1 Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Nanoscale. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Supporting Information Facile synthesis of N-rich carbon quantum dots by spontaneous polymerization and incision of solvents as efficient bioimaging probes and advanced electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction Zhouyue Lei, Shengjie Xu Jiaxun Wan and Peiyi Wu* State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Collaborative Innovation Center of Polymers and Polymer Composite Materials, Department of Macromolecular Science and Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai , China. Fig. S1 The size distribution of the N-CDs in 24 h, corresponding to the typical TEM image of the N-CDs in Fig. 1.
2 Fig. S2 (a) a typical TEM image of the N-CDs prepared in 48 h, (b) the size distribution of the N-CDs, (c) UV-vis spectrum of the N-CDs prepared in 48 h. Fig. S3 (a) Typical digital photograpghs of DMF, DMSO, DMEU, NMP after the solverthermal treatment in natural light; (b) the diluted products in natural light and (c) under 365 nm UV radiation. Fig. S4 Time-resolved AFM images of N-CDs. (a,e) corresponds to the products at 0.5 h, (b,f) corresponds to the products at 1.5 h, (c,g) corresponds to the products at 6 h and (d,h) corresponds to the products at 24 h.
3 Fig. S5 Time-resolved FTIR spectra of N-CDs. Fig. S6 XPS spectra of the N-CDs: (a) survey spectrum; (b) high-resolution C1s; (c) high-resolution N1s; (d) high-resolution O1s. Fig. S7 NMR spectrum of the N-CDs.
4 Fig. S8 Time-resolved PL spectra of the N-CDs. (a) corresponds to the products at 0.5 h, (b) corresponds to the products at 1.5 h, (c) corresponds to the products at 6 h and (d) corresponds to the products at 24 h. Fig. S9 Cell viability assay with HEK 293T cells treated with different concentrations of the N-CDs after 24 h (a) and 48 h (b). Fig. S10 XRD patterns of the N-CDs and the post-treated sample.
5 Fig. S11 (a) CV curves of the N-CDs and (b) Pt/C commercial catalysts in O 2 - saturated and N 2 -saturated 0.1 M KOH. Fig. S12 A summary of ORR performances of the CDs (the blue symbols), other N- doped carbon materials (black symbols) and the cureent work (the red symbols). The squares correspond to the cathodic oxygen reduction peaks, the circular symbols correspond to the onset potentials. Fig. S13 (a) The electrochemical stability of the N-CDs after thermal treatment at 800 o C by continuous cyclic voltammetry in O 2 -saturated 0.1 M KOH solution; (b) CV curves of the N-CDs after thermal treatment at 800 o C in O 2 -saturated 0.1 M KOH solution (solid curves) and O 2 -saturated 0.1 M KOH solutions with 3 M CH 3 OH (dotted curves).
6 Table S1 A summary of ORR performances of N-doped carbon materials. Year Samples cathodic onset References oxygen reduction peak potential 2009 Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays V V Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube cups V / Nitrogen-doped graphene -1.0 V -0.7 V Nitrogen-doped graphene V -0.2 V Nitrogen-doped graphene sheets / Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots V 0.16 V N-doped graphene V 0.04 V Nitrogen-doped graphene / V Nanoporous nitrogen doped carbon modified V -0.2 V 9 graphene 2012 Nitrogen-doped graphene V -0.1 V Fluorescent carbon nanodots V V Nitrogen-doped carbon nanocages V V D nitrogen-doped graphene -0.2 V V Nitrogen-doped graphene framework -0.3 V V Graphene quantum dot hybrids V V V V 16 Polyaniline-derived N- and O-doped mesoporous carbons 2013 N-doped graphene foam V V N-doped graphene -0.3 V V Bicontinuous nanoporous N-doped graphene -0.4 V V Okara-derived N-doped mesoporous carbon V -0.7 V Self-supported bimodal-pore structured -0.2 V V 21 nitrogen-doped carbon fiber aerogel 2014 N-doped hierarchically macro/mesoporous -0.3 V V 22 carbon 2015 Nitrogen-doped graphene/cnt composite V -0.1 V Nitrogen-doped carbon V V 24 nanospheres 2015 N-doped carbon nanocages / V 25 REFERENCES 1. K. Gong, F. Du, Z. Xia, M. Durstock and L. Dai, Science, 2009, 323, Y. Tang, B. L. Allen, D. R. Kauffman and A. Star, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, D. Geng, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, R. Li, X. Sun, S. Ye and S. Knights, Energy Environ. Sci., 2011, 4, L. Qu, Y. Liu, J.-B. Baek and L. Dai, ACS Nano, 2010, 4,
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