GERM CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN FISH

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1 Next Step to a Greener Earth JUNBA2009 Technology Fair Session B-2: Bio Tech. Jan 13, 09 GERM CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN FISH Mitsuru IZUMI Executive Director for Research Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology

2 Fish in the world Rapid expansion of fish consumption from 30 million ton (1993) to 100 million ton(2003) in the world Overharvesting Abnormal weather over the earth Valid for health (no BSE, no bird flu) Wiped out at 2048! Boris Worm et al, Science, 3 Nov Food security is an urgent matter Marine Farming is proposed!

3 Creation of innovation with a fusion of fisheries and engineering technologies Task 1 Seed production system with surrogate broodstock technology Bear a big fish from a small fish Research Period : Task 3 Offshore aquaculture system using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Marine Farm with a Biointeractive robot Task 2 Onshore aquaculture system with advanced engineering technology Controlled closed system Fund : Japan Science and Technology Agency

4 Aquaculture without net The stable supply of a safe fish Science of Fisheries Embryology Aquaculture Immunology Ethology Fusion of Fisheries & Engineering Engineering Robotics Energy Fluidics Materials Seawater processing PROJECT 1 Surrogate fish spawning system. PROJECT 2 Innovative aquaculture system. The closed circuit type culture system donor germ cell Small proxy fish lays a large-sized fish! The fry of the donor origin BioInteractive AUV The most suitable environmental control PROJECT 3

5 Task 1:Seed 1 production system with surrogate broodstock technology Possible to bear a big fish from a small fish A small fish is easy to breed early to become a spawning age Tuna 7 or 8 years Mackerel only half a year A small fish is easy to raise Enable to raise fish in the small onshore raising facility Work up to now : We succeeded to get rainbow trout from surrogate yamame by using the germ cell of rainbow trout. --Goro Yoshizaki et al., Nature,, No.430, pp (2004)--

6 Leading Tech.:Seed production system with surrogate broodstock technology Young Tuna (Donor) Primordial germ cell or Spermatogonium Transplantation in Mackerel Tuna sperm derived from donor Mackerel Tuna egg derived from donor Fry fish derived from donor

7 Germ Cell Transplantation in Fish Goro Yoshizaki Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology,, SORST/JST

8 Tuna Mackerel Body weight 300 kg 300 g Body length 300 cm 30 cm

9 Aquaculture of tuna *Conventional aquaculture is capture-base base Maintain adult tuna in cages kg kg

10 Production of bluefin tuna using mackerel as surrogated broodstock Egg taking in small tanks *save a lot of space, labor,, and cost

11 Procedure of Gonogenesis Primordial Germ Cell oogonia oocyte egg spermatogonia spermatocyte sperm

12 Surrogate Broodstock Technology Tuna larva Primordial germ cell Male Female recipient Tuna sperm Tuna egg

13 How can we transplant Primordial Germ Cells into recipients? trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) salmon (Oncorhynchus masou)

14 PGCs Transplantation into the Peritoneal Cavity of Hatched Embryos Incorporated Emission of light gene recipient (newly hatched salmon) trout PGCs 10 PGCs /embryo Micropipette

15 Male Female Transplanted primordial germ cells proliferated and started meiosis in gonads of recipients

16 Rainbow trout juveniles produced by surrogated masu salmon Nature (2004) Donor-derived offspring from inter-species germ-cell transplantation were successfully produced.

17 Making salmon that produces only trout gametes

18 2N 3N Employ a Sterile Triploid (3N) recipient salmon 2N vasa-gfp trout 2N 3N 3N salmon Only 2N donor GC grows up!

19 recipients Donor sperm Donor egg Going to the production of bluefin tuna using mackerel as surrogated broodstock!

20 Outcome No Genetically modification We can discharge them into the environment.

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