2 Objectives Understand the taxonomic relationships and major features of mollusks Learn the external and internal anatomy of the clam and squid Understand the major advantages and limitations of the exoskeletons of mollusks in relation to the hydrostatic skeletons of worms and the endoskeletons of vertebrates, which you will examine later in the semester
3 Mollusks Are Soft and Unsegmented Key features Section 21.5 Figure 21.15
4 Mollusks Are Soft and Unsegmented Diversity Chiton: Kjell B. Sandved/Science Source; bivalve: Andrew J. Martinez/Science Source; snail: Digital Vision RF; slug: Steven Section 21.5 Figure P. Lynch/The Mcgraw-Hill Companies; octopus: Fred Bavendam/Minden Pictures; squid: Comstock Images/PictureQuest RF
5 Phylum Mollusca Includes snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and octopuses and squids. Bivalves Nautilus
6 Characteristics Soft-bodied invertebrate Covered with protective mantle that may or may not form a hard, calcium carbonate shell Second largest animal phylum Have a muscular foot for movement which is modified into tentacles for squid & octopus
7 Characteristics Complete, one-way digestive tract with a mouth & anus Have a fully-lined coelom Cephalization - have a distinct head with sense organs & brain Have a scraping, mouth-like structure called the radula Go through free-swimming larval stage called trochophore
8 Phylum Mollusca Most mollusks are marine Some gastropods and bivalves inhabit freshwater A few gastropods (slugs & snails) are terrestrial.
9 Mollusk General Body Plan All mollusks have a similar body plan: 1. Muscular foot 2. Shell- hard structure can internal or external 3. Visceral mass containing all internal organs (i.e digestive, circulatory, respiratory and reproductive organs.
10 Mollusk General Body Plan All mollusks have a similar body plan: 4. Mantle houses the gills and in some secretes a protective shell over the visceral mass. 5. Radula- unique to mollusk in that it is a rasping organ w/ file like teeth to scrape/crush food 6. Gills- to extract oxygen from water and filter food
12 Head-Foot Region Most mollusks have well developed head ends with sensory structures that may be simple light detectors or complex eyes (cephalopods).
13 Shells Found in snails, bivalve mollusks, chitons, and nautilus Made of calcium carbonate (limestone) Secreted by the mantle
15 Mantle Cavity The space between the mantle and the visceral mass (body organs) is called the mantle cavity. The respiratory organs (gills or lungs) are generally housed here.
16 Feeding The radula is a rasping, tongue like feeding structure found in most mollusks except bivalves. Has tiny rows of teeth for scraping. Filter feeders use gills to sift food
17 Respiration Aquatic species use gills (found within the mantle cavity to extract oxygen from water Land mollusks breath via an adapted mantle cavity lined with blood vessels and must be kept moist for oxygen to enter (i.e. slimy snails)
19 Circulatory System Slow moving species have open circulatory system Blood not always within blood vessel Works through body tissues in open spaces called sinuses Faster moving species have closed circulatory system Blood always within vessels #efficiencylikeaboss
20 Excretory System Complete digestive system Solid waste expelled through anus Metabolic waste (ammonia) excreted by nephridia (simple kidney-like organ) Nephridia remove wates and excrete to outside through skin
21 Nephridium- Early Kidneys
22 Nervous System Varies greatly between species Bi-valves have extremely simple systems consisting of couple ganglia and nerve chords (similar to planarians) Octopi, squid, snails have developed brains with memory and learning capacity
23 Brain Development
24 Reproduction Most mollusks have separate sexes with gonads located in the visceral mass.
25 Mollusk Life Cycle Most mollusks are dioecious (separate sexes) Some are hermaphroditic The life cycle of many mollusks includes a free swimming, ciliated larval stage called a TROCHOPHORE
26 Major Mollusk Classes Four major classes of mollusks: Class Polyplacophora the chitons Class Gastropoda snails & slugs Class Bivalvia clams, mussels, oysters Class Cephalopoda octopus & squid
27 Class Polyplacophora Includes the chitons Eight overlapping plates Can roll up Live mostly in the rocky intertidal zones. Use radula to scrape algae off rocks. Water flows over gills to respire
28 Class Gastropoda Gastro = stomach Podos = foot Gastropoda is the largest of the mollusk classes. 70,000 named species. Include snails, slugs, sea hares, sea slugs, sea butterflies. Marine, freshwater, terrestrial. Slugs lack a shell!
29 Class Gastropoda The shell of a gastropod is always one piece univalve and may be coiled or uncoiled. The apex contains the oldest and smallest whorl. Shells may coil to the right or left this is genetically controlled.
30 Class Gastropoda The foot has a hard plate (operculum) on it that protects the body when it withdraws into the shell.
31 Gastropod Feeding Habits Most gastropods are herbivores and feed by scraping off algae using the radula. Some are scavengers of dead organisms Others are carnivores that drill into other mollusks
32 Class Bivalvia Bivalve mollusks have two shells (valves). Mussels, clams, oysters, scallops, shipworms. Mostly sessile filter feeders. No head or radula.
33 Class Bivalvia Laterally (right-left) compressed shell Shells are held together by a hinge ligament Umbo is the oldest part of the shell Growth occurs in concentric rings around it.
34 Class Bivalvia Incurrent and excurrent siphons are used to pump water through the organism for: 1. Gas exchange 2. Filter feeding 3. Jet propulsion.
35 Class Bivalvia - Locomotion Bivalves move around by extending the muscular foot between the shells. Scallops and file shells swim by clapping their shells together to create jet propulsion.
36 Class Bivalvia Like other mollusks, bivalves have a coelom and an open circulatory system. They breathe through gills and filter feed
38 Class Bivalvia Scallops have a row of small blue eyes along the mantle edge. Each eye has a cornea, lens, retina, and pigmented layer.
39 Class Cephalopoda Kaphale = head Podos = foot Cephalopods include octopuses, squid, nautiluses and cuttlefish. Marine carnivores with beak-like jaws Surrounded by tentacles modified from their foot.
40 Class Cephalopoda - Shells Shells of the Nautilus are made buoyant by a series of gas chambers.
41 Class Cephalopoda - Shells Cuttlefish have a small curved shell, completely enclosed by the mantle and are masters of camouflage. Did you see that?
42 Class Cephalopoda - Shells In squid, the shell has been reduced to a small strip called the pen, which is enclosed in the mantle.
43 Class Cephalopoda - Locomotion Cephalopods swim by expelling water from the mantle cavity through a ventral funnel.
44 Class Cephalopoda Most cephalopods have complex eyes with cornea, lens, chambers, and retina. Largest invertebrate brain Closed circulation
45 Protection Color changes effected by chromatophores (pigment cells) Allows them to blend into their background Squirting out water by jet propulsion helps escape predators Squids also release an inky substance into the water
46 Class Cephalopoda - Reproduction Sexes are separate in cephalopods. Juveniles hatch directly from eggs no free-swimming larvae. One arm of male removes a spermatophore from mantle cavity and inserts it into female.
47 Uses: Humans & Mollusks As food mussels, clams, oysters, abalone, calamari (squid), octopus, escargot (snails), etc. Pearls formed in oysters and clams. Shiny inner layer of some shells used to make buttons.
48 Mollusk Pests Shipworms burrow through wood, including docks & ships. Terrestrial snails and slugs damage garden plants. Mollusks serve as an intermediate host for many parasites. Zebra mussels accidentally introduced into the Great Lakes and reeking havoc with the ecosystem.
49 Check Your Understanding Understand the taxonomic relationships and major features of mollusks Learn the external and internal anatomy of the clam and squid Understand the major advantages and limitations of the exoskeletons of mollusks in relation to the hydrostatic skeletons of worms and the endoskeletons of vertebrates, which you will examine later in the semester
Mollusks Phylum Mollusca Includes snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and octopuses and squids. Bivalves Nautilus Characteristics Soft-bodied invertebrate Covered with protective mantle that may or may
`Mollusks Phylum Mollusca Soft-bodied invertebrate covered with protective mantle that may or may not form a hard, calcium carbonate shell Includes chitons, snails, slugs, clams, oysters, squid, octopus,
1 of 43 What Is a Mollusk? What Is a Mollusk? Mollusks are soft-bodied animals that usually have an internal or external shell. Mollusks include snails, slugs, clams, squids, octopi... They are group together
Mollusks Soft-bodied Invertebrates Phylum Mollusca Very diverse - more species of molluscs than any other group in the ocean. Phylum includes: Bivalves (2 shells); ex. Clam Gastropods (1 shell, coiled);
Biology 1 of 43 2 of 43 What Is a Mollusk? What are the defining features of mollusks? 3 of 43 What Is a Mollusk? What Is a Mollusk? Mollusks are soft-bodied animals that usually have an internal or external
Phylum Mollusca Soft-bodied animals Internal or external shell Include snails, slugs, clams, squids and octopi Trochophore: free-swimming larval stage of an aquatic mollusk True coeloms Have complex organ
Life History of Aquatic Organisms (AFI-31306) Lecture: Adaptive radiation in molluscs Martin Lankheet, EZO Position in the course THEME Lectures Tutorials Practicals Introduction to Life Life-history trade-offs
Mollusks and Annelids Table of Contents Section 1 Mollusca Section 2 Annelida Section 1 Mollusca Objectives Describe the key characteristics of mollusks. Describe the body plan of mollusks. Name the characteristics
Chapter 7 Marine Animals Without a Backbone Molluscs Characteristics of Phylum: More than 200,000 species Name means "soft body" Basic body plan head, muscular foot and visceral mass in most species Mantle-
Unit 18.2: Mollusks and Annelids Lesson Objectives Describe invertebrates in the phylum Mollusca. Summarize the characteristics of annelids. Vocabulary Annelida deposit feeder gills heart mantle Mollusca
Chapter 28 Mollusks & Annelids BIOLOGY II Miss. Loulousis Mollusks have a true coelom Snails, slugs, oysters, clams, scallops, octopuses, and squids are all mollusks Annelid earthworm next section Mollusks
Mollusks and Annelids Chapter 23+ 1 Annelids and Mollusks Coelomates Trochophore larvae Bilateral symmetry More complex organ systems 2 Moving On Up 3 Coelom Coelomates Evolutionary milestone True body
Phylum Mollusca By: Christa Jewett, Instructor For since the creation of the world God s invisible qualities His eternal power and divine nature have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been
CHAPTER 15 2 Mollusks and Annelid Worms SECTION Invertebrates BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the four features of mollusks? What are
27 4 Mollusks They climb trees in tropical rain forests and float over coral reefs. They crawl into garbage cans, eat their way through farm crops, and speed through the deep ocean. Some are so small that
What do animals do to survive? Section 26-1 All Animals have are carry out Eukaryotic cells with Heterotrophs Essential functions such as No cell walls Feeding Respiration Circulation Excretion Response
ANIMAL KINGDOM: PHYLUM MOLLUSCA Latin: molluscus - soft Materials: A live snail and snail specimen A set of pictures, labels, and definitions illustrating the external parts of the mollusk A booklet of
Objective Bivalves: Mollusks that Matter Version 6/05 Students will understand the anatomy and physiology of mussels, and understand why they may pose health risks to humans. National Science Education
Fish Dissection The Fish Dissection program at Hatfield Marine Science Center is a 50-minute hands-on program for 4th through 12th grade students. Students will work in small groups as they examine a variety
Invertebrate feeding and digestion Animal Kingdom: Comparative Anatomy Invertebrates can either have or digestion: meaning that food is digested each individual of the organism. Animals a digestive tract.
Clam Dissection Topic The external and internal anatomy of a clam is typical of bivalves. Introduction Mollusks are some of the most common marine invertebrates. All mollusks have several characteristic
Mollusc Adaptation and Diversity Grade Level: grades 9-12 Lesson Summary: Students will examine a variety of live and preserved molluscs. They will compare and contrast body forms and try to relate the
Chapter Mollusks, Arthropods, and Echinoderms 3 3JZ JCJeEJ Diversity and Adaptations What are the key characteristics of mollusks, arthropods, and echinoderms? Chapter Preview O Mollusks Discover How Can
Chordata The Major Groups Invertebrate Chordates Fishes Class: Agnatha Class Condrichthyes Class Osteichthyes Class: Amphibia Class: Reptilia Class: Aves Class: Mammalia Body Plan of the Chordates Notochord,
Animals What is an animal? Heterotrophs Multicellular Eukaryotic Cells No Cell Walls Bodies contain tissues : Epithelial Muscular Connective Nervous Epithelial Cover body surfaces: skin, lining of lungs
Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophs Lack Cell Walls Must do: Feed, Respiration, Circulation, Excretion, Response, Movement, and Reproduction Symmetry Asymmetrical- no shape Radial- same
Symmetry Asymmetrical- no shape Radial- same in half when cut any angle Bilateral- having a distinct right and left side Invertebrates 95% of Animals No Backbone The simplest animals and they do not have
Chapter 29 Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates Section 29.1 - Echinoderms Biology II Mrs. Michaelsen I. What Is An Echinoderm? A. Move by means of hydraulic, suction cuptipped appendages. B. Skin covered
Biology 1 of 53 Chapter 33 Comparing Chordates 2 of 53 This chapter is a good revision of the material we saw during Unit III. 3 of 53 4 of 53 Controlling Body Temperature The control of body temperature
Shelled Animals some of the dominant organisms since the Cambrian explosion are those that secrete a protective shell these organisms generally have a good fossil record and some have changed little for
Taxonomy of Fishes Chapter 18 The Fishes Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata SuperClass Agnatha - jawless fish Class Chondrichthyes - cartilagenous fish Class Osteichthyes - bony fish I. SuperClass Agnatha
Spreadable, Edible, and Incredible Coral Reefs! Carrie Dixon Discovery Hall Programs Dauphin Island Sea Lab, AL Photo: CEDixon National Science Content Standards Life Science Content Standard, Grades K-4:
28 2 Groups of Arthropods 1 of 42 28 2 Groups of Arthropods Arthropods are classified based on the number and structure of their body segments and appendages particularly their mouthparts. The three major
Overview of Invertebrates General Features of Animals Heterotrophic Multicellular (eukaryotic) Cells lack rigid cell walls Cells are usually quite flexible. Cells (except sponges) are organized into structural
Louisiana Shells Focus/Overview: In this 3 part activity, students will learn about shells and mollusks, specific Louisiana mollusks, and classify different mollusk shells. Learning Objectives: The Students
Topic 7: Animal Diversity Ch. 32-34 Characteristics of Animals pp.704-705 Animals: Are eukaryotic Are multicellular Are ingestive heterotrophs Have no cell walls Most are motile Most have tissues organized
Chapter 25 Animals: The Invertebrates I. Overview of the Animal Kingdom A. General Characteristics of Animals 1. Animals are (diploid) with tissues arranged into organs and organ systems. 2. Animals are.
Chapter 12 Marine Fishes Marine Protochordates Phylum: Chordata (nerve cord) Subphylum: Protochordata first chordates/primitive Primitive species of marine vertebrates Do not have advanced features (backbone)
BIOLOGY BOB GOES TO THE BEACH Presented at the 16 th Annual Literacy Symposium University of Central Florida April 11, 2014 Orlando, FL Robert M. Everett, Ph.D. University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida
Giant Atlan)c Cockle Can live in shallow water up to 30 meters (100 feet) deep. Have a muscular foot to burrow into sand. Both halves are the same size and shape ( equivalves ). Can be eaten in chowder.
Echinoderms Phylum Echinodermata spiny skinned or hedgehog skin sea stars (starfish), sea urchins, sea cucumbers 6000 species radial symmetry in 2 o development bilateral symmetry in larva http://www.biologyreference.com/dn-ep/echinoderm.html
Chapter 30 Nonvertebrate Chordates, Fishes, and Amphibians Name Lab Dissecting a Perch Background Information Fish are the largest group of vertebrates found in fresh and salt water. In fact, over 25,000
Kingdom Animalia: Phylum Characteristics Types of Body Symmetry Radial body parts are symmetrical around a central point (like a pie) Bilateral right and left sides are alike and roughly equally proportional
Name Block FISH ANATOMY DIAGRAM AND QUESTIONS External: 1. What percentage of fish are bony fish? 2. What is the operculum s function? 3. The nostrils are used for, not. 4. Which fins keeps the fish level
Dead Perch Parts Fish Anatomy Adapted from: An original Creek Connections activity created from the Fish Anatomy model. Grade Level: Intermediate or advanced Duration: 30 minutes Setting: classroom Summary:
Kelp Forest Conservation Food web activity Activity Steps Cut out the kelp forest food web organisms cards. Have students form small groups. Pass out one food web organism and to each group. Using a blank
Lobsters, Crab and Shrimp Crustaceans Phylum: Arthropoda ( jointed feet ) Invertebrate Exoskeleton (made of chitin) protects body and provides a place for muscles to attach to. Segmented body Jointed appendages
Chapter 34A: The Origin & Evolution of Vertebrates I 1. Overview of the Chordates 2. Invertebrate Chordates 1. Overview of Chordates Echinodermata ANCESTRAL DEUTEROSTOME NOTOCHORD Common ancestor of chordates
CHAPTER 15 3 Arthropods SECTION Invertebrates BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the four main characteristics of arthropods? What are two
Chapter 34A: The Origin & Evolution of Vertebrates I 1. Overview of the Chordates 2. Invertebrate Chordates 1. Overview of Chordates Echinodermata Phylogeny of ANCESTRAL DEUTEROSTOME NOTOCHORD Common ancestor
I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A n i m a l s What is an Animal? Taxonomy: Kingdom Animalia Type of Cells: Eukaryotic Cellular Organization: Multicellular Reproduction: Sexual / Asexual Feeding: Heterotrophic
Respiration Chapter 33 Learning Objectives: Understand the basis of gas exchange and factors that influence diffusion of gases in and out of tissues Compare and contrast different respiratory systems among
1 of 47 What Is a Cnidarian? What is a cnidarian? 2 of 47 What Is a Cnidarian? What Is a Cnidarian? Cnidarians are soft-bodied, carnivorous animals that have stinging tentacles arranged in circles around
Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42 Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body Diffusion is only efficient over small distances In small and/or thin animals, cells can
UNIFYING CONCEPTS OF ANIMAL CIRCULATION Every organism must exchange materials with its environment, relying upon diffusion, the spontaneous movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to
Winter 08 1 of 10 GAS EXCHANGE & CIRCULATION CHAPTER 42 (867 891) MOVEMENT OF GASES Both O 2 and CO 2 move by The movement down a If a gas produced in one location, it diffuses away But diffusion is usually
Animal Warm-Ups 7 Weeks THURSDAY WARM UP Week 1 Using your Animals Booklet Week 1 page 23, list the 10 structures animals use to obtain resources for energy. Using the animals booklet 1 page 23 list the
Over the next few weeks, we will be learning all about the Coral Reef Ecosystems that surround much of the Australian coastline. You will need to complete the tasks set out below and hand them in at the
Perch Circulatory System By: Maddy Kelley Organs involved in the circulatory system Two chambered heart: the simplest type of a true heart. Is a two chambered organ composed of one ventricle and one atrium.
Early Vertebrates Readings in Chapter 2, 3, and 7. Using the Tree of Life Web Project www.tolweb.org org A project to put the entire tree of life, a phylogeny of all life, on the web. Biologists world-wide
Exploring Tide Pools A Reading A Z Level R Leveled Reader Word Count: 1,617 LEVELED READER R Exploring Tide Pools Written by Trica Oshant Hawkins Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.
Arthropods, Echinoderms, and Chordates Bi 10 10/22/2013 Revised Schedule Friday, Nov. 22: Chapter 17, Part 2 Chapter 15, 16 Reading Quiz Due Wednesday, Nov. 27: Special Lecture: Review + World s Weirdest
Lab Exercise Kingdom Animalia Objectives - Be able to recognize and name the major groups of animals - Be able to identify key characteristics that separate animal taxa - Be able to use a dichotomous key
Lesson 10: Oyster Reefs and Their Inhabitants Focus Question: What animals use oyster reefs for habitats? Objective: observe properties of animals found within a bag of oysters; Infer about the quality
Chapter 6: Small Marine Animals Zooplankton DO NOW: What is an animal?(p141) 1. What is an animal? (Uni/multicellular? Auto/heterotrophic?) 2. How many species of animals are there on Earth? 3. How many
VideoMedia Spotlight West African Lungfish A living fossil s biological and behavioral adaptations For the complete video with media resources, visit: http://education.nationalgeographic.org/media/west-african-lungfish/
Martha - Porifera: 1) Which of the following is NOT a class in the phylum Porifera: a) Aschelminthes b) Hexactinellida c) Calcareous d) Demosponges 2) What can sponges NOT be used for: a) Arts b) Bathing
Fishes and Amphibians Objectives List the four common body parts of chordates. Describe the two main characteristics of vertebrates. Explain the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm. Describe
Most diverse group of animals Over 1 million spp. Single Phylum (Arthropoda) 3 large subphyla Chelicerata (spiders, scorpions, ticks) Crustacea (crabs, shrimp, lobsters) Hexapoda (insects) Fig. 19.1 Defining
Phylum Chordata (Focus will be on Subphylum Vertebrata) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata - All members have three basic characteristics: 1) a hollow dorsal nerve cord, - spinal cord has small fluid fill
Topic 19: OXYGEN UPTAKE AND TRANSPORT (lectures 29-30) OBJECTIVES: 1. Be able to compare air vs. water as a respiratory medium with respect to oxygen content, diffusion coefficient, viscosity and water
GASEOUS EXCHANGE 17 JULY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we: Discuss what is gaseous exchange? Consider requirements of an efficient gaseous exchange surface. Look at diversity in gas exchange systems.
Aquarium entrance stamp here Bio 11 - ZOOLOGY Instructor: K. Villatoro Student s Name: CLASSIFICATION OF KINGDOM ANIMALIA WELCOME TO THE CABRILLO MARINE AQUARIUM! This site was chosen because it exhibits
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.