Caligus lacustris Stp. et Ltk. Contributions to our knowledge of the parasitic copepods of Poland. By J. Kaj

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1 4 rift IIBIMRY FISHERIES RESEARCH BOARD OF CANADA- NANAIMO, B. C FISHERIES RESEARCH BOARD OF CANADA Translation Series No. 696 Caligus lacustris Stp. et Ltk. Contributions to our knowledge of the parasitic copepods of Poland By J. Kaj Original title: Caligus lacustris Stp. et Ltk. Materialy do znajomoci pasolytniczych widxonog6w Polski. From: Polska Akademia Nauk, Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii, 1(14): 45-48, Translated by: I. J. KruZyKski, Bureau for Translations, Foreign Languages Division, Department of the Secretary of State of Canada Fisheries Research Board of Canada Biological Station, Nanaimo, B. C. 1966

2 DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE BUREAU FOR TRANSLATIONS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DIVISION 1,1"( 11' fr.eeei CANADA SECRÉTARIAT D'ÉTAT BUPEAU DES TRADUCTIONS DIVISION DES LANGUES ÉTRANGÈRES TRANsLATED FRoM - TRADUCTION DE POLISH INTO - À ENGLISH SuBJEcT - SUJET PARASITOLOGY AuTHoR - AUTEUR J. KAJ TITLE IN ENGLISH - TITRE ANGLAIS CALIGUS LACUSTRIS Stp. et Ltk. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF PARASITIC COPEPODS OF POLAND TITLE IN FoREIGN LANGuAGE - TITRE EN LANGUE ÊTRANGÈRE CAIIGUS LACUSTRIS Stp. et_ltk. MATERIALY DO MAJOU0kI PASOnTNICZYCH WIDLONOGÔW POLSKI REFERENcE - RgFÉRENCE INAmE OF BOOK OR PUBLICATION - NOM DU LIVRE OU PUBLICATION) Polska Akademia Nailk POLSKIE ARCHIUUM HYDROBIOLOGII (Polish Academy of Science POLISH ARCHIVES OF HYDROBIOLOGY) publisher - editeur CITY - VILLE o PANSTWOWE MDAWNICTWO NAUKOWE (STATE OFFICE FOR SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS) WARSAW DATE Printed in July 1954 PAGES typed pages REQuEsT REcEIVED FROM REourS PAR our NUmBER NOTRE DOSSIER NO DEpARTMENT MINISTRE OF FISHERIES TRANSLATOR T R AD UC T EUR 1:1 J KRU Z. Yi KI YOUR NUMBER VOTRE DOSSIER NO DATE CoMpLETED 28 May REMPLIE LE DATE REcEivED. REÇU LE

3 /-1) r Polska Akademia Nauk, Polskie Archiwum (Polish Academy of Science, Polish Archives for nydrobiolo(y) Vol. 1, 1953 J. )aj CALIGUS LACUSTRIS STP. et LTK. CONTRIBUTIONS TO TH o- KNOl'UEDGE OF PARASITIC COPODS OF POLAND The scarce data concerning the occurrence and distribution in our waters of parasitic Copepods (Copepoda parasitica) are as a rule limited to a few very Common species like e.g. 12rgasilus sieboldi or Lernaea cyprinacea, easy to observe in view of their frequent mass occurrence and damages done to fish. Other species of this group, interesting from both the natural science and the fishernan's point of view, have been mentioned rarely only. The samie is valid for observations of their biology and the development of the specimen through a series of larval stages (nauplius, meta-nauplius, copepodit) up to sexual maturity. This development is often rather retrogressive (particularly in females) in connection with the adaptation to parasitic life. When studying in summer 1946 the conditions of fisheries on the lake Miedzychod in the region of Poznan I found on the 18.VIII on one of the specimens of ablet Alburnus alburnus from the lake Gorzyriskie a number of parasitic crustaceans of the species Caligus. lacustris Stp. et Ktk. This parasitic Copepod is particularly interesting, being so far the only FAiropean sweet water representative of the genus Caligus, abundant in salt water species. Up to date it has been found in two Danish lakes (Steenstrup et Lutken, 1661 and Kroyer 1853 and also Wesenberg-Lund 1902) further in 2inland (Gadd 1904,) in the lake rtjâlmaren in Sweden (Alm 1916), in the vicinity of Hamburg Translator's note: This date, handwritten on the re=int received, does not agree with date of printing:july, 1955 (bottom of page 48 of reprint) Page 2...

4 (Richters 1876) and finally in basins which remained from Zuidersee in Holland (Redeke 1939). Ilarkewitsch reports it also from the lakes of Karelia. Thus it is known from the waters of northern Europe, fro,n the basins of the Baltic and the Earth Seas. arkewitsch (1931 and 1933) reports Caligus lacustris in relation with the, Aral Sea and the saline waters of the Caspian Sea. However, it is possible that in this case the species Caligus dentatus is involved described by Gadd (1906) the systematic differentiation of which has not been recognized by Markewitsch, in suite of larger body dimension indicated by Gadd, some morphological differences and life in saline waters. (Orig. page 46) The specimens collected by me are not sexually mature, but represent a larval form typical for the Caligidae family, the so called Chalimus stage. This is a young age form, preceding sexual maturity and following the Copepodit stage. The Chalimus stage, or rather the stages, since this period includes also several molts (usually three) connected with a gradual differentiation of the body, is characterized by the presence of a thin appendix (filament) growing from the centre of the frontal shield, serving the parasite to attach itself to the body surface of the host. This stage makes it possible to determine the sex by the differences inistructure shown by the antennae of the second pair of legs and by the pincers and also by the fourth pair of paddle legs. The Chalimus stage does not show yet the two lunullae on botn sides of the frontal shield, characteristic for adult specimens. The eight specimens collected by me are females.

5 It should be mentioned that, similarly as in other psrasitic Copepods, also in the Caligus lacustris, specimens of males have been observed extremely rarely. mthe morphological differences of the males have been described exhaustively for the first time by ledeke in the year 1939, on the basis of material from the ters of Rolland. The specimens investigated by me show several phases of the Chalimus stage, differing from each other in the first place by the degree of attained segmentation of the abdomen. Thus, besides specimens which in their shape resemble almost completely adult forms witn a distinctly marked division of the abdominal segments and of the fourth thoracic segment not being part of the cephalo'-thorax specimens are present in which this seg- mentation is either not marked at all, or includes some segments only. Also the genital segment shows various de- grees of development. ". _, 1 Fig. 1. Caliee - lacu.stric Stp. et Ltk., Chalimus stage. Specimens with various degrees of differentiation of the abdomen part (enlarged x 30).!. ATthough all the specimens from the lake Gorzynskie, judging by sketc1-.es niade by Wilson for the Caligus ratax, seem to represent the stage Chalinus III, excessive morphological deviations cause me to assure, that this stage may be a collective notion for a series of intermediate stages, of which the last ones resemble almost fully,ature specimens. The enclosed drawin s ;s show WAnolXxx):- _,;x?s=.(pçx== -IrA)c.Kw Page 4...

6 - "'" 3 specimens with differently advanced se gmentation of the abdomen. As dimensions o. [' the body arc concerned, the investigated specimens represented a mate:ael of comparatively large variation. The body length without filament (Orig. page 47) and prickles varied within the limits rrom 2.19 to 3.40 mm. The length of tbetelalothorax shield frocl 1.29 to 1.95 mm, the largest width of the body from 1.05 to 1.54 mn. The body coloring of live specimens observed immediately after catching the fish,was white with a, light yellowish sbcde, and in some specimens even feebly yellowish-orange. Specimens preserved in foraldebyde 4% have a yellowish-white color with a brownich shade. All specimens, When observed under a microscope, show numerous, more or less evenly distributed agglomerations of a reddish pigment in the form of spots with delicate borders. The e yes are of cherry-red color. Judging by the development of the mouth aaratus, it should be assumed thet this species, being a skin parasite, feeds on epitbeliam cells, similarly os e.g..hi'rgcsilus sieboldi. I could not deternine any presence of it on the gills, although an infection by LIdult specimens retaining coidaretively wide swimming ability, is undoubtedly possible. Only after further investigations, taking into account its Geographical distribution in our waters, as well as the degree of mass appearance and the quantity of host-species. will we be able to evaluate the degree of the harmfulness of this parasite. The list of the hosts of thic parasite is considerable. Its occurrence bas no fur been stcted or Perce. fluviatilis, Acerine cernua, lucins, ;2:utilus J. are 5...

7 rutilus, cardinius crythrophtalmun, Cyprimus carpi, Phoxinus T-Jho:dnus, idus idns, Iiica biorkro 0 eperlanus, Gasterosteus oculeatus and Pyosteus punf.;itius. It appears that mostly kinds related to perch are affected. The list of hosts is joined presently by the ablet Alhumus alburnus. (Orig. page 48) LITEATURE Alm G Gadd P Hofer B Faunistic and biological investigations in the lake Hjcilmaren. Arkiv for Zoology. Parasitic Copepods in Finland. Acta Soc. Fauna et Flora Fennica. 7andbuch der Fischkrankheiten (Textbook of Fish diseases) Markewitsch A.P Parasitic Copepods and Branchiopods of the Aral Sea, besides notes on the systematics of tbe species Ergasilus -.C.ordmann. «Zoologische Anzeigen. Markewitsch A.P rarasitic Crustaceans of fisb_ in the. Caspian Sea. Bulletin Institut Oceanograph. -l'onaco liarkewitsch A.P Copepoda paranitica of the sweet waters of USSR, Kiev. Van Corde de Lind et Schuurmans J.H "Copepoda parasitica". The Animal 1::orlds of the North and the Baltic Sea Edition reresbeimer E, 1909 The L'arasitic CopeIT:ods. Prauer: Sûsswasserfauna f)entschlands 'left 11 Jena (Sweet water fauna of Gerinany) 1edeke H.C Yhe male of Caligus lacustris Str. et Ltk. Internationale levue der 7,esar.:tefi.y.7,- o- biologie und Hcydroraphie 38, Issue 3-4 (Intern. -i- evue of all Hydrobiolog and Hydrography) age 6

8 .ichters Cali,çus iacustris Stn. et f;fle. Vel4landlun5;en den Verins für "iatur ;I:eschicbtlicbe Untepaltuni,en,Lauur b (Transactions of ne Society for ratural Science Discussions) Steenstrup J. Jap. Sm. and Fred Lutken 1B61 WesenberE-Lund C On the existence of a relic-fauna in the lake Fureso. Overs. K. Danske Videns Selsk. Forh. 1 Wilson C.B North American parasitic Copepods belonging to the family Caligidae. ceedings U.S. Natural iàuseum. 28 Pro- Printed in July 1954 Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa (State Science Publications)

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