WORLD WAR 1 WORLD WAR 1 BATTLES

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1 WORLD WAR 1 WORLD WAR 1 BATTLES

2 BELL WORK QUESTION WHAT DO YOU THINK WAS THE MOST SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION CANADIANS AT HOME MADE TO THE WAR EFFORT?

3 REVIEW LIBERAL LEADER WILFRID LAURIER CREATED A 'PARTY TRUCE' PM ROBERT BORDEN AND HIS CABINET CAME UP WITH THE WAR MEASURES ACT THE WARTIME ELECTIONS ACT OF 1917 GAVE THE VOTE TO BRITISH WOMEN WHO WERE WAR WIDOWS OR HAD SONS, HUSBANDS, FATHERS, OR BROTHERS SERVING OVERSEAS. WOMEN WERE DEEMED SOLDIERS ON THE HOME FRONT, ENCOURAGED TO USE LESS OF NEARLY EVERYTHING, AND TO BE FRUGAL IN ORDER TO SAVE SUPPLIES FOR THE WAR EFFORTS. CHILDREN ASSUMED GREATER RESPONSIBILITIES IN HOMES WHERE FATHERS OR OLDER BROTHERS MIGHT IN WAR AND MOTHERS IN THE LABOR FORCE, AND MANY WORKED ON FARMS OR IN BUSINESSES AT AN EARLY AGE

4 THE SECOND BATTLE OF YPRES TOOK PLACE FROM APRIL 22 MAY THE FIRST MAJOR BATTLE FOUGHT BY CANADIAN TROOPS YPRES PROVIDED A DEFENSIVE POSITION FROM WHICH TO PROTECT FRENCH PORTS ON THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. THE FIRST LARGE-SCALE POISON GAS ATTACK IN MODERN HISTORY

5 THE SECOND BATTLE OF YPRES (CONT D) THE FIRST TO FEEL THE EFFECTS OF A GAS ATTACK WERE THE FRENCH LOSING MANY MEN WITHIN MINUTES DUE TO EITHER TISSUE DAMAGE TO THEIR LUNGS OR ASPHYXIATION AS THE FRENCH TROOPS RETREATED, IT LEFT THE CANADIANS EXPOSED TO A GERMAN ATTACK OUTNUMBERED, OUTGUNNED, AND OUTFLANKED, THE CANADIANS HELD THEIR POSITION UNTIL BRITISH TROOPS ARRIVED TO BACK THEM UP THE CANADIANS FIGURED OUT THAT IF YOU SOAKED A RAG IN URINE THEN HELD IT TO YOUR MOUTH, IT WOULD BLOCK OUT MUCH OF THE GAS YPRES EARNED THE CANADIANS A REPUTATION AS TOUGH AND DEPENDABLE TROOPS

6 THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME FOUGHT FROM 1 JULY TO 18 NOVEMBER ALLIED COMMANDERS SOUGHT TO RELIEVE PRESSURE ON THE FRENCH DEFENDERS OF VERDUN TO THE SOUTH BY INFLICTING HEAVY LOSSES ON GERMAN FORCES FARTHER NORTH AND DRAWING GERMAN RESERVES INTO THE BATTLE. THE GERMAN DEFENDERS ALONG THE SOMME HAD CONSTRUCTED DEEP DUGOUTS THAT WERE DIFFICULT TO FIND, MUCH LESS TO DESTROY WITH ARTILLERY FIRE. BRITISH TROOPS WENT OVER THE TOP ON 1 JULY 1916 EXPECTING, AFTER THE FURY OF THEIR OWN BARRAGE, AN EASY WALK ONTO THE GERMAN LINES. THEY WERE MET INSTEAD BY TERRIBLE FIRE FROM RIFLES, ARTILLERY, AND MACHINE-GUNS SEEMINGLY UNHURT BY THE BOMBARDMENT.

7 THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME (CONT D) NO CANADIAN INFANTRY UNITS PARTICIPATED IN THIS ATTACK BUT, AT BEAUMONT HAMEL, THE 1ST NEWFOUNDLAND REGIMENT, ATTACHED TO A BRITISH DIVISION, WAS CUT DOWN ON 1 JULY BY GERMAN MACHINE-GUN FIRE AS IT ATTACKED OVER OPEN GROUND. WITHIN 30 MINUTES, THE REGIMENT SUFFERED A CRIPPLING 324 KILLED AND 386 WOUNDED OUT OF A TOTAL OF 801 SOLDIERS. DESPITE THE LIMITED ALLIED GAINS, GERMAN FORCES HAD ALSO SUFFERED HORRIBLY. THE BRITISH PRESSED THE ATTACK FOR MONTHS, WELL INTO THE FALL. BY THE TIME THE BATTLED ENDED, EACH SIDE HAD SUFFERED MORE THAN 600,000 CASUALTIES. IN THE END, THE RESULT WAS A STALEMATE

8 THE BATTLE OF VIMY RIDGE THE BATTLE, WHICH TOOK PLACE FROM 9 TO 12 APRIL 1917 PREVIOUS ALLIED ASSAULTS ON VIMY RIDGE IN 1914 AND 1915 HAD COST THE BRITISH AND FRENCH HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF CASUALTIES AND HAD BEEN LARGELY UNSUCCESSFUL. THE BATTLE OF VIMY RIDGE WOULD BE THE FIRST TIME ALL FOUR DIVISIONS OF THE CANADIAN CORPS WORKED TOGETHER AS ONE FORMATION. TO SOFTEN DEFENSES IN PREPARATION FOR THE ATTACK, CANADIANS MADE A MASSIVE AND PROLONGED ARTILLERY BARRAGE.

9 THE BATTLE OF VIMY RIDGE (CONT D) THE FIRST WAVE OF 20,000 CANADIAN SOLDIERS, EACH CARRYING UP TO 36 KILOGRAMS OF EQUIPMENT, ATTACKED THROUGH THE WIND-DRIVEN SNOW AND SLEET INTO THE FACE OF DEADLY MACHINE GUN FIRE. THE CANADIANS ADVANCED BEHIND A CREEPING BARRAGE. THIS PRECISE LINE OF INTENSE ARTILLERY FIRE ADVANCED AT A SET RATE AND WAS TIMED TO THE MINUTE. HILL 145, AS THE MAIN HEIGHT ON THE RIDGE WAS CALLED, WAS TAKEN ON THE MORNING OF APRIL 10. THE 100,000 CANADIANS WHO FOUGHT THERE SUFFERED APPROXIMATELY 11,000 CASUALTIES, NEARLY 3,600 OF THEM FATAL.

10 THE BATTLE OF PASSCHENDAELE ALSO REFERRED TO AS THE THIRD BATTLE OF YPRES THE BATTLE TOOK PLACE ON THE WESTERN FRONT, FROM JULY TO NOVEMBER 1917 THE BRITISH OFFENSIVE IN FLANDERS HAD AIMED TO DRIVE THE GERMANS AWAY FROM THE ESSENTIAL CHANNEL PORTS AND TO ELIMINATE U-BOAT BASES ON THE COAST UNCEASING RAIN AND SHELLFIRE REDUCED THE BATTLEFIELD TO A VAST BOG OF BODIES, WATER-FILLED SHELL CRATERS, AND MUD IN WHICH THE ATTACK GROUND TO A HALT

11 THE BATTLE OF PASSCHENDAELE (CONT D) HAVING NO CHOICE BUT TO ATTACK, SIR ARTHUR CURRIE PREPARED CAREFULLY FOR THE FIGHT THE CANADIANS ARRIVED IN FLANDERS IN MID-OCTOBER TO RELIEVE AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND TROOPS AND WERE SHOCKED BY THE TERRIBLE BATTLEFIELD CONDITIONS CURRIE ORDERED THE CONSTRUCTION OF NEW ROADS, THE BUILDING OR IMPROVEMENT OF GUN PITS, AND THE REPAIR AND EXTENSION OF TRAMLINES (LIGHT RAILWAYS) HIS PREPARATIONS READY, CURRIE LAUNCHED A DELIBERATE OR SET-PIECE ATTACK ON OCTOBER 26 THE BRITISH LOST AN ESTIMATED 275,000 CASUALTIES AT PASSCHENDAELE TO THE GERMAN S 220,000, MAKING IT ONE OF THE WAR S MOST COSTLY BATTLES OF ATTRITION.

12 THE 100 DAYS OFFENSIVE TOOK PLACE FROM 8 AUGUST TO 11 NOVEMBER 1918 COMMENCING WITH THE BATTLE OF AMIENS, THE HUNDRED DAYS OFFENSIVE ENDED WITH THE SIGNING OF THE ARMISTICE ON NOVEMBER 11, 1918 THE ALLIED ARMY WAS A MEDLEY OF BRITISH, AUSTRALIAN, FRENCH, AND CANADIAN TROOPS. CAPITALIZING THE ADVANTAGE OF A SURPRISE ATTACK, THE ALLIED GAINED OVER FIFTEEN MILES OF INROAD BETWEEN THE ENEMY LINES. THE BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCE ATTACKED ALBERT ON AUGUST 21, 1918 AND CAPTURED THE CITY THE FOLLOWING DAY. THE FRENCH ARMY ENGAGED THE GERMAN TROOPS AT NOYON AND INVADED THE TOWN ON AUGUST 29, ON THE SAME DAY, BEF STORMED AND TOOK BAPAUME.

13 THE 100 DAYS OFFENSIVE (CONT D) WITH THESE VICTORIES, THE GERMAN TROOPS WERE FORCED TO RETREAT TOWARD THE HINDENBURG LINE THE MAIN ATTACK ON THE GERMAN TROOPS STATIONED ON THE HINDENBURG LINE WAS THE BATTLE OF SAINT QUENTIN, LAUNCHED ON SEPTEMBER 29. IN THIS BATTLE AND IN THE BATTLE OF CAMBRAI THE ALLIED TROOPS WERE SUCCESSFUL IN BREACHING THE GERMAN DEFENSES AT THE HINDENBURG LINE. THE HUNDRED DAYS OFFENSIVE LASTED UNTIL ARMISTICE ON NOVEMBER 11, 1918.

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