Lecture #14 Week #12. A.K. Morris, Ph.D. The Domain of Life. Naming organisms. Classification. Tree of Life

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1 Millions of species 100s of millions extinct How to organize it all??? 1 2 Naming organisms The Domain of Life Carolus Linnaeus binomial naming system Latin (dead language) Recognized worldwide Each species w/ unique two-part name Domains are largest groups that separate living organisms Archaea Eubacteria Eukarya Classification Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk Tree of Life Ernst Haeckel s Tree of Life, 1866 Kingdom Animalia Animalia Animalia Phylum Chordata Chordata Arthropoda Class Mammalia Mammalia Malacostraca Order Primates Cetacea Decapoda Family Hominidae Delphinidae Palinuridae Genus Homo Orcinus Panulirus Species sapiens orca interruptus Common Name human killer whale Cal. spiny lobster 5 6

2 Cladistics: Cladistics: Strategy of classifying organisms to reflect evolutionary history Uses traits called 'shared derived characters to construct a tree or cladogram. Shared derived characters (example) Novel trait evolved in one spp & shared by its descendents Ex. All mammals w/ mammary glands 7 8 Molecular Genetics Now-a-days we compare DNA sequences within species and between species Very powerful when used together with cladistics Craig Venter Shotgun gene sequencing and the ocean. Searching for novel genes in the microbial ocean world 9 10 Aboard Venter s Sorcerer II 11 Cook s Bay, Mo orea, French Polynesia,

3 Fig Small critters are important Primary production (we ll cover this next) Role in evolution of life (atmos. change) Bottom of food chain Recycle nutrients Bacteria: Seth White 2002 Cryptobiotic soil with cyanobacteria from Antarctica Very important Microbial Loop (Azam et al., 1983) Cyanobacteria Origins of photosynthesis Atmospheric alteration from reducing to oxidizing environment Stromatolites: Archaea Genetically distinct from bacteria Similarly old! Fossils to 3.8 Billion years (from west Greenland sediments). Hahn and Haug (1986) CaCO 3 mounds formed by cyanobacteria Fossil mounds 3 BILLION years old Still around today Extremophiles saline lakes, sulfur springs, rift vents Charlie Arneson One sp. lives at 121 C (hottest of any species) 18

4 How are these different? Kingdom Protista Mostly single-celled Highly diverse Hodge-podge of unrelated organisms Algae: Dinoflagellates Diatoms Coccolithophorids Dinoflagellates Unicellular plankton 2 flagellae Cellulose or Silica (glass) test Dinoflagellates Zooxanthellae Symbiosis w/ corals, anemones & clams

5 Zooxanthellae enhances calcification Free calcium and bicarbonate ions: Ca HCO 3 - = Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 Leads to calcium carbonate and carbon acid: Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 = CaCO 3 + H 2 CO3 Calcium carbonate Carbonic acid Bioluminescence Luciferin CO 2 + H 2 0 CaCO 3 skeleton (corals, phytoplankton, zooplankton, etc) Zooxanthellae (used for photosynthesis) Diatoms Elaborate silica test Frustule Like a petri dish Coccolithophorids Cells covered w/ button-like coccoliths of CaCO

6 Foraminifera (actually protozoans ) CaCO 3 test full of tiny holes Planktonic spp. W/ spines & light test to slow sinking Macrophytes vs Trees What is a biological facilitator? Pneumatocysts Blades (fronds) Foliage (leaves) Stipes Trunk Holdfast Roots Algae Economics 101 When was the last time you used a product with algae in it? Phycocolloids: (1) algin (2) carrageenan (3) agar Porifera (sponges) Cnidaria (jellies, anemones, coral) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Nemertea (ribbon worms) Sipuncula (peanut worms) Mollusca (snails, clams, octopus) Echiura (echiurans) Annelida (segnemtned worms) Arthropoda (crustaceans, spiders, insects) Nematoda (round worms) Phoronida (phoronids) Ectoprocta (bryozoans) Brachiopoda (lampshells) Chaetognatha (arrow worms) Echinodermata (urchins, seastars, etc.) Hemichordata (hemichordates) Chordata (vertebrates, lancelets, sea squirts) 35 Common Ancestor 36

7 Body Symmetry: Basic body form: Asymmetrical: w/out recognizable shape Radial symmetry: top & bottom, no front & back Bilateral symmetry: front, back, top, bottom, left & right halves mirror images Asymmetrical Radial Bilateral Phylum Porifera NOAA 2005 Jan Messersmith 2005 Advantages? 37 Thomas Jundt Phylum:Porifera (sponges) Porifera (sponges) Cnidaria (jellies, anemones, coral) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Nemertea (ribbon worms) Sipuncula (peanut worms) Mollusca (snails, clams, octopus) Echiura (echiurans) Annelida (segnemtned worms) Arthropoda (crustaceans, spiders, insects) Nematoda (round worms) Phoronida (phoronids) Ectoprocta (bryozoans) Brachiopoda (lampshells) Chaetognatha (arrow worms) Echinodermata (urchins, seastars, etc.) Hemichordata (hemichordates) Chordata (vertebrates, lancelets, sea squirts) Asymmetrical Cellular specialization, but w/o tissue or organs Filter feed w/ choanocytes (a.k.a. collar cells) Structural material = spongin and spicules Produce many active biomolecules Potential medical benefits Shape of Life Video sponges 41 Common Ancestor 42

8 National Geographi Phylum: Cnidaria characteristics Radial symmetry Blind gut Nematocysts: Stinging structures for feeding & defense Hydrostatic skeleton No brain (nerve net) Jeff Laity Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Hydrozoa Hydras & Siphonophores Class: Anthozoa Anemones & corals Class Scyphozoa Jellyfish Class Cubozoa Box jellies Medusa Class Anthozoa Anemones and corals Polyp ONLY Polyp Class: Scyphozoa April Hiraki-Morris, 2006 Class Cubozoa Medusa ONLY Medusa ONLY Visual Predator!

9 Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Bilateral Cephalization Main marine classes Turbellaria - free-living flatworms Trematodes and tapeworms here too Phylum: Mollusca Shell: protection Mantle cavity: exchange Foot: muscular for locomotion Radula: used for feeding Penis fencing video! We re briefly going to discuss 3 major Classes Gastropoda - slugs and snails Cephalopoda - octopus, squid, etc. Bivalvia clams, oysters, mussels Class: Gastropoda Single shell I love this group! Class Gastropoda Nudibranchs What organism is the perfect predator? Shell-less snails? 53 54

10 Grab Hold Class Cephalopoda Bite and kill Be Intelligent Shell reduced or lacking Most developed nervous system (highly intelligent) Carnivores Jet-propulsion Stealth See Octopus intelligence? Evolution: Typical snails have 20,000 neurons Octopus have 500,000,000 neurons Relative to body size, brains more like birds/mammals rather than inverts. Cunning problem solvers Octopus disguise video 1 Octopus disguise video 2 Octopus disguise video Reduction of shell June 26, 2008, Santa Cruz Gilly lab video 59 60

11 Class Bivalvia Two shells No radula Filter / suspension feeders Bivalvia - examples Scallop Oyster Phylum Arthropoda Mussel Most successful phylum on the planet > 1,100,000 species ( >80% of all described life on Earth) Jointed appendages Only discussing these today Exoskeleton of chitin 1) Crustaceans Mostly Marine Must molt to grow 2) Chelicerates 3) Trilobites Extinct Open circ system 4) Hexapods (insects) Terrestrial 5) Myriapods (centipedes) Five Subphyla Trilobites Hexapods Myriapods Clam Subphylum: Crustacea Crabs, lobsters, barnacles, shrimp Maine lobster California spiny lobster Oct 3, 2010 Oct 2,

12 Barnacles are sedentary hermaphrodites World record penis length Up to 40 cm (16 inches) 40X their body size! Echinodermata ( spiny skin ) Pentaradial symmetry Water vascular system: for locomotion Tube feet: hydraulical tubes for locomotion Video Vertebrates! Hurray! Fish, birds and mammals Arose 500 mya Hagfish (Myxine) Carrion feeders Deep dwellers Eddie s video Hagfish Slime Video Cartilaginous fishes (Class Chondrichthyes) Evolution of a jaw (approx. 430 mya) Cartilaginous skeleton Separate external gill openings Dermal denticles on skin Sharks, skates & rays Sharks Predators Adapted for swimming Diverse 71 National Geographic Lemon shark footage 72

13 N. Konstantinou, 1996 Ouch! Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica N. Konstantinou, Skates & Rays Benthic life Flat bodies some pelagic Enlarged pectoral fins attached to head Sept 4, 2006 Batt Reef, Queensland 75 A.K. Morris 76 External sex organs Claspers on males Yep they have two! Clasper from a great white shark Bony fishes (Class Osteichthyes) 96% of all fish Bony skeleton Single gill opening Swim bladder Bony scales How do fish work? 77 78

14 Sensory systems: 3 main systems in fish (a 4 th only in sharks) 1. Sight: good but not primary system rods & cones 2. Olfaction (smell): Highly developed ⅔ of brain involved in processing 3. Lateral line: canals running length of body & over head Detects water movement N. Konstantinou Ampullae of Lorenzini: pits that sense electrical currents in water ONLY in sharks and chimaera Can detect 1/10 of millivolt Challenges to fish in the ocean Gas exchange in seawater (gills) Osmoregulation (salt control) Surival (we won t deal with this one this is many lectures unto itself ) N. Konstantinou Gas Exchange & Circulation All cells require O2 Marine organisms extract O2 from water with gills Surface area & transport (circ system) 2 chambered heart Heart to gills to rest of body 83 84

15 Problem: Gradients tend to even out So, if flow direction is the same H 2 0 Flow Counter-current exchange In gills, blood flows opposite to H 2 O As blood O 2 it meets water fully saturated w/ O 2 % O 2 Water 100% 85% 60% 50% 50% % O 2 Blood 0% 15% 40% 50% 50% Blood Flow Equilibrium is reached, diffusion stops Counter Current Exchange: Osmoregulation: % O 2 Water H 2 0 Flow 2% 20% 40% 50% 60% 80% 100% Amount of salts in body effects physiology Fish constantly exchanging H20 & salts to environment % O 2 Blood 0% 18% 38% 48% 58% 78% 98% Blood Flow H 2 O & salts in: Drinking Food Absorb thru gills H 2 O & salts out: Urine (kidney) Chloride cells (fish) Rectal gland (sharks) Shark blood is isosmotic with seawater High urea in tissues Less H 2 O comes in Meat tastes pissy 89 90

16 N. Konstantinou What makes a mammal a mammal? Marine Mammals Warm blooded Hair Milk production B. Kot Sirenia (Manatees and Dugongs) Gimme a kiss! Pinnipeds Family: Phocidae, Otariidae, Odobenidae Seal & Sea Lion ID 95 96

17 A.K. Morris 2003 sealion.org.uk Hawaiian Monk Seal California Sea lion Order Cetacea: Leopard Seal The whales Suborder Odontoceti toothed whales Suborder Mysticeti baleen whales Stellar Sea lion Retain many ancestral traits Challenges faced by mammals living in the water? 1. Movement 2. Thermoregulation 3. Respiration & Diving 4. Feeding and reproduction

18 a. Fins (Look at your hand) b. Streamlining (hydrodynamic) Organisms not closely related independently acquire similar characteristics (fusiform body shape) Movement External genitalia creates lots of drag... Internalization of genitals Did he just say what I think he said? A.M. Hiraki-Morris 2008

19 Necropsies Mammal testicles dangle Sperm need cool Internalize = hot Why is temperature a problem? Water conducts heat much faster than air How are marine mammals adapted to preventing heat loss? Excellent insulation/ energy storage *The largest recorded Blue Whale was 110 ft! Respiration and Diving Hold your breath

20 Sperm Whales Master Divers! How do they do it? Larger blood volume Human = 7% of body wt Elephant Seal = 12% Myoglobin in muscles Holds more O Marine mammal diving response Sound in the water N. Konstantinou Reduction in heart rate Bottlenose dolphin BPM Circulatory modifications Avoid stomach, kidneys & extremities Travels 5X faster than in air Cetaceans use sound: Communicating Courting Hunting Navigating Echolocation (biosonar) Sound waves for distinguishing and locating objects from several meters Orientation clicks: general idea of surroundings Discrimination clicks: give precise picture of an object Can distinguish between two 2 objects Sound from larynx (squeeze air) Focused through melon Received through jaw to ears Atlantic common dolphin sound: Bottlenose hunting video

21 Sperm whale adaptations summary Adapted from Vanessa Smith, UWRF The case of the sperm whale Any gas bubbles are filtered from blood by a network of blood vessels called ritia mirabilia Shunt blood to brain and essential organs as O 2 level gets low Large blood volume (rich in hemoglobin) Large triangular flukes for propulsion Spermaceti used to regulate buoyancy during dive Myoglobin in muscles Highly efficient lungs Flexible ribcage allows for easy lung collapse Heart rate slows during dive Nasal passages filled with cold Gas (mostly N2) from water cools spermaceti to a solid. compressed lungs enters rigid Expelling water allows body trachea where virtually no gas is Sperm whale click sounds temperature to warm spermaceti to absorbed into the blood. Helps 121 a liquid prevent the bends. 122

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