Marine Fishes. Chapter 12

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1 Marine Fishes Chapter 12

2 12.1 Protochordates and Jawless Fishes Chordates animals having dorsal nerve cord, notochord, and pharyngeal gill slits at some stage of development; includes all protochordates and vertebrates.

3 Protochordates primitive invertebrate chordates: tunicate, lancelet, acorn worm Vertebrates higher chordates; all have a skeleton, back bone, skull, and brain

4 Protochordates Tunicates sessile protochordates; larval stage has primitive chordate traits Lancelet fishlike protochordate; adult retains all three primitive chordate traits Acorn worm wormlike protochordate; adults has dorsal nerve cord and gill slits

5 Jawless Fishes parasitic, jawless, retains larval notochord (no true backbone), and lack true scales Jawless Fishes

6 Warm Up 1: What am I?

7

8 Jawless Fishes modern diversity Hagfish Lamprey

9 Jawless Fishes modern diversity lampreys

10 Class Chondrichthyes Cartilaginous fishes

11 12.2 Cartilaginous Fishes Cartilage flexible connective tissue, composed of cells and protein Cartilaginous fishes characteristics: have cartilage skeleton, gill slits, placoid scales, Examples include: sharks, skates, and rays

12 Can vary greatly in external appearance. They do not increase in size as the fish grows, instead new scales are added. Placoid scales are often referred to as denticles. Placoid scales Placoid scales of the Broadnose Sevengill Shark. Placoid scales consist of a flattened rectangular base plate which is embedded in the fish, and variously developed structures, such as spines, which project posteriorly on the surface. The spines give many species a rough texture.

13 Characteristics of Cartilaginous Fishes Gill slits in cartilaginous fish, visible opening for breathing Spiracles - in cartilaginous fish, breathing holes on dorsal side behind each eye Sharks have a sense of smell that detect incredibly diluted substances. Sharks have a conveyor belt of multiple rows of teeth- They swing into place as old teeth wear out and fall away. Both have lateral lines lines of sensory hair along the length of the body that detect water motion and vibrations. Some have electroreception the ability to sense minute electricity created by muscles and nerves. Sharks and rays have organs called ampullae of Lorenzini which you can see as visible pits near their snouts used to detect the electrical current.

14 Structures and Behavior of Sharks Lateral line organ line of sensitive sound receptors along each side of a fish s body (See picture ) Ampullae of Lorenzini in shark, nerve receptors in tiny pores in snout, which detect electric fields of other animals

15 Jaws of Sharks Six to 20 rows of replaceable teeth which face backwards to prevent the escape of prey

16 Bites prey, then tears it apart by tossing head back and forth Rows of backup teeth replace lost ones May grow and use 20,000 teeth in a lifetime Shark Teeth

17 Reproduction Sharks and rays produce fewer, but more mature offspring. The male deposits sperm in the female via a pair of organs called claspers (pair of organs usually between pelvic fins that transfer sperm) eggs are laid (like birds) eggs hatch inside the mother and then are born Shark pups grow inside the mother (like humans) Other sharks and skates have external developments, development is within an egg casing called mermaid s purse. Can take more than a year to develop.

18 Figure 8.26

19 Megachasma pelagios Squaliolus laticaudus Pygmy shark megamouth shark Shark Diversity Whale shark Goblin shark Mitsukurina owstoni Rhincodon typus

20 Nearly 850 spp. of sharks, 350 exhibit typical body morphology.

21 Variations on this theme are common.

22 Mako Isurus oxyrinchus Great White Carchariniformes basking sharks, filter feeder Great White, Carcharodon carcharias

23 Great White Shark Up to 3000 teeth at one time Up to 23 feet in length Feed on sharks, sea lions, fish, rays, whales

24 Tiger Shark Will eat fish, turtles, crabs, clams, mammals, sea birds, and other sharks.

25 Hammerhead Shark From feet long Unlike other sharks, they form schools

26 Mako Shark The fastest shark, and among the fastest fish Feed on schooling fish

27 Bull Shark Aggressive and swims in shallow water Swims close to shore and can live in fresh water rivers and lakes for awhile

28 Largest sharks AND largest fish Up to 46 feet long and 15 tons Filter feeders eat mostly plankton and krill Whale Sharks

29 Shark Diversity

30 HW: Draw the external Anatomy of a SHARK

31 Special Attributes of Rays Superorder Batidoidimorpha of subclass Elasmobranchii consists of the rays, which includes skates and guitarfish. Ray anatomy is well suited to life on sandy bottoms or midwater. Specially adapted to life in midwater are the eagle ray and manta ray. Pectoral fins have become wings that stretch forward over the gills and are fused to the sides of the head. Shoulder girdles are flattened and many bones are fused together for rigidity. No longer need a tail for swimming, the tail has become a defensive whip in some species. Rays literally fly through the water. The largest rays are mantas with wingspans exceeding 8 meters (26 feet). Like the largest shark, the mantas feed on plankton.

32 Skates Skates Stocky tail with no stinging spine Two lobes on pelvic fin Thorn-like scales on midline of back and tail Rays long tail with stinging spine at midway Single lobes on pelvic fin No thorn-like scales

33 Skates and rays spend most of their lives near (on) the ocean floor eating molluscs, squid, and small fish. Yellow stingray, Urolophus jamaicensis

34 Blue spotted ray, Taeniura lymma

35 Skates (order Rajiformes) pelvic fin divided into two lobes tail relatively stocky, no spine Rays (order Myliobatiformes) each pelvic fin with one lobe tail relatively slender to whip-like spine

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