COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KICKING PERFORMANCE BASED ON DIFFERENT KIND OF SHOES

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1 National Conference in Mechanical Engineering Research and Postgraduate Students (1 st NCMER 2010) MAY 2010, FKM Conference Hall, UMP, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia; pp ISBN: (CD ROM); Editors: M.M. Rahman, M.M. Noor and K. Kadirgama Universiti Malaysia Pahang COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KICKING PERFORMANCE BASED ON DIFFERENT KIND OF SHOES A. R. Ismail 1, M. F. M. Ali 2, B. M. Deros 2 and M. S. A. Rashid 2 1 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia Phone: , Fax: Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia ABSTRACT The performance of an athlete's football is not only influenced by natural advantages available to the player. It is also supported by the latest technology which various studies conducted to improve the performance of a football player. This study has focused on studying the effects of quality shoes for kicking velocity and force that occurs using 3D Qualysis Track Manager software apart from conducting the questionnaire analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software evaluation version of 'Windows'. 33 players were selected to filled the questionnaire form and six of the best subjects and free from injury were selected to delivering instep kick. This study identify on the technique using the 'instep kick' by taking different factors of steps. Four brand of shoe are from the model Adidas, Puma, Nike and Umbro has been selected in this study. Puma shoes shows the maximum velocity occurs as well as the maximum force. Besides the choice of shoes for most of the players of the factors used are very appropriate. A proposed final design, the survey data, and the materials used by Puma shoes will take into account as the main ingredient in the production of new shoes. Keywords: Force, Velocity, Biomechanics, Kicking, Instep INTRODUCTION The performance of an athlete's football is not only influenced by natural advantages available to the player. It is also supported by the latest technology which various studies conducted to help improve the performance of a football player. Kicking is obviously the most important movement in soccer, both as shot on goal and passing shot. Kicking is the most typical sport specific technique in soccer and has received considerable attention in biomechanical research (Sterzing, 1999). The instep kick generally uses the laces of the shoe to strike the ball (Kuo and Shiang 2007). Many studies have been done before, such as in improving the performance of a player from the kicking techniques, the appropriate factors and gender as a player. Studs in soccer boots are the elements responsible of traction (García et al., 1999). Studies on the development of products such as factor analysis to find the grip that goes for a different studs and what the maximum force that acting on the studs. Another example is the study of the effects of kicks to use different shoes on the quality of distance and velocity of the ball kick happens. 375

2 Comparative Study of Kicking Performance Based on Different Kind of Shoes The soccer boot has an ergonomic function (Lees and Kewley, 1993). It has been stated that it must be comfortable to wear and not be an encumbrance to the player or the play required of an individual. It must (a) perform in relation to the demands of the game (b) provide protection for the foot and (c) enable the foot to perform the functions demanded of it. In order to assess the demands of the game it has been investigated the physical demand which was placed on the boot during soccer playing and training. There has been identified the major categories of playing movements made during a soccer, and recording their frequency of occurrence during both training and playing. These actions were then repeated under laboratory conditions where the ground reaction forces recorded. The force in each sector was accumulated for each playing action taking into account the number of occurrences of each action, and was related to problems experienced by players. Boot splitting was the most common boot problem and was reported by 27% of the professional players and 15% of the amateur players questioned. By accumulating the force acting on the boot over all actions, it was estimated that over a period of 90 minutes playing or training the stress on the boot was three time greater in training than in playing. This has consequences for the type of boot that is used for both types of play. Subject Selection METHODOLOGY 33 subjects has been selected from amateur football players with average height of the Asian people. Six of the best players and free from injury were selected to delivering the instep kicking. Subjects must be free from any injury at least six months before the experiments conducted. Three subjects having the capability to use his right leg and the other subjects being comfortable of using his left leg. Each player is a football player that is meets the average foot size of Asian men on anthropometric data obtained. Experimental Setup and Procedure The study was conducted on the biomechanics lab of University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP). A total of 16 markers were attached in subject lower body part. All data obtained from this study will be recorded and edited in advance. All data obtained will be analyze using Qualysis Track Manager Software (version Beta RT). The camera will focus on the lower limb of the subject when the subject started performing kicking to get a better visual. Data recording were done with 5 Units frequencies 200Hz High Speed Camera. This camera can analyse of movement from as fast as 0.02 seconds per frame. Each subjects were required to use four different types of shoes of different brands, the quality of shoes and different forms. Four types of shoes are from the model Adidas, Puma, Nike and Umbro. The subjects were required to delivery instep kick without running which adapted many steps namely using one-step run, two step run and three step run. The subjects were required to repeat the kicking method 3 times for each kick type run step. This study involved players from the variety of positions because it is important for researchers to recommend a design that most suitable shoe for each position. The questionnaire also will influence the design proposed to be issued at the end of this study. 376

3 A. R. Ismail, M. F. M. Ali, B. M. Deros and M. S. A. Rashid Data Analysis The Figure 1 shows the study setup for the subject to deliver the instep kicking. 5 Units frequencies 200Hz high speed camera were used in this study. Observation started when subject start kicking the ball where posture of the leg from waist to knee and then to ankle was observed. Lower Limb Velocity and Force Analysis Figure 1: Physical Setup of Subject in Biomechanics Lab RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Kicking with two steps was selected in this discussion, rather than one or three steps because these types of kick would involve shots to score goals, create long and short delivery and other shots. So, kicking with two steps play a variety of functions and appropriate to be discussed. Most of the parameters taken are at the leg of such experiments carried out by Shinkai et al. (2007) in which they have made experiments to focus on the leg to study the interaction between leg and ball velocity. Table 1 shows comparative result for all 4 types of shoes for the fourth subject. The fourth subject delivering instep kicking using the left leg. From this Table 1, adidas shoes produce the maximum velocity and the puma shoes produce the maximum force. The maximum velocity is mm/s and maximum force is N. Based on the Table 2, the data shows the 6 subjects who delivering the kicking by using different kind of shoes. From the table it shows, kicking by using puma shoes produce the maximum velocity of four from the six subjects to obtain the highest speed. The maximum velocity is mm/s. This difference may occur due to several things such as kicking techniques, physical player and an environment where the subject of experiments that cause discomfort. 377

4 Comparative Study of Kicking Performance Based on Different Kind of Shoes Table 1: Comparative result for all 4 types of shoes for the fourth subject Type of shoes Maximum Velocity (mm/s) Maximum Force N Adidas Nike Puma Umbro Table 2: Computation of velocity of kick by using different kind of shoes Subject Maximum Velocity (mm/s) Shoes Type Adidas Puma Adidas Puma Puma Puma Table 3 shows computation of force of kick by using different kind of shoes. From this table it also show, the maximum force that occurs is from puma shoes. The highest force that exert is N. The differences between these forces are depending also on the subject. The size of the body and the technique influences the forced that exerts. Table 3 Computation of Force of Kick by Using Different Kind of Shoes Survey Data Analysis Subject Force(N) Shoes Type Puma Adidas Nike Puma Puma Puma This questionnaire will be analyzed using SPSS 15.0 for model evaluation version of Windows. There are three main parts of a shoe that can be set. For the quality, almost half of the subjects agree on the type of material used for Adidas shoes, while for Umbro shoes and Nike shoes, 39.4% and 42.4% of the subjects not agree. In addition the questionnaire was focused on the performance of which involves six important questions. For Adidas shoes, 51.6% of the subjects agree in the kicking accuracy of this shoe. The studs are designed to form the shape is elongated. From the experimental results, 54.5% of the subjects not agree with studs by manufacturers design. 378

5 A. R. Ismail, M. F. M. Ali, B. M. Deros and M. S. A. Rashid In terms of accuracy when kicking, more than half of the subjects admitted that Nike shoes help improve their accuracy when kicking. More than 80% of subjects agreed that these shoes improve kicking performance in terms of accuracy, but 39.4% subjects did not like the grip of these shoes. For Puma shoes, it found all subjects agree with the accuracy produced by this shoe is 100%. The studs form is different from other shoes. The Puma shoes have a rounded shape studs. Most subjects agreed that the rounded shape stud has a higher grip than elongated shape stud. From this study, 72.8% subjects comfortable with Adidas shoes, while 60.6%, 63.6% and 30.3% of the subjects were uncomfortable with Nike, Puma and Umbro shoes. CONCLUSION Kicking by using the Puma shoe brand has been produce high velocity and force compared with other branded shoes. The highest velocity produce on puma shoes is mm/s and the highest force is N. In terms of grip as well, though some data indicates that different, but it can be concluded here that the soccer shoes which are shaped round studs give greater convenience to the subject. In addition, questionnaires were carried out to get more accurate data and a wider scope. A proposed final design, the survey data, and the materials used by Puma shoes will take into account as the main ingredient in the production of new shoes. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study has been financially supported by Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia under Sport Research Grant with a close collaboration by National Sports Institute of Malaysia. The grant number is SF0543. REFERENCES A.C. García, A. Martínez, J.S. Solaz, J. Montero, J.V. Durá & J.F. Ramiro Development Of A Method For Measuring Horizontal Forces Soccer Boots Studs During Skill Performance. Fourth Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics Kuo X.L. & Shiang T.Y., The Instep Kicking Accuracy Using Different Soccer Shoes. XXI ISB Congress Lees A, Kewley P The demands on the soccer boot. In: Reilly T, Clarys J, Stibbe A, eds. Science and football. London: E and FN Spon, Lees, A Biomechanics Applied To Soccer Skills. In Science and Soccer (ed. T. Reilly). E & FN Spoon. London : Nunome, H., Asai, T., Ikegami, Y., & Sakurai, S Three Dimensional Kinetic Analysis of Side-Foot and Instep Soccer Kicks. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 34(12): Shinkai, H., Nunome, H., H., Isokawa, & M., Ikegami, Y Ball Impact Dynamics of Instep Soccer Kicking. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 41(4): Sterzing, T. F., Hennig, & E. M Measurements Of Plantar Pressure, Rearfoot Motion and Tibial Motion During Running. Fourth Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics Sterzing, T., Orthopädie Technik, 9:

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