Gross Pathology of Fish CL Davis Foundation 2013

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1 Gross Pathology of Fish CL Davis Foundation 2013 Dalen W. Agnew, DVM, PhD, Dipl ACVP Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine Acknowledgements: Nancy Stedman, Judy St. Leger, Matti Kiupel, Harley Newton, Emily LaDouceur, Rob Fairley, Chris Bonar, Ruth Frances Floyd, Ron Hedrick, Greg Lewbart, Gary Marty, Paul Bowser, Jan Spitzbergen, Mike Kent and Center for Fish Disease Research (University of Oregon), Tatsuya Kobayashi, USF&WS NCTC, American Fisheries Society, Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, Heike Schmidt-Posthaus, Salvatore Frasca Jr, Jeffrey C. Wolf, Rob Mueller, Christine Densmore, John Grizzle, Lester Khoo, Stephen A. Smith, Marilyn Wolfe, and many many others.. 2 Fish Classification Hagfish Lampreys/ jawless fish Jawed fish Chondrichthyes: cartilaginous fish Osteoichtyes: bony fish Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish) : lungfish, coelocanth Not true fish: jellyfish, starfish, cuttlefish, 3 shellfish, etc. Fish Anatomy Skull, spine, gills define a fish Anatomic variation: Gastrointestinal tract Stomach: Minimal syngnathids Pyloric ceca salmonids, etc. Spiral valve modified ileum; most prominent in elasmobranchs

2 7 8 What caused these? abdominal distention Answer: Viral Bacterial Fungal Parasitic or Other You can t tell! Very few fish lesions are pathognomonic proliferative lesion on fin dermal ulcer Slide courtesy of Jeffrey Wolf 9 Slide courtesy of Jeffrey Wolf 10 Bacterial diseases

3

4 IHC for Renibacterium

5 Bonar C J et al. Vet Pathol 2013;50:

6

7 37 38 Viral Diseases Del-Pozo et al Vet Pathol 47(2) The Pathology of Systemic Iridoviral Disease in Fish Comp Path vol 129, 2-3, 2003, S. Gibson-Kueh, et al. 7

8 Andy Goodwin

9

10 Fungal Diseases 55 National Geographic 56 Image coutesy of Salvatore Frasca Jr Parasitic Diseases

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12 Nolan et al JAVMA 236 (6) , Image courtesy of Heike Schmidt-Posthaus 71 Kubiski et al JAVMA 238 (3) ,

13 73 74 Miscellaneous Conditions

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15 Neoplastic Diseases

16 Grim K C et al. Vet Pathol 2009;46:

17 Figure 1. Medusa; umbrellar ulcers. Coral diseases 97 LaDouceur E E B et al. Vet Pathol 2012;50: Copyright by American College of Veterinary Pathologists

18 THE END

19 No Disease Tissue Species Gross Diagnosis Notes Fish Anatomy Title & Author Slide Acknowledgements Fish classification 5 Pyloric Ceca 6 Spiral valve 7 Lipid storage 8 Epigonal organ 9 Various fish lesions 10 Very few fish lesions are pathognomonic 11 Bacterial diseases Barraccuda 12 Nose rub Shark - 13 Ulcerative disease of goldfish Skin Goldfish 14 Ulcerative disease of goldfish Skin Goldfish 15 Furunculosis/ ulcerative disease of goldfish Spleen, Liver Salmonid Focally extensive cutaneous ulceration Focally extensive cutaneous ulceration Multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis Aeromonas salmonicida; : Cutaneous ulcers, subcutaneous inflammatory nodules; Sepsis: Hemorrhage, necrosis in multiple sites. Sepsis more commonly occurs in fingerlings 16 Aeromonas hydrophila: Bacterial Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Red Sore Skin Goldfish focally extensive cutaneous ulceration Same morphologic dx as Aeromonas salminocida Etiology: Aeromonas hydrophila Aeromonas hydrophila- Freshwater fish Part of the normal GI flora; ubiquitous in the environment Induced by stress: nutrition, handling, transportation and over-crowding of fish. Cutaneous ulcerative or systemic necrotizing disease/ septicemia, similar to A. salmonicida Chronic disease = ulceration + hemorrhage Lesions similar to A. salmonicida including furuncles in muscle. Lesions of septicemia hemorrhage in muscles, necrosis in viscera.

20 17 Yersinia ruckeri Enteric redmouth Oral cavity, Rainbow trout Multifocal oral mucosal and cranial cutaneous hemorrhage Yersiniosis Enteric redmouth head (skin) Yersinosis (Y. ruckeri ) multifocal to diffuse cranial congestion & hemorrhage red mouth Important disease of rainbow trout Septicemia: Related lesions are exophthalmos, ascites, hemorrhage and ulcers of the jaw, palate, gills and operculum. Hemorrhage of the musculature and serosal surfaces of the intestines. Splenomegaly, and renomegaly are common. Histopathology: lots of bacteria in lesions. 18 Edwardsiella ictaluri: Enteric Septicemia of Catfish, Hole-in-the Head Disease of Catfish Skin Catfish Focally extensive cutaneous ulceration and calvarial osteonecrosis bone necrosis and cutaneous ulceration - meningoencephalitis chronic form Pathogenesis: Entrance of bacteria through nasal organ leads to olfactory neuritis, meningoencephalitis of olfactory bulbs Get osteomyelitis of frontal bone, ulceration of overlying skin 19 Edwardsiella ictaluri, milk spots Skin Catfish Multifocal cutaneous necrosis and ulceration Acute: oral ingestion > Necrosis, Ascites Kidney = culture False spots in skin 20 Hepatic edwardsiellosis Liver Catfish Multifocal hepatic necrosis #1 Economic disease of farmed catfish - channel catfish, but other catfish species can be affected Marked seasonality: Spring/Fall in southeast (water temp 24-28C) Two distinct entities: Peracute/acute necrosis and cutaneous thrombosis Chronic olfactory organ produces meningitis Related gross lesion: (Hole-in-the-head disease) Histopathology/ pathogenesis: Enteritis, hepatitis, myositis, and interstitial nephritis, acute to chronic.

21 21 Edwardsiella tarda Skin Striped bass Multifocal hemorrhagic dermatitis Outbreaks when water temp is ~30oC. Older channel catfish but also fingerling catfish, goldfish, golden shiners, largemouth bass, striped bass, tilapia, brown bullhead, Asian eel culture. Usually low mortality. Histopathology: Petechiation and necrosis of the viscera with fibrinous peritonitis. Potential zoonotic 22 Bacterial kidney disease Kidney Brook trout Multifocal granulomatous nephritis and splenitis Renibacterium salmoninarum, Non-motile Gr+ diplobacillus Wild and farmed salmonids Other lesions: Exophthalmos, skin darkening, and hemorrhage at bases of fins. Cutaneous vesicles and ulcers may develop in mature trout ( spawning rash ). Occasionally, abscesses, cavitation and muscle contraction. Splenomegaly, renomegaly, and hepatomegaly with ascites. Numerous white nodules that are macroscopically visible. 23 Bacterial kidney disease Kidney Salmonid Renomegaly 24 Mycobacteriosis Viscera Goldfish Multifocal granulomas Probable cause: Renibacterium salmoninarum. Ddx Proliferative kidney disease due to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (myxozoan parasite) 25 Mycobacteriosis Kidney Seahorse 26 Mycobacteriosis, Aquarist's finger Skin Human 27 Mycobacteriosis Spleen Striped bass Severe multifocal granulomatous nephritis Severe granulomatous dermatitis Multifocal granulomatous splenitis 28 Mycobacteriosis Oral cavity, Moray eel Granulomatous stomatitis 29 Mycobacteriosis Swim bladder Weedy sea dragon Swim bladder: Granulomatous cystitis Etiology: Mycobacterium spp often M. marinum, M. chelonei and M. fortuitum Susceptible species: All fresh and saltwater. Long term, low level mortality in aquaria. Histopathology: Numerous variably-sized granulomas in various organs. Few to numerous acid fast bacteria in granulomas; bacteria may not be visible. Relatively resistant fish species (e.g., tilapia) will have fewer and more discrete granulomas that contain lower numbers of bacteria when

22 30 Mycobacteriosis Ovary Bass Granulomatous oophoritis contain lower numbers of bacteria when compared to a susceptible species. Transmission: These organisms are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. ZOONOTIC - Ddx: other septicemias Columnaris, Saddleblack Disease Columnaris, Saddleblack Disease Gills Skin Perch Sunfish 33 Bacterial Gill Disease Gills Salmonid 34 Fin Rot Skin Tetra Diffuse necrotizing branchitis Multifocal cutaneous and fin ulceration Diffuse hyperplastic and necrotizing branchitis Multifocal cutaneous hemorrhage Flavobacterium columnare haystacks of filamentous bacteria Serious, highly communicable disease of young salmonids, catfish and many other fishes. Associated with stress; predisposing Etiology: Flavobacterium banchiophila Ddx other Gr- filamentous rods. F. columnare and F. psychrophilum. Histopathology: Mucus and epithellial cell hyperplasia of the gills. Interlamellar bacteria. Gill is only organ affected. Necrosis < Flavobacterium columnare. Etiology: Pseudomonas fluorescens Several Pseudomonas species can cause similar septicemic disease in a wide variety of freshwater fishes. Lesions similar to A. hydrophila: septicemia is assoc with hemorrhage of the fins and tail, and skin ulcers. 35 Streptococcus iniae Eye Tilapia Ophthalmitis ZOONOTIC Many freshwater species especially tilapia Probably associated with overcrowding and poor water quality. Septicemic form = hemorrhage of the fins, skin, and serosal surfaces, with or without ulcers. Histopathology: Meningoencephalitis, polyserositis, epicarditis, myocarditis and/or cellulitis. Cocci/diplococci present in the inflammation. Chronic = granulomatous inflammation in the liver, kidney, CNS. Ddx other bacterial 36 Vibriosis Skin Shark - 37 Vibriosis Skin Flounder Focally extensive cutaneous ulceration Focal cutaneous ulceration Marine analog of Aeromonas. Environmental Gr- Skin ulceration/ abdominal distention

23 38 Vibriosis Skin Shark Multifocal cutaneous congestion and hemorrhage Environmental stress pollution Forms: Septicemia: - V. alginolyticus / V. anguillarum / V. salmonicida, etc. Chronic form = organized granuloma in the sk muscle of the body and head. Ulcer Disease of Damselfish: V. damsela. Deep skin ulcers and necrotizing myositis. Hitra disease or Cold Water Vibriosis: Vibrio salmonicida. Affects Sea-cultured Atlantic salmon in Europe and North America. Peracute death or chronic hemorrhagic septicemia with anemia. 39 Rainbow trout gastroenteritis Intestine Rainbow trout Intestinal mural congestion/hyperemia Etiology: Candidatus arthromitus segmented filamentous bacteria related to clostridia Distal intestine, pyloric ceca 40 Viral diseases 41 Lymphocystis Skin 42 Lymphocystis Skin Focally extensive nodular fibroblast hypertrophy with intracytoplasmic basophilic iridovirus inclusions (lymphocysts) severe fibroblast hypertrophy Etiology: Iridovirus Basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Nuclear marginalization, Sometimes inflammation Susceptibility: Most freshwater and saltwater fishes. History and Findings: White to yellow cauliflower-like growths. Occasionally systemic. Often stress-induced and selflimiting. Histopathology: Fibroblasts undergo massive cytomegaly with basophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and a thick outer hyaline capsule. Variable inflammatory response. Transmission: Gains entry through epidermal abrasions. The virus infects dermal fibroblasts. 43 Histopathology 44 Herpesvirus Skin Catfish Multifocal cutaneous ulceration Etiology: herpesvirus channel catfish virus, IcHV-1 Related lesions: Focal to diffuse necrosis of hematopoeitic and renal tissues, ascites #1 virus of catfish fry, fingerlings when water temp > 22C (summer)

24 45 Herpesvirus Coelom Catfish Ascites water temp > 22C (summer) Histopathology: Mf necrosis and hemorrhage in the caudal kidney, liver, intestines, and spleen. IN inclusions Transmission: Direct via water or feed. Piscivorous birds, snakes, or turtles may be mechanical vectors. Transovarian transmission is suspected. Survivors are persistently infected and become carriers. 46 Carp Pox Skin Carp Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia Etiology: Cyprinid herpes virus 1 Epidermal proliferation > white to yellow plaques. Lesions in cold weather; regress in summer. Healed lesions > black. Histo: Epidermal hyperplasia w/ Cowdry type A INIB. Transmission: Unknown, probably direct. 47 Koi Herpesvirus Gills Koi Multifocal necrotizing branchitis Etiology: Koi herpes Virus (KHV) formerly called Cyprinid herpes virus % mortality; Warm water 22 to 27C Acute gill necrosis, also in kidney, spleen, heart, brain and liver Secondary infections Younger fish most susceptible Ddx Flavobacterium columnare columnaris disease 48 Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus Viscera Salmonid Multifocal visceral and body wall hemorrhage major cause of salmonid death in fresh water Fry of trout and salmon affected Entry through gills Temp related mortality most severe at 10C, less> 15C Up to 100% mortality Gross: Exophthalmos, abdominal distention, fecal casts. Hemorrhage in skin and viscera. Anemia (pale gills). Scoliosis in surviving fish. Necrosis of the gut submucosal eosinophilic granular cells considered pathognomonic for IHN, but can be observed in other systemic viral diseases. INIB and ICIB seen in pancreatic acinar and islet cells. Transmission: Direct contact with infected survivors or contaminated feed. Virus in contaminated semen and eggs. Ectoparasites? 49 Spring Viremia of Carp Skin Carp Multifocal cutaneous and fin ulceration, hematochezia Etiology: Rhabdovirus carpio; Seasonal (spring/summer) Transmitted by carp louse

25 50 Spring Viremia of Carp Skin Carp Multifocal cutaneous hemorrhage and ulceration (spring/summer) Transmitted by carp louse and leeches, boats/mechanical big problem in Great Lakes High mortality; Exophthalmia, ascites, hemorrhages, fecal casts, edema and hemorrhage in many organs., enteritis, peritonitis, inflammation and hemorrhage of swim bladder. 51 Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) 52 VHS Fin muskellunge 53 VHS Skin muskellunge kidney trout Diffuse renal hemorrhage Multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage of fin Multifocal dermal necrosis and hemorrhage Etiology: Rhabdovirus. Very contagious disease of rainbow trout, both freshwater and seawater salmonids. Responsible for fish kills in the Great Lakes. 1) Acute Form: High mortality in affected fish. 2) Chronic Form Transmission: Direct with contact of carriers and contaminated water and feed. Vertical transmission not reported. 54 Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) Viscera Trout Multifocal visceral hemorrhage, generalize pallor Etiology: Birnavirus; Most salmonids - rainbow trout and brook trout. Gross: Abdominal distention, exophthalmos. Hemorrhage and pale organs. Gelatinous material in stomach and anterior intestine highly suggestive; mucoid fecal casts are common. Low hematocrit and hemorrhage in gut, primarily near pyloric ceca. Histopathology: Necrosis of the pancreatic acini, gut mucosa, and renal hematopoietic tissue. Pancreatitis. Myodegeneration. Transmitted vertically 55 White spot disease Integument Shrimp Multifocal carapace epithelial necrosis with punctate carapace matrix disruption White spot syndrome virus WSSV a whispovirus in Nimaviridae Saprolegniasis (Water Molds) Seadragon phaeohyphomycosis Integument Goldfish Ulcerative Mycosis Kidney Weedy sea dragon Fungi Severe, locally extensive, renal necrosis, epaxial myonecrosis and vertebral osteonecrosis with intralesional melanized fungi. Parasites Etiology: Saprolegnia, other (Achlya and Aphanomyces spp.) affects all species and ages of freshwater and estuarine fish. Most epizootics occur when temperatures < optimal range. Opportunistic.

26 60 61 "Ich" or White Spot Disease "Ich" or White Spot Disease Skin Skin Catfish Catfish Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia with intralesional protozoal trophozoites Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia with intralesional protozoal trophozoites Etiology: Ichthyophthirius multifilis Largest protozoon parasite of fish. Trophozoites up to 100 mm diameter, ciliated and contain an oval, horseshoeshaped nucleus. Histopathology: Epithelial hyperplasia around trophozoites in epidermis and gills. #1 rule out = velvet disease (infection with the dinoflagellate, Piscioodinium sp.) 62 Saltwater Ich Skin Clown fish Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia with intralesional protozoal trophozoites Cryptocaryon irritans; R/o Oodinium (marine velvet) Holotrichid protozoa > Epithelial hyperplasia Proliferative Gill Disease (Hamburger Gill Disease) Proliferative Gill Disease (Hamburger Gill Disease) Gills Gills Catfish Catfish Diffuse necrotizing, granulomatous, and hyperplastic branchitis with intralesional myxozoan parasites Diffuse necrotizing, granulomatous, and hyperplastic branchitis with intralesional myxozoan parasites Etiology: Henneguya ictaluri. Susceptibility: Many cultured freshwater fishes Histopathology: Intense granulomatous branchitis with epithelial hyperplasia and gill necrosis. Cysts observed in other organs (brain, spleen, liver, and kidney).ddx in catfish Flavobacterium branchiophila (bacterial gill disease) 65 Whirling Disease Vertebra Trout 66 Whirling Disease Skin Trout Vertebral osteochondritis with scoliosis and intralesional myxozoan parasites (Myxobolis cerebralis) Focally extensive, caudal cutaneous hperpigmentation Myxozoan 10um spore; Myxobolis cerebralis Two host life cycle: Tubifex worms required for transmission infectious actinoisporean forms in worm, directly penetrates fish Parasite invades cartilage > Cartilage necrosis > Causes discolored tails > Spinal deformation Salmonids (rainbow trout most susceptible; brown trout and Coho salmon are resistant). Worldwide. 67 Myxobolus Bone Goldfish Facial deformity with exophthalmos Histologic correlate: granulomatous inflammation with intralesional myxosporidia

27 68 Proliferative Kidney Disease Kidney Trout Diffuse granulomatous nephritis with renomegaly Etiology: Tetracapsula bryosalmonae (myxozoan) Cannot infect from one fish to another require bryozoan hosts, colony invertebrates Serious problem in cultured salmonids. Mortality ranges from 10 to 95%. Esp. fingerlings during rising water temperatures >12 to 14oC. Gross: Dark pigmentation, exophthalmos, ascites and pale gills. Kidneys are swollen and have numerous grey/white areas of granulomatous inflammation. Also splenomegaly, anemia and hypoproteinemia. 69 Anchor worms Skin Multifocal cutaneous lernaeasis Crustacean parasitic Copepod; Freshwater fish Induces local inflammation. Only female worms are visible paired egg sacs present the Y appearance. Causes ulceration 70 Fish lice Skin Carp 71 Scuticociliatosis Skin Weedy sea dragon 72 Scuticociliatosis Skin Goldfish Focal cutaneous pediculosis Focal cutaneous ulceration Multifocal, ulcerative dermatitis and necrotizing myositis, with intralesional ciliates Argulus sp.- Known commonly as the fish louse. Carrier of Spring viremia of Carp Etiology: Philasterides dicentrarchi, a scuticociliate (protozoan). Organism invades skin, vessels, spreads systemically. Described in flounder Uronema Uronema marinum, Miamiensis avidis, others 73 Cryptobiasis Viscera African Cichlid Multifocal granulomatous gastritis, coelomitis, splenitis, soft tissue pallor, ascites 74 Cestodiasis Pylorus Salmonid Gastric cestodiasis 75 Cotton shrimp disease Muscle, integument Tiger Shrimp Multifocal necrotizing myositis with intralesional microsporidia, shell discoloration 76 Miscellaneous conditions Cryptobia is a flagellate like Spironucleus, Hexamita. Over 50+ species; GI forms direct transmission Hemoflagellate forms transmitted by vectors (leeches?) No effective treatment; Part of normal flora, disease under certain conditions such as stress? Causative agents: Ameson (= Nosema) nelsoni or Agmasoma duorara Impact: High mortality in farmed shrimp, economic impact due to poor palatability

28 77 Iodine deficiency Thyroid gland thyroid follicular cell hyperplasia (goiter). A potential problem with artificial salt solutions. More common for thyroid hyperplasia due to goitrogenic substances. Also ozone. Differentiate from follicular cell adenomas and rare thyroid carcinomas. 78 Nephrocalcinosis Kidney Salmonids, other farmed fish Nephrocalcinosis salmonids high ratio of calcium or phosphorus to magnesium Head and lateral line disease, head and lateral line erosion Head and lateral line erosion (HLLE) Lateral line Lateral line Cranial, torso cutaneous linear depigmentation and erosion Cranial, torso cutaneous linear depigmentation and erosion Depigmentation, cutraneous erosion and ulceration around lateral the line cause is unknown Probably multifactorial may be a nonspecific sign seen in multiple conditions. Lateral line specialized sense organ hair cells, electricity, magnetic fields may also be detected 81 Gas bubble Disease Skin, Eye Periocular cutaneous emphysema Supersaturated water Gas bubbles in bloodstream; see retrobulbar hemorrhage, tissue damage from the presence of the bubbles Ocular and periocular bubbles Syngnathids very susceptible to this 82 Gastric prolapse Stomach, Gill Sharks and rays Gastric prolapse through the gill slit Cause -?? Sharks, rays normally evert the stomach via oral cavity cleansing function? May also evert cloaca same reason? Others traumatize the everted tissue Ddx goiter 83 Ova (roe) retention egg binding Ovary 84 ova retention Ovary programmed senescence Weedy sea dragon Southern red stingray Ovostasis Ovostasis Ovary Octopus Atretic follicles Neoplasia Bacterial oophoritis also present - cause or secondary? Ova retention tends to occur in older, obese females koi Ova not spawned are not resorbed cause unknown Coelomic distension and compression of other organs some variation with species; Normal anatomy 87 Melanoma Skin platyfish F1 hybrids Multiple cutaneous melanomas F1 Hybrid platyfish x swordtail offspring,hybrids spotting. Offspring melanomas; higher incidence with UV light exposure - Loss of modifier genes? Model for human UV induced melanoma

29 88 Melanoma Skin Hepatocellular adenoma Hepatocellular adenoma Walleye dermal sarcomas Multiple cutaneous melanomas Liver Trout Hepatocellular adenoma Liver Trout Hepatocellular adenoma Skin Walleye Multifocal dermal sarcomas Model Associated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ingestion; AFB1 causes destruction of essential nutrients Species related sensitivity: carcinomas in trout vs. Adenomas in salmon Cause: Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, a retrovirus Appear in spring/summer, regress in winter; within dermis fibroblasts Osteoid-like material; Multifocal nodules; Type C retrovirus Ddx - lymphocystis 92 Salmon Swim Bladder Sarcoma Swim bladder Salmon Soft tissue sarcoma Expansion of the swim bladder wall; Physical decrease in buoyancy or rupture Histologic appearance =well-differentiated leiomyosarcoma. Associated retrovirus phylogenetically distinct from Walleye Dermal Sarcoma virus. Unlike WDSV, this neoplasm does not regress, and its progressive growth can result in the death of the fish. 93 Orocutaneous papillomas Skin Bullhead Oral papillomas Papillomas (head, lips, and oral cavity) There has been a single ultrastructural observation of viral particles in the papillomas, but a virus has not been isolated. Some of these papillomas may progress to become locally invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Associated with pollution Chesapeake Bay 94 Stomatopapilloma of eels (Cauliflower disease) Oral cavity, Eels Stomatopapillomatosis Tumors tend to proliferate in the summer and degenerate in the winter. A birnavirus (similar to IPN virus) was reportedly isolated from affected eels (Anguilla anguilla).

30 95 Lip Fibromas (Fibropapillomas) Oral cavity, Angel Fish Mucocutaneous fibropapillomas Only adult females. Tumors enlarge over a period of several weeks; become firm, lobulated, and elevate the epidermis. On cut sections, the tumors are solid white, or white with cavernous centers that contain clear fluid. Histologically, dense fibrovascular connective tissue arranged in whorls, streams and bundles, covered by a thick stratified squamous epithelium. The presence of deformed teeth in the some tumors has led to speculation that these may be odontogenic neoplasms. The cause is unknown, maybe a type "A" retrovirus 96 Ameloblastomas in Chinook Salmon Oral cavity, Salmon Ameloblastoma Multifocal raised oral masses histologically consistent with ameloblastomas Cause unknown suspected underlying viral etiology 97 Umbrella ulcers Umbrella Moon jelly Aspergillus Fan Coral 100 Yellow band disease Montastraea (YBD) annularis Ulceration of the exumbrella Coral Diseases Cause unknown 101 White plague 102 Black band disease Dark spot disease (syndrome) Aquapora (Elkhorn coral) montastrea (star coral) Stephanocoeni a The end

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