BATTLEFIELDS OF THE GREAT WAR

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1 BATTLEFIELDS OF THE GREAT WAR

2 Paris

3 The Western Front

4 Battle of Ypres Battle of Ypres 1915: April 22 to 24, 1915 Location: Near Ypres, Belgium Canadian Troops: 1st Canadian Division Results: Canadian troops won recognition by holding the ground against the Germans until reinforcements arrived against a new weapon of modern warfare: CHLORINE GAS Casualties: 6035 Canadian casualties in 48 hours; More than 2000 Canadians dead

5

6 YPRES 2 nd Battle of Ypres John McCrae a doctor, wrote the poem "In Flanders Fields" when a close friend was killed, one of 6000 Canadian casualties in just 48 hours. Watch: Heritage Minute: In Flander s Fields

7 In Flanders Fields By: Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae, MD ( ) In Flanders Fields the poppies blow Between the crosses row on row, That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly Scarce heard amid the guns below. We are the Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders fields.

8 Aid Station John McCrae s location

9 German Cemetary The Somme The Somme Memorial

10 The Battle of the Somme 1 July 1 st - November 18, 1916; Called the Blood Bath one of largest battles of the First World War The Allied forces attempted to break through the German lines along a 12-mile (19 km) front north and south of the River Somme in northern France. On its first day, 1 July 1916, the British suffered 57,470 casualties in one day, including 19,240 dead the bloodiest day in the history of the British Army. 1.5 million casualties, it is also one of the bloodiest military operations recorded.

11 Beaumont-Hamel: Baptism by Fire On July 1, 1916, the Royal Newfoundland Regiment fought at Beaumont Hamel 798 all ranks deployed into the trenches of which under 658 other ranks became casualties. Only around 110 remained unscathed. That day the Newfoundland regiment lost 85% of its soldiers The Royal Newfoundland Regiment has called this day their Baptism of Fire July 1 st is a solemn day of remembrance in Newfoundland

12 Beaumont-Hamel Aerial Map

13 British Lines German Lines Danger Tree furthest most point of Newfoundlanders advance

14 From the German side The tree is the furthest point forward that the Newfoundlanders made it From the British Side

15 The British Lines the first day of the Somme

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23 Vimy Ridge was a key to the German defence system Vimy Ridge Rising 6l metres above the Douai Plain, it protected an area of occupied France in which mines and factories were in full production for Germany Since capturing the Ridge in October 1914, the Germans had been building fortifications to add to its natural strength and dominance.

24 Battle of Vimy Ridge The British and French had both tried to recapture Vimy Ridge but had failed The Canadian Corps were tasked with the decisive wide-scale offensive Canadian General Arthur Currie was put in charge and demanded that it be the first all Canadian battle in which all four Canadian divisions would fight together

25 Planning and Preparations Built a 3-D model to practice 1 st 4 th Canadian Divisions practiced together constructed miles of tunnels through which troops could pass in readiness for the opening of the attack without coming under shellfire. a heavy 3 week British artillery barrage technique: creeping barrage (advance in predetermined increments: 91 meter (100 yd) every 3 minutes

26 April 9 th, 1917: Battle Begins Arthur Currie led the 1st Division, and succeeded within 1 hour in capturing German front line positions in spite of a snowstorm First major Allied victory in WWI; the ridge remained in Allied hands for the remainder of the war CASUALTIES: 10,602 Canadians were wounded during the attack, and 3,598 killed. The opposing German force suffered even more heavily: 20,000 casualties. Sense of Canadian nationhood born on the battlefield of Vimy Ridge

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29 British Lines

30 The Tunnel System

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32 German Trenches

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34 Carved on the walls of the monument are the names of 11,285 Canadian soldiers who were killed in France and whose final resting place was then unknown.

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37 Vimy was important for its vantage point and for the control it gave the allies of the surrounding areas

38 The Mourning Woman looking down on the casket represents Canada mourning her lost The casket represents the fallen soldiers of Canada

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41 The Defenders Sympathy for the Helpless

42 Justice and Peace at the top of the Monument Breaking the Sword - Defender

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