ^.mre made of ruble stone and mud ^^rtar* A'he farrier ahop sad hoapital ^^re eaah abo^t t^e.ity by fifty fet^t in i^ise, and the offiaers' t^^srters iiare about twenty by thirty feet* 2he soldiers slept ia tents >hiah ^mrm stretahad sear the offiaers' fuartara* fhare «are tito target lutts, one for long distanae and t.o other for short dlstanoe aaooting*!2ha preaenoe of a parade ground between t/js eai^ aad the rirer aogge^ts t ^at ti^sijo a&zti.a^ra of tiis frontier kne^* the adrantages that sklxled horse* i&aaahip prorided in eoabattlng t-.^i Indian ^muum^* ^ater i\aa obtained fro^ a spring ou the Berth Conaho Eirer, tfhiah «a^ only a fe* hundred feat froin the fort* 2heia Ed ^era s great aany negro troops stationsd at tne poat* At the tiae the aaiip was abaudaned in 1888, the baildlnga mmt9 iataat and beaasie tlis hide«out for araoks^ loafers, and other objeaiioaable eh&xaoters* jj ' 7* laixis, Loo* Cit* lula an.aoyed tha

27 18 U aaah people so Tiuoh that the roofs of the buildings i^ars tora doiiu* She 0 itansh o^ner tht^n gsre the roaxs in the walla to the Ksllia family»ho took thea aad bailt a s^axl ^mm aaross the Berth CoiiOno at a plaae i^out eight :aixes aiore trie preeaat %o^n of SterXirig City. An interesting story aoaaaming the aotiritias of ths military foraes stationed at Ciuiqp.lXisabeth xas toxd onae to "^UhaXe BiXl* KaXlis by an old loffaxo hunter aad Indian fighter* He rexated that ii» and a oompany of buffalo hunters ^ere eeiaped one tiae during ths ^fo'a at lig Spring* Csiuaaoaes attaoked the group* ^ey laid aelge to the esap for t^^o days, and on the night of the seaa&d 4m;f the old hunter aad a aosspanion volunteered to go to Qm^p rlia^eth for help* itthey arept j^uit the Indians on foot at aigr^t* Unfortunately, ho^erer, as they irere aimuring C«^i^ llisabeth, they ^.ere di«)eorered by a hmi4. of Indians ahm attasked them on haraebaak* than an Indian mmiq within range, the buffalo haatera with their poi^erful buffalo guns, &ould ahaot ths redakin^s horse fro^a under him* i^ha old tamn poxated out thc^ the {^H!ianohes ^sra sliest haraleaa «ihaa set afoot* d rwaaim fig t ^as kept up for soae distaaea* 2hay iirnvm a^ithin a mile of Cma^ Elisabeth, but finding themaexres on a roalqr hixl, the hsatera daaided to buixd a defenae rather than try to reaoh oa^*

28 r/\r&er BUTT OTHBR STORE D ik/rcz/^'^l OFf CE«s'T 1 a '.HOP AS PfiR/iOB QROONPS

29 V7hile oae worked on the defonaa, ti^ other atood guard ^ith his rifxf^ shaotiag tlie ladians' horses frora uader thea if they o&ote near enough* She firiag A9» hsard at the fort and soon a I agio soundsd a ohargs, and aa a grot^ of aaraxry lasn approached, the ladians i^ere obliged to fxee for their Xir^s* 21 2he to hoaters i^sro earned in to the Ca'4p r<here they were fed and girea a nuch noedad rest, whixs a foraa of troopers rushed to Big Spriag aa^ roaaued t le bei^iegod nunters* 2iie oxd rifxe pit wm^ stixx le soea, aad this faat lends erodejeusa to the oxd titan's story* 88.hen ^* P* KeXlis ^^aa surreying that part of t^^ aouatry in 1808, he mada the old pit a tearing to a land oomer and so T&moT^mm, it ia his fiexd notes at that time* that tl::ii0 found empty ^urtridges in tha pit, He h&^ prayious to Ihiriag the time that fort Conoho and Casap Elisabeth t!>are oaat^ied an expedition as laade throogb > terxiag territory by Ooloael ' : B* 8hafter, a aolonel in the 2rtenty*»fourth lid,mxl%'t:!f stati uiec at.ort Conaho*..as ail ladiaa saouting expedition aad oonsiated of nine troops froa the tenth Caralry, three aompaniea of the ^saty^fourth aad x snty^'f Ifth lafaatries*!siay had aixty*fiw wagons, eaoh pulled by six mules, a serea 8 htiadnnl aula paak traia, aad a beef hsrd«he reported It %* f. 0111s, loa* Cit* SSOi^ Oraan Co. library, lo^u. fiiatory xiles, SSSL ^y»» SSL* latdiaaa*

30 aoaaeraing tha Berth Conaho TaXXey that for sixty aixe& from Port Ooaaho it ««aa >»exx adaptea to grafting^ harlng auffiaient tfood for all neaeesary purposes ^7 and good running vatsr ths sntire diatanoe* An iataresting sidelight on ths aotiritisa of Port Ooaaho soldiers is their hay-aaking experieaoos about the middle 'SO^s. un taa Diric^e 1/. sterling County bet«^aen the Colorado and Berth Ooaaho «^ateraheda, buffalo grass in the early da^a gre. to great height;^- '^aoiietlmes to two or thre^ feet, fort ConoriO soldiers obsorred this and for a year or tv«o Just prior to the great drought of '86 and *8f saae out to the Mriea and out thia grass and baled it for ths parpose of faediag their hora^a during the winter montna* Shat part of tha aouatry is & aonsidorable distaaco fro i aay ruanlng ^ater; so ia otmr to hare i^ater for taeir horvies and possibly for thsiiisexres #niie they made l^ay, tiiey dug a ^ell In the ted of a dry lake, i^hey did aot strike ^ater, hut ^hen it raliied and filled up the laiie, «ater would run ofsr the top of the <.ell aad fill it axao* 88 After the lake dried up again tha pxaatar* ed ^axxs of the wall retained their aontents, furaiahiag the aoxdiers ^ith ^.ater mhmn thay eara to aat their hm^m^ ^'nia oxd AOXI, ^hiah atixl stands^ afterwards aaused.^siany a settler to wonaor about its origia* Col. IU L. GtimsiizjM "^ohafter's i^xoratloas ia (est fexaa," leat Jtt* r^iat* Asan* Irbk^ Ibilei^e, X8S8* ^ * / KaXlis, loo* Cit*

31 88 Shis period ia dterxlug County history of Spanish* ladiaa oooupaaay, of buffaxo hunting, aad ciixitary aatiritiee %as ale > a period of land granting, i;aaking Xoaations, aad surreyiag* (M Juna 7, 184, a laad grant ^as saae b^. UB Houston, thea Presiaeat of the Ileps^Xia of!i?exas, to Henry.^* Fisher aad lurohard Liiler, ^hiah permitted t'^e to eatalxish a eolony ia the territory along the Fedemales, llano, tmn ^ala^ Conoho, aad Colorado liirera* So far as the.writer knoi>s this is ths earliest land grant ^hi«^ inaxucked sterling County* ]E y the terras of this grant fisher end i.ill«r agreed to settle six hundred European faisdxies.ituxz eightaon months* SOi-^tiof., th^ failed to aarry out their part of the eontraet, but their tl^^ ^as extonaed ton jonths, on June E4, lotd, fisher and a trade itii a Ssnsas oi^igration oaneerig»^hereby t*o»t?ilrda of tha grant ^aat to the foreiga ao t'pany and the oo:apany.as to take orer the obxigatlona of settxediant. rhe result ivas that during tae next fe. ye^s a ^eat m aar of Osrmaas aa^ie to ll^xas* 'ShiB soaounts for the c^iasy Oeraaa aoamanities ia the Louver Cos^ho Eirer YaXXey* A great deax of the Xand on the waters of tha Ooaaho Birars.^as Xoeat<^d by Fisher and ^ixxer aod tha Cenaan Bmigration Co^aay* 2^& earxiest land errrey ia tterxing County on reaord ^vas ;aade April 18, 1883, for (^ciristlan ^^rits. It nas a surrey of three hundred 4m 0* MaCoaaeU, U * Cit*, p. 14.

32 aad twaaty aares of Xand issued to frits by 0. H. ^her^.oad, Coaoiiasloner of J'lsher and ^ixlsrs' Colony* rhe B}xrt^s "^as oaus b^ J. J..sDonald, Distriet ';urteyor of the lexar Distriet,^ i^hars.;sre surro^o '-.aoc at the BB-.Q tij6 for George A* Bein, Chrl&tian i^^eaieoka, aad Fredt^rlak Pfanns, all of the Xaad a^t issued ty ths yisher-^^. 13^10r Colony* Wdgaaer surreys t^ere na^u: in 1884* >'or Johann.^elaher and Leo In April, 1^!^, tha :^Quthem Paoif ie Railroad Company bsgan Its surrt:;^ ia sterling (k>unty. ing ^a. done by i* Ciraud, most of it in 1358* 'fsxas isaifio BaiXroad Compaiiy made 84 rhe surrey* Xhs est of its eurr<9ys in X878, X878, and X878; the Hcuston and i'er.as oeatrax Si. BaiXroad CJociipa^y taade ita surreys In 1867 ana X878; * aad the «aao and Borthwestsm BalXroad CorApany :aada aorreys in X878* la the X860's aiiu 1380's, surreying parties riad to hare soldi are to guard t i^s from ths ladiaas* She surrey ing gang «ould ha^r^ to be brought into ct.,p lofora darkass aet in, aad the oauf wa^ always guarded at night«j^ great D3any of sterling County's landmarj^ iore naiied by the pioneer land surreyors of this section* d^aong the plaoes so nasida is & hill at out a si lie and oae«^hslf northvi?est of sterling City* louia Farr, a pioaeer laad aurreyor* as told by Cnale Mil.eUis: It iss nw^uea by Ihis is the story "^^Sterliniiy County Heaord of.^iexd Botos^ i, p* 8. *^Xbld*. I aasaia* IX* 884«^88 pasblq*

33 88 I «as to ias6t film (?arr} at t e hithsrto oanamed caouatain to ^sf&roi lor a laad oomer. hs arrived theiu first,. L-, is cog, :iai iis coxored aook hau goa«on top oi to aioantain. Ihea 1 started to go ap, 1 rat t. v.: al<igar who uas rixnuiiit like tuu -*inc. lie didn't stop to speak to K3«e aoeaed to le iii a great harry to get to t se wagon* IZhen I ''*et t*o lig ^ixdaata 4rita t v.^ aog at their heoia. Tm Sarr *.aa la.^hing ao thai he oould hardly trot, ^he aigger outdl^taao<dd axx ia the rao<3* Shea i ciot ^ir. stirr^.e s&iu, *^ue.vixi aaxl this lldoat fountain*'* ^'Inae then it has I sen kno<»n by that aatse*^^ After «;terling Oounty lands >^ere sarreyod, after fadsxal tr^^pa ^aa piish^d the Inaiaii out oi the ^ay to tiu^ 4(est^ard^ and after the hunter had re^ored the buffalo iro 1 11: grabilands, tnen -torllng County was ready tor aotllejucut* 2h&t settleoieat ^^as sooa to oo:;&', t^m *^rhea it did it brought the da^n of a ae^ era in the oosaty*s iistory *the ^ra of ta.. cattle kings* "38 ^* y* ilellis, LQO* Cit.

34 (HApr^ii li S&s firet psrlou of tha hi&tory of ;itsrxing Cau^.ty, ths period of CpaaXsh->inaian oeaupation, axploria. ax* padlti us, ^exa^ Banger aatlrities, b if faxo ua.tii,., or v dafsi^a^ agaiu^t the i. ulaa, and xmm* dixrc.,<> ^aie X: ixotvod by a u9i iod f ranaiiiag oa isa open range oarried on ehiefl^ Ly gr^si aattxe ooapanies, ^.^his era of t/>6 aattxe kiimls Ui^ Sfsort in ^.terxlag Coaaty, lasti. only approxi^ matsxy from X870 to i e middxs 1880's. ly this tiaa ths i^ettxar^i 4ere eoaiiiij in to share tra lane ^ita tao oattxe-» soii, to engage i^^ afrriaolta.a to a liiiitoi. aegree, and to Stake ho.oi? for tae.;^aeires a^au tisir ahilarea* * uj big ranahers tried hard to kemp t.^a s^ettxeris put bat flnaxxy :^ad to sat^it to to inerltatxe a^id i»itr^r aoaept tis; or ;<ore oa to the les^a ssttlea rof;iji.c, Aao^og the first rsaoras tc le eatailisrad near ^terxi.fe County ^mrm t e 0 ishola x^anofi IA. 18^2 am t:o ^SaskareXay Bmomfi ia 1864* ioth of theee r&^iohes lay aoutheast of '-tsrll^ig Coui^ity in ^hat is ao«fosk Green Caunty* Mm r&nshas ere astatiiahad li %»terliag County territory until after federal troops.^ure atatio/ied at rsrt Oona to in 1887* thm establishment.)f tno i^e* 1^

35 87 Xiae of forts, of whiah hort Conoho ar a part, after tha CiriX Sar, furnla-sd eattxeoen t:ia ^^eoi^eeory pro» teation froa the Indian luid 'mcie possibls tfis e^tabxiah** asnt of raaahss in ths ^'.vild* part of ilaxas* It sss a tl^t the big in wtorli;;^ County #ere OiitabXlshed i the 1J70*u* ost of tao i rft-ri. IC^MJ, by tig aattlanen azici ranan ooipanlei^ trjat haa bea. criren out of!?exas aotmtie^ by tm settlers farther east* ^^e atory is the ease axl ^oron^e, I'exas* km sooa as a iins of forts 40uXd be sstabxiahdd, the cattxe kings vt^ouxd aooie in ana enjoy the benefits of free grasa a^iu ^ater; after a fe. ye»rs, t/^e^, taa set tiers MOUIO push them fartiier west* She larger ranone«^ to be eistabllahed in sterling vouiity in th» 1870* a were the aalf wirelo *3 o.^naa ty I'eaeoek Irothers; the M s, estsbll^n^d by.ic'iui^ter, Senry and Qmmpw^i and tne U -aaah, established in 1878 by D* A* i^arnest and i* J* HaXXand* 2.6 L Z Outfit.«a8 owned by an ^^ngxish oattxe ao^bpany ana ^as run by an Mnglieti^iaa, L^ 2»* ^ulssen* i::arnest cuid HoXXand sold thsir outfit to :' I. 3tepnensoii, «^ho in turn sold it to i. ii* ^Intyre in 1880* Idlest of their aattxe (ors oriwma to iterxing Cou«ity iro. Kast ^&XBB OO i.tioa* Basse of the aowboya who ^^m through «ith theas oatfita Xatsr beoame 3terXiiig County's aost raxuabxs oitisena. 1 Aai^Xo ^taiidard^ laay.'', 19M*

36 i»vhea the aattle..eu got their orwo into the coa.^try they Xosated at sor^ pxaoe ^a %n^ Ziorth Conaao Biver or so^a of its tribatariss* 8 rhers thsy ^ouxe lay axaia to a aertain range area extending up aad do.*n e^i^ oii bath sides of tne stream* Xhey always Xooat d near a stream so that t (>y and their oattle.ouxd hara aooeas to water* ^sexdoa uiu trte^i%) ranoh oo ipanies^ take the time or trouble to lu^ aay lan^. i!he land wai^ free to anyone who aauld?iiake use of it* iio i& of to i eia aot at first own an aore of t e land which they oxalued as their ranga* uthers bougr;t only a aeotion or t^o of raixroad laad «here they set up tiair rano and th^n ranged their stook erer su area for alios 8 around* Conaho* headquarters fhe 0. a^ie msm looated on the irpor.orta It set in about six or eight sslles elors t le present town of aterxing City and extended northwestward to the head ater& of the rirer into *hat ia no^ t.e easterfi mm^ of CXaasoook County. had t^fo range area* 2hm BaXf CireXe a One legan about ^terxlng Oity aad extended up tha Conano and laak Oreek tai^ deep into Olassooak County* ailes Borta of the ilortn Conaho. Xrils range also axtemed for soi^ this ipi cr liaxf Cirola a rangs wa^ separated from the lo^er by the M 3 Outfit, «hiah mm% in about sterling City and extended do^^n the rirer for three or four milea. it, too, extended north E 1^* 1* fostsr, interrie., duguat 8, li^is, (Sterli/ig City),

37 mit the rirer up toaar& ttto l/iride auu soutii^eat^ard iq> Sterling Crssk to about ti o oounty* 88 esterr. bou oary of the I'he lower HaXf Circle h ^m& a strip of land thr^ or f o ir -ilea wide i:i ediatcxy texo the H -* rhls range, a^ axl others, sxtsnoed northisrd aad aottthirarto froa t le rirer..;ere loaatcd in this lo»er ran^e* 1 le Half Oiralv; r headqu&rters lexo* tne HaXf Clrele w la^r the leak Bangs, only part of liaio ; lay ia the 8 present booiids of i^tarll^g Coimty* In the southern part of the aounty, on the headi^^aters of Kio^^a Creek, began the ht^e 7 B Eange, a large ranoh alojt sixty miles ^ide, whio^ lay oa the Middle Cona^io south of idterxing County. Ihe ran^ areas exai^sd by these earxy..^terxing County eattxe aompaniea probably rarled i.. sise from ai^ty^fire thoi^iand to two^hundred thousaau aerss. In spite oi the proxi«^lty of ^ort Conaho and Oasap EXiaabeta to tm^o SterXlisg County ranahes, the Indians prored to be a aoxisiderable so urae of aniioyanee during the serenties* In 1878, a llrexy fight ooourred bet^^ean the Qotmnsimm and a fores of rangers aad ao^boys about a mixs i^est of the present 0 iiansh headquarters, ^ons of ths white ismn were hurt, tat it Is thought that soo^ of the Indiana were killed* 8 J* 1* Olaa:^, laterrie^, JterXing City, August 8, X888*

38 80!i^hass indlani} :^ere puraaed for t«io da^s a.id orer* takaa near the prmeeat to >n of kidlaiu* ^tii^j Jo..eJ end a r* canning aote^ o^ so atd. Alnat t;ia tiibe t e party «^as nearing tnd Indiadi^, t a oo^^toys splea a leaded itoscaslii in tne trail. Qtm of tau liu^^lar die.ounted, sma a^ ne stoopea to piak the -.ooca^ i/: op, a snot froa ti,e leader of tda u.wians rang oat B^^^U tne v>nite u.an foil dead. Jonee dii^ ioiuxted and fired ou t^.e group of ladiaas, who aeon ^Ithore^* i\ie part^ abandoned t le pursuit* 2PJB dimd mamisr ^as burisd whsr^^ hd.as kilxsd and i.ia ^r&wm 4 «as i^arked i»ith roalsa«4?hls Inaident sea:r.s to ^ark the eaid of India 2 disturbances iu sterling Oou^.t^, for aattxara ^i]&i ^ l^to the ooiiatry In tne early *do*s reaaxx no ^mmrimm of t^ prm^en^ time* of Indians at that I'he ahiaf i^ianis^e from the Indians to the big oattxe* sen of the *70*s ^aa tas steaxlag of iiorsoa a^id oattle* his danger had rust eritlrt^l^' disih^peared by 1880, for U* 1* Stephenson, in a letter to i* I* Malntyre datea Maroh i;l, X880, mentions ths possibility of Indians* atsaxing aoias of his "thrse^s** ariu basrsss before he B aoaxd gat thea gathered* laaauso of the ab&exioe of fanaes there ^as nothing to hinder Indian aattxe and horss theft araept fear of the soxdxers at Ca^ KXlsabsti and the «>^boy*8 "iuar^ster. ^^. jf* tollis^ loa^ ^it* 8«Saii AageXo ^tfiadard, i.4ay S, X834*

39 fhe era of the ha^ oattle eonpanles, as has axraady basn pointsd out, ^as a reletirsxy short o.io in Sterling* Bl^laning in the early *70*3 ar.u endiog in the *80*s, it at teat was not a^o s ti an twexre to fifteen y^rs long. ettxars begaxi to filter ia by the early 'ao's, aid thereafter the story of tho tr^m ran^e is t e atory of Ite Joint oacupation by oattxe king and settler* Aiaong ths firat settlers to oo ^e to isteriixig Oounty»ere K* ^* aad *- i Foater* 2hey drora a at«all herd of oattxa through froin Cole aii aad settled on.iterling Craek in the year Xd8l at a point aboat eight ^ilee south of ths present site of BterXiag City* Others to m^m^ in at about the sa^^e time ^ere Fiaous latas, J* a* SoxUard, d* iu EiXer, J* 1* EiXer, Vi. A* yaokso.i, Hsnry Xads, Barid Longaare, 6 i^aibls, Dans HoXXo^ay, and tno^n ^mrkm^ illias^ rhese earxy settxers sr.i^ht te olassod as "settler^ aattxsfsaa** 8X Thm^ are not ««XXsd "aattle kingif yet they ej^agad in the eattle buainesb*!;^ey oaue to sterling seeking i^ better plaae for.i^aki^^g a llvui^ and intending to eatablish ho:id, derelop the eoantr^, and learo a heritage far their ehlldren* Eharing the free raage tftith tha ^i^ttle barons, xst of t.dm begaa with soall hards aad little sk^ney* Some had neither hards nor fimmsfcsy and got their start as «K)«boys oii the huge ranohes* mmrmmmmmmmmim mmmmmmmmmim Hs y* KsXXis, Jiga. Cit*

40 km far aa the big reudchers ^ere oonaernsd tr.ess first settxers svera an uawax^aa Xot* ^hm aattlooien ria^^ed these ao*«oaxxed **s^uattsrs** as a nuisance, and tried to keep the^ out, snc (sretx trieo to ran, ino a out after thsgr c^^e* Chen a ^tmn o^jme in Siin]^ "a^uattdd** oa ths Xaad a eattxeman olal;:ied for ai^s n n^:3, t ^e latter would try to ssaks the settler beliere he had to le&ra* 1^ rtmnlng a bluff the eattletnan might saare the settlsr enough to Ismep him from filing slaija to land* oattleman thought mj oo tla intitiidats a ssttl^r or if a aonrlnoe ht^ he hac. *'a%i^tted* on soz^eoas exss'a laad, he, as a rxixm^ dida.*t hesitate to do so, iai-ea B* ^. foster settxad on ilterling Creek in the i^nge area axal^^d by tha M d cmtf it, the isaaager of the raaeh bronght hlu m&p orer aod Siio^iOd.ir* foster he had ssttled on a aeation of re^ilroad land, ^hion the raaahar axai^ed a^ his own* Mr* Poster &&. fro i tie Tsoi^ that iaaisdiatexy west of the raixroad saotion was a seation of sohoox Xaad whieh, he Jmms^ ths ranoher did not o«a$ so he morad A& faiixy up the oreek a 7 mixe aad ssttxad on the sahoox Xaad^ baaing that Mr* foatsr ^as not to be bxuffed into learing^ ti^ sattxeiaaa gare no more trouble, She favorite time to attaapt to run the afuatter out «ae whaa he first arrirad aad before he had ti'se ^» hm Foater, Loo. Cit^

41 to bay any Xaad* She KSXXis f araixy Xooatsd in tha *80*8 on ths upper Sorth Ooneao ia ths U fiaage Area* She stoakmsa waat to their home, loaded up ths house* hexd gooda, took th«s to Eontrale, and atsaped tadis la 8 a aorrax* Aaother settler, I^arl Bailey, as lata a^ 1898 Xoeated on a seation farther nip the Conaho* iia put op a house aad windmill and grubbed a fe^r acred of Xaad preparatory to putting it iato oultiration. afore he eouxii exose a deax for the lana, the stookiida riad Stolen a ^arah on aim aad had boogiit it theaselres* Whea settlere began moainm iato aterling County loat of ths land %as o.nod h^ the : tate of :?exas aad by raixroad ao^«y$ies* was pxaaed on tha.'aarket* be purshased* At about thie ti le aahool land BaiXroad Xaad oould also Kran thoisgh the ^irs feaae had not been introouoed, j^oat settlers boaght as muoh Icuad as th^ aoi'ld &f ord* ^ey ran thsir stoek on t is land and at the s&'se time shared the free range with their neighbors, the big ranehers* If tor a oattleoian :?a> that he soul da* t ran a settler out cf the eountry ths tvo often beoe ^ t,^ ^baat.of frlanda* 23ia prlee of land at thia ti^ raagsd froa one dollar to three dollaris par acre. Uader the amwmn ^Mrs* iillissa C* ^raratt, A iionser.^immut**, ^eat ^ax&s kllst. issn* iirbk><abii.aas 1887).

42 8aatloa Aat^ one raan oo.;lw tiiy as many as seren s<detlona of state land* fiad iato thres groups: land, and dry graslng* did his oiiu elas^ iiyiag* All the lane at that ti^^ ras olaesi* watered land, agrisoltural t.hsn a rorsci ij':.\ht laad^ iim 54 Shia praotiao resulted later in a great aany fiereulv ooatested lav ^.its, in»hica a late comer»o J.ci olal-a tnt^t tto original pmxmhmmmr aun lict dlassifiad ^is land right and there«> fore should f erf a it his title to it* :^:hs three olasees oi land sold at i if is rent prises; ths dry graslxig laad Tae the O'.eapast, tha agrio itural land next, ana tha t watered land highest* ^Z idiioror land was *'takaa up" the purehaser aoald pb^ one fortieth of the ralua of ths Xand a.^ a down payment* Ee oouxt. aolu ths laad as Xoag as he kept up fire pereeat interest* i'ha purehaser had to lire on hit l u a csrisuii au»ber of ma^b eaoh year for a aertain nxaber of years* Aaytiaia aftur a ^^imx had lired his clal*^ ai-t he cuulc i:ay the reaaining thlrtykiaa fortieths ot its oriiinax ralue aad tha Xaad '«as nis own* ifhenever this latter pcx^ibsnt was made it ^as s&li^ to be "^patantsu^*, ana t lis gars tris o«adr uadiimputed title to tha Isfid*^*' SaiXroad laad aoald be lea^d in tna oarl^ uaya for as little as throe oents aa aare* 2hera «as TQTJ ^^0 1«x^ater* loa* Ut»

43 ^h littla iaaeatiwe, ho^arer, for anyone to lease Xaad as Xaag as ths rangs was open nc grasing free* 2ha oal;^!^tirs would be to keep squatters from settling oa partiouxs^xy asslralle Xand* Is lete &^r> ISOX raixroad Xaad Xeaseu for fii^ aents an aare* the 00 3 tng of the.attlers oaused sioat of tne Xarga oattxe ooapaaiea to ciake soxae ^ort cf effort to aaquire X^aX v>oi^ sii i?fi oi their Ifind* M ihey realised that if thay did not t^o this, trc3 iidhi.jc of sottisrs wooxd absorb axl tne grasing land ana that they vouxa be foread to -aore on or go out of tusinssu* iirmx tiiis axpedieat did aot prarant the Imge reuiei^s frosi b&ing greatly diaiaishad ia sisa, for under tha land Xa^, ti»ire i^as a lialt to tha ni^nber of seotlons of Xaad oae -^aa oould aa%uire* 4iotkm^ a nardsrap oa the J* Baal«tdnoe regulations axso.oam lig raaohers took wp aahoox Xaad in their sons* and c/en their iaughtsrs* 11 maaas* A great many people eren ^uspeoted that oaaasionaxiy an unsorupulous eattlsmsn wouxd take up Xead ia his iiorsa*s UJ^S*^^ Often, too, tuo ranoher wouxd hare one of Us aowboya tike up Xaad* mm ranener would faraiali tae ioii<i'; f or ao.»n payasat and buixd a ahaak on the Xanu ahmit^ thm oo^boy would "baah^ a part of eaor year in order to fulfill tha reeluenae jcm» 18 8* 8* Ainsworli^ laterrie?, oterliag City, July 88, X988*

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