2201 Invertibrates.notebook January 23, Kingdom Animalia. We are going to divide Animalia into two groups: invertebrates and vertebrates.

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1 Kingdom Animalia We are going to divide Animalia into two groups: invertebrates and vertebrates. The invertebrates contain most of the species in Animalia, and is very diverse. The vertebrates include animals that are most similar to humans. The characteristics of Invertebrates we will look at include: 1. Symmetry 2. Tissue layers 3. Coleom 4. Digestion 5. Reproduction

2 Characteristics of Invertebrates 1. Symmetry Dividing an organism into identical parts. Asymmetrical An organism that can not be divided into identical parts. Bilaterally symmetrical An organism that can be divided into two identical parts. Radially symmetrical An organism that can be divided into more than two identical parts.

3 Characteristics of Invertebrates 2. Tissue layers Animals can have up to three different tissue layers in their early embryo (germ layers). Endoderm (inner layer) Becomes the gut in humans. Mesoderm (middle layer) Becomes the muscle and reproductive organs in humans. Ectoderm (outer layer) Becomes the skin and nervous system in humans. NOTE: Not all animals have all three embryotic tissue layers.

4 Characteristics of Invertebrates 3. Body cavity (coelom) This refers to a fluid filled cavity inside of an organism. Acoelomate When the body is filled solid with cells. Pseudocoelomate When there is a liquid filled cavity NOT lined with tissue produced by the mesoderm. Eucoelomate When there is a liquid filled cavity that is lined with tissue produced by the mesoderm. NOTE: Animals must have 3 layers of tissue for these terms to apply.

5 Characteristics of Invertebrates 4. Digestion How food is broken down. Digestion may be done by individual cells or in a gut. The gut is an empty space inside the animal. The gut may resemble a long tube (one way movement), or a balloon (two way movement).

6 Characteristics of Invertebrates 5. Reproduction This is quite varied in animals. It may involve only one individual (asexual) or two (sexual). Fertilization may occur inside the female (internal) or in the environment (external). Each individual may have only one sex (be male or female) or have both (hermaphrodite).

7 Phylum Porifera (The sponges)

8 Phylum Porifera p.183 This phylum includes the sponges. Sponges are the least complex animals. All 5000 species are aquatic. Although some are round, they are considered asymmetrical. Sponges have NO tissues, just layers of three different types of cells. Digestion is done inside of each cell. There is NO gut.

9 Phylum Porifera Reproduction can be done asexually by budding. Sexual reproduction has external fertilization and developmnet. Sponges are hermaphrodites.

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11 Phylum Cnidaria p.183 This phylum includes jellyfish and coral. There are 11,000 species. Cnidarians have TWO tissue layers, endoderm and ectoderm. They have radial symmetry. Some digestion is done within cells but there is a gut inside the animals called a gastrovascular cavity (GVC). The GVC is used for digestion and circulation of nutrients and gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide). Diffusion is also used for transport.

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13 Phylum Cnidaria Most species can reproduce asexually by budding. Some alternate between an asexually reproducing polyp and a sexually reproducing medusa form.

14 Phylum Cnidaria Polyps are sessile. E.g. coral and anemones. Medusae are motile. E.g. jellyfish. Medusae can be hermaphrodites or have separate sexes. Fertilization is external.

15 Phylum Platyhelminthes p.183 This phylum includes the planarian and tape worms. There are about 25,000 species. They are bilaterally symmetrical. They have 3 tissue layers. Some have organs (e.g. eyespots). But, have no body cavity (acoelomate). Some have no gut and just absorb nutrients (e.g. tapeworms). Others have a complex branching gut (e.g. planarian).

16 Phylum Platyhelminthes If a gut is present it has only one opening. That opening takes in food (like a mouth) and expels waste (like an anus). These worms are generally thin, so they can use diffusion to transport gases, nutrients and wastes. Species with a gut have a GVC so they also use it for transport.

17 Phylum Platyhelminthes A few species can reproduce asexually by fragmentation (e.g. planarians). Most species reproduce sexually with separate sexes. Some are hermaphrodites (e.g. tapeworms). Fertilization is internal. Although many species in this phylum are parasitic, some are free living. E.g. tapeworms and planarian.

18 Phylum Nematoda p.184 This phylum includes round worms such as pinworm There are 20,000 identified species, but there are probably many, many more. Most nematodes are small (1 mm) with the largest about 40 cm long. Most are free living, but some are parasitic. They have three tissue layers and a pseudocoelom. The pseudocoelom is used for transport (i.e. gases and waste).

19 Phylum Nematoda They are bilaterally symmetrical, with bunches of nerves located in the anterior (i.e. a brain). Nematodes have a one way gut with a separate mouth and anus. Most are Sexual, but some species can reproduce asexually by producing an egg that develops into an adult without fertilization. Most species have separate sexes but a few are hermaphrodites. Fertilization is internal, development is internal or external. E.g. Hookworm and pinworm

20 Phylum Annelida p.184 This phylum contains segmented worms like earthworms. There are about 15,000 species, mostly marine. All are found in wet environments. Size ranges from less than 1 mm to 3 m. Although some have few external structures, some have complex appendages.

21 Phylum Annelida They have three tissue layers and an eucoelom, which they use as a hydrostatic skeleton. Hydrostatic skeleton When an eucoelom or pseudocoelom act as fluid filled skeletons. Annelids have a one way gut with specialized sections.

22 Phylum Annelida Most reproduce sexually with separate sexes. Some reproduce asexually by fragmentation, but not earthworms. Fertilization is internal and development is external. Some are hermaphrodites (e.g. earthworms). E.g. Earthworms and tubeworms

23 Phylum Mollusca p.184 This phylum is the most morphologically diverse animal phylum. It includes mussels, squid and snails. There are over 100,000 species. They range in size from a few millimeters to 20m.

24 Phylum Mollusca They have three tissue layers and an eucoelom. They are bilaterally symmetrical, some with very complex brains and nervous systems. Mollusks have a complex heart but no blood vessels. Blood is circulated through their coelom. Digestion is done in a one way gut.

25 Phylum Mollusca Reproduction is done only sexually. Fertilization is external in some species (clam) and internal in others (squid). Development is external. Sexes are separate in some (squid) but others are hermaphrodites (snail). E.g. squid, mussels, and slugs

26 2201 Invertibrates.notebook January 23, 2015 Phylum Arthropoda p This phylum contains insects, lobsters and mites. With about 1,500,000 species, it is by far the largest phylum of animals. They range in size from microscopic plankton up to a few meters long. They are bilaterally symmetrical. Arthropods have 3 tissue layers and have an eucoelom. There also is a one way gut.

27 Phylum Arthropoda Some reproduce asexually by producing an unfertilized egg that develops into an adult. Sexual reproduction has internal fertilization with separate sexes. Development is external or internal. E.g. spiders, flies, lobsters

28 Phylum Arthropoda: Class Insect have a exoskeleton a three part body (head, thorax and abdomen) three pairs of jointed legs compound eyes one pair of antennae.

29 Why are there so many insects? 1. Size Insects are small. This means they can occupy many habitats, even in a small area (i.e. one flower can have several habitats). 2. Complex appendages Insects can fly so they can easily find food, mates or escape predators. Specialized legs and mouthparts also mean they can catch and eat many types of food. 3. Short life cycle Insects mature from an egg to adult quickly. This means a population can increase in size quickly. 4. Waterproofing Insects have a waxy coating and produce eggs with waterproof shells. Unlike many animals, insects can live and reproduce in very dry habitats (i.e. deserts).

30 Mouthparts Wings Legs Antenneas

31 Phylum Echinodermata p.184 This phylum includes starfish and sea urchins. Of the groups covered so far, this phylum is most closely related to vertebrates. There are about 7000 species. They range in size from about 1 cm to 2 m. They are radially symmetrical based on the number 5. They have 3 tissue layers and an eucoelom. A unique structure called the water vascular system, aids in movement.

32 Phylum Echinodermata Echinoderms have a one way gut with 2 stomachs. One of these can be expelled through the mouth to do some digestion externally. Asexual reproduction is possible through fragmentation. Fertilization is external with most species having separate sexes and a few hermaphrodites. E.g. Starfish, sea urchins

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