1 Selection from an Interspecific Hybrid Population of Two Strains of Fast Growing and Salinity Tolerant Tilapia Westly Rosario, Bernard Chevassus-Au-Louis, Pierre Morissens, Nerafe Muyalde, Angelito Dela Cruz, Cyril Georget, Jean-Paul Poivey and Efren de Vera Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources NATIONAL INTEGRATED FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CENTER Bonuan Binloc, Dagupan City
2 Background 1. Many tilapia species and H1 hybrids had been tested in saline environments in the 80 s and 90 s: - West African coastal lakes (CIRAD). - Jamaica (Watanabe) - Kenya and Persian Gulf (Sterling University) etc! mainly leading to failure 2. In 1991, Dr. B. Chevassus suggested to investigate the possibility to associate hybridization (to create wide pools of genes) and selection. - To validate this approach, successful attempts were conducted to produce an intergeneric highly saline-tolerant hybrid (O.niloticus x S.melanotheron). On the other hand, a study was conducted to check if genes in tilapia hybrid populations were associating and combining as they do in a pure species (Bezault et. al., CIRAD, ).
3 Background It was found out that In intergeneric tilapia hybrids (S. melanotheron x O. niloticus), the genes of the two species are associating and combining as they would in the progeny of pure species (Bezault, 2000). Unlike most animal and plant inter-specific hybrids, tilapia hybrids are fertile. This finding allows the selection from an interspecific hybrid population (synthetic strains) showing an association of characters one would not find in a pure species.
4 Why grow tilapia in saline environment? Saline tilapia can optimize production in more than 200T has of brackishwater ponds in the Philippines. The demand for saline tilapia could be huge considering the area of brackishwater fishponds in the country. The prospect of producing large tilapia for fillet business will prosper with the use of BW tilapia. The problem on high cost of tilapia feeds can be addressed by the production of the NIFTDC saline tilapia - Molobicus (extensive) hybrid. The culture of tilapia in saline environment could discourage conversion of areas otherwise used for rice and crop production.
5 Why MOLOBICUS? Two tilapia species are used in the MOLOBICUS program: O. mossambicus O. niloticus What is it? How? MOLOBICUS The program aims to produce a new strain of tilapia that grows fast in high saline environment. By hybridization and selection.
6 Phase 1 Phase 2 Rotational Backcrossing Scheme to Develop Saline Tolerant Hybrids Rotational Crossing Scheme to Preserve Genetic Variability MoNi NiMo NiMo MoNi MoNi NiMo
7 Phase 1 Families Produced ( ) O. niloticus O. mossambicus H2 : 6 families, 27 sub-families H1 H1 (F1) NiMo H1D, H1E, H1F H1 (F1) MoNi H1A, H1B, H1C M0 H2 H2 NiMo H2A, H2B, H2C H2 MoNi H2D, H2E, H2F M1 H3 : 6 families, 58 sub-families H3 Legend: Father Mother H3 NiMo H3D, H3E, H3F H3 MoNi H3A, H3B, H3C M2
8 SHORT TERM SALINITY TEST Aim: Determine the salinity resistance of the successive hybrid generations using O. niloticus and O. mossambicus as reference species. Why evaluate the salinity resistance of each hybrid generation? To determine which hybrid generation would be used in Phase 2 : Growth Selection Program Several short term tests were tried: Direct transfer to saline environment, from 20 to 35 ppt during 96 hours (Watanabe protocol), to determine the most segregating salinity. Subject fish to daily increase of salinity (6ppt and 3ppt), following the Lemarie protocol.
9 Protocol: SHORT TERM SALINITY TEST (6 ppt and 3 ppt daily increase) 10 fish per aquarium, 4 replicates and 1 control (FW) for each strain Fish were fed twice daily Water temperature, DO and salinity were checked daily Increased salinity daily (6 ppt and 3 ppt) Salinity (ppt) Salinity level in the aquaria Test with a 6 ppt step Test with a 3 ppt step Days
10 Protocol: SHORT TERM SALINITY TEST (6 ppt and 3 ppt daily increase) Recorded mortalities daily Evaluated salinity resistance by calculating the LS-50 Species O. mossambicus O. niloticus H2 MoNi H2 NiMo H3 MoNi H3 NiMo R1 R2 R3 R4 R1 R2 R3 R4 R1 R2 R3 R4 R1 R2 R3 R4 R1 R2 R3 R4 R1 R2 R3 R4 d ppt A C C L I M A T I O N 16 6 ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt ppt TOTAL y = -0,2857x + 31,286 H3 NiMo R3 R 2 = 0, Nb of fishes alive Salinity
11 6ppt step SHORT TERM SALINITY TEST (6 ppt and 3 ppt daily increase) Salinity (ppt) LS 50% obtained with the 6 ppt salinity test 0 H3 MONI H2 MONI H2 NIMO O. moss H3 NIMO O. nilo Results: The hybrids had a salinity resistance significantly higher than O. niloticus. No significant differences could be found between the hybrids, and between the hybrids and O. mossambicus. Conclusion: The test failed to segregate the tolerance characteristics of the hybrids Therefore, another test with a 3ppt daily increase of salinity was conducted.
12 3ppt step SHORT TERM SALINITY TEST (6 ppt and 3 ppt daily increase) LS 50% obtained with the 3 ppt salinity test Salinity (ppt) H3 NIMO O. moss H3 MONI H2 MONI H2 NIMO O. nilo Results The hybrids had a salinity resistance significantly higher than O. niloticus. No significant differences between the hybrids, and between the hybrids and O. mossambicus Conclusions The test at 3 ppt was more segregating than the 6 ppt test H3 seemed to have slightly higher resistance to salinity than H2 Males and females had no significant difference with regards to resistance to salinity No significant heterosis effect appeared in the hybrids
13 3ppt step SHORT TERM SALINITY TEST (6 ppt and 3 ppt daily increase) Comparison of resistance to salinity between males and females Dead fish were sexed starting at 87 ppt Criteria to choose replicates used for the analysis: - 70% of the fish still alive at 87 ppt; at least 2 fish for each sex Result : No significant differences (p-value: 0.74) (1-factor ANOVA) O. niloticus O. mossambicus H2 MoNi H2 NiMo H3 MoNi H3 NiMo Nombre of de replicates réplicats used utilisés Check for an eventual heterosis effect H2 MoNi H2 NiMo H3 MoNi H3 NiMo Theoretical LS 50% Observed LS 50% 99.7 ± ± ± ±17.6 p-value Result: No significant heterosis effect 0.175
14 SHORT TERM SALINITY TEST (6 ppt and 3 ppt daily increase) Discussion about the methodology The test was proven to be simple and economical in terms of number of fish, facilities and manpower. The test at 3 ppt increase was proven to be more segregating than the test at 6 ppt. Therefore, the accuracy of the test could be improved by reducing the salinity daily increment. Maybe better results could be derived when daily increase of 1 to 2 ppt is adopted.
15 Aim: LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Compare and evaluate the growth performance and the resistance to salinity of the hybrids in true farming conditions.
16 Protocol: LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Stocking density : 1 fish/m² tagged fish (250 each of O. niloticus, O. mossambicus, H2 NiMo, H2 MoNi, H3 NiMo, H3 MoNi). Rearing was conducted in a brackishwater pond under real farming conditions. Salinity started at 26 ppt (16 days) up to 35 ppt (104 days). Feeding management was ad libitum with 29% CP commercial feeds given 3 times daily. Pond was harvested after 120 days. Mortalities and the growth were analyzed.
17 LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Mortalities Resistance to salinity 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% H2 MoNi H2 NiMo H3 MoNi H3 NiMo O moss O nilo Results: H2 generation showed the least mortality than H3 and O. mos Hybrids (H2 and H3 generations) were least affected by lesions
18 Growth Comparison LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Male Female Results: Males and females of the hybrids were significantly better than O. mos No significant difference was found between the hybrids and O. nil
19 Growth Comparison LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Results: Relative difference in growth of O. nil males and females was lower than in the hybrids Growth of hybrids were significantly better than O. mos (both males and females)
20 LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Highlight of a possible maternal effect on the W/L 3 ratio Results: Negative maternal effect from O. mos The hybrids MoNi have a smaller W/L 3 ratio than the hybrids NiMo Since consumers prefer short and deep fish, NiMo hybrids could have a slight advantage over the other hybrids No significant difference was found between the hybrids on growth performance However, it seemed NiMo hybrids grew faster and had a better W/L 3 ratio than the MoNi hybrids
21 LONG TERM SALINITY TEST CONCLUSIONS The results show that the hybrids have reached a resistance to salinity high enough under common culture condition. There is no significant difference in growth between the hybrids and O. niloticus. NiMo hybrids seem to grow slightly faster and have a bigger W/L 3 ratio than MoNi hybrids.
22 LONG TERM SALINITY TEST CONCLUSIONS Salinity No significant difference found between hybrids. H3 hybrids seem to have a slightly better resistance to salinity than the H2 hybrids. H2 and H3 hybrids seem to have reached resistance to salinity, high enough to begin the selection phase. Growth No significant difference on growth found between the hybrids. NiMo hybrids seem to grow faster and attain a better W/L 3 ratio than MoNi hybrids.
23 LONG TERM SALINITY TEST CONCLUSIONS Choice of a hybrid generation for selection Considering the following factors: a. salinity tolerance b. growth performance c. percentage of O. niloticus genome in the hybrids H2-25% of O. niloticus genome H3-12.5% of O. niloticus genome H2 generation was chosen for the growth selection phase of the MOLOBICUS program.
24 Phase 2 Rotational Crossing (ON-GOING)
25 Phase 2 Within Families Selection P (phenotype( phenotype) ) = A (additive value) + E (environment effects) Growth heritability (h)²=av/pv=0.40"selection should be efficient Advantages: Simple and efficient (10% increase on growth per generation expected considering the high heritability) Not expensive Most important : Selection process can be decentralized to private hatcheries
26 Phase 2 Molobicus Selection Phase Protocol Selection in brackishwater (passive selection on salinity tolerance) 2 selection environments : Intensive (tanks) and Extensive (ponds) in order to produce 2 different strains Wide genetic base : 100 families (50 fish per family) Selection criterion : Weight at 5 months (active selection on growth criterion) 2 generations per year (5 months cycle) Rotational crossing to limit inbreeding effects
27 Phase 2 Molobicus Selection Phase Selection in two environments : 2 different strains Stocking density Area No. of fish Feeding management EXTENSIVE 0.3 fish/m2 225m2 67 (50 Mol & 17 rt) Natural Food (no feeding) INTENSIVE 7.5 fish/m2 9m2 67 (50 Mol & 17 rt) Commercial feeds (ad libitum) Aim of selection in extensive : Selection of a fast growing tilapia strain specifically adapted to extensive BW farming. Aim of selection in intensive: Selection of a fast growing tilapia strain adapted to intensive farming in a saline environment.
28 Phase 2 Extensive Rearing (in Ponds) Acclimatization Nursing Grow-out out 1 st sampling Harvesting : Selection of the best breeders (5 f & 3 m) Time (days( days) 300 larvae Random selection 50 fingerlings (0.3/m²) Rotifers Pond natural production (plankton( plankton, macroalgae) Predator: Seabass (1:10)
29 Phase 2 Intensive Rearing (in Tanks) Acclimatization Nursing Grow-out out Harvesting : Selection of the best breeders (5 f & 3 m) Time (days( days) 300 larvae Random selection 50 fingerlings (7.5/m²)
30 Phase 2 Calculation of Genetic Gain Why? - To know the genetic value of selected product. - To evaluate the genetic progress How? (Various possibilities) - Breeders sperm preservation - Conservation of unselected molobicus strain line - Use of the internal control technique.
31 Phase 2 Concept of the Internal Control The control fish (non-selected Red Tilapia ) is a way to estimate the gain on the hybrids through successive generations. 17 Red Tilapia are mixed and reared with every group of 50 molobicus siblings in each environment. Internal control could remove environmental effects in statistical analyses.
32 Phase 2 Comparison of Salinity Tolerance of Red Taiwan, Red Florida, O. mossambicus and MOLOBICUS in Aquaria Fish alive Red Taiwan Red Florida O mossambicus Molobicus Salinity 3 ppt daily increase of salinity (Lemarie protocol)
33 The Database : Aims: To encode data related to the creation of families and the selection phase (more than 50,000 fish will be sampled) To have an interactive and useful tool which can provide us with data sheets about generations, families, feeding, breeders Data are exportable to statistical software for further analysis THE
36 Thank You
40 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors wish to thank the following for making this work possible: The Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development (PCAMRD) for the logistic support; the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) for the provision of experimental facilities; Dr. Bernard Chevassus for the scientific advise on genetics; Dr. Jerome Lazard for helpful advise; Mr. Cyril Georget for helping in the statistical analysis of the data and CIRAD for providing assistance in the implementation of the Molobicus program. Mabuhay!
41 FUTURE Additional experiments will be conducted prior to the start of the MOLOBICUS program phase II: Experiment on the growth performance of hybrids in brackish and freshwater to: - validate initial results - check for an eventual heterosis effect. Experiment on the maturation and fecundity of hybrids in brackish and freshwater. THEN, the H2 generation will be chosen for the growth selection process. This will allow full expression of growth potential (contributed by O. niloticus genome) in the hybrids.
42 Conclusion and Prospects Advantage A tilapia produced at low cost offers great development prospects for both export and local market. Practically, today, BW Tilapia could become some form of low cost by-product of the prawn industry THE
44 Phase 2 Computing the genetic gain : Inclusion of an internal control
45 Analysis of the lost tags LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Hypothesis : for each type of hybrid and for O. mossambicus, the number of unidentified dead fish is proportional to the number of identified dead fish O. niloticus O. mossambicus H2 MoNi H2 NiMo H3 MoNi H3 NiMo Total Number of tagged fish alive at harvest Number of tagged fish found dead during the test Number of fish found dead during the test with lost tag Number of fish alive harvested with lost tag , ,00 152,00 148, *** 4 * 2 * 3 * 5 * 3 * 17 0 *** 77 ** 98 ** 36 ** 20 ** 58 ** 289 Number of fish missing 72 ** 37 * 15 * 26 * 50 * 28 * 228 Total * Estimated number related to the percentage of observed mortalities ** Estimation (data s deducted from other data s) *** The O. niloticus could be identified without tag
46 Check for the Hypothesis LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Males Females Theoretical mean weight of the lost tags g ± 7.0 g * 82.5 g ± 6.5 g * Observed mean weight of the lost tags g 84.4 g * Confidence intervals at 5% risk
47 LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Influence of the lost tags on the growth estimation Confidence intervals of the mean initial and final weight and of the total growths O. niloticus O. mossambicus H2 MoNi H2 NiMo H3 MoNi H3 NiMo Sex m f m f m f m f m f m f Width of the confidence interval of the initial weight at 5% risk (g) Width of the confidence interval of the final weight at 5% risk (g) Width of the total confidence interval of the growth at 5% risk (g) The results on the growths are valid only for the fish alive and identified at the end of the test.
48 Croissance Total totale growth (g) (g) LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Total growth and confidence interval at 5% risk Males Females Femelles ci 0 O Nilo O Moss H2 MoNi H2 NiMo H3 MoNi H3 NiMo
49 HETEROSIS EFFECT ON THE GROWTH The evaluation of the heterosis on the growth was not calculated since: Between the salinities of 26 to 35 ppt, O. niloticus failed to show normal growth performance and therefore cannot be used as reference. With mortalities between 10 to 30% for the hybrids and O. mossambicus and 75% for O. niloticus, the confidence intervals on growth jeopardize the comparison between the observed weight and the theoretic weight used in the calculation of heterosis effect. In addition, it was assessed that the ability to live in salt water depends on the individual weight (Chervinski, 1982 in Lemarié 2001). Lost tags and missing fish aggravate the impact of mortalities on confidence intervals.
50 GROWTH MODEL FITTING Growth = Type of hybrid + Sex + Type:Sex Analysis of Variance Table Response: sqrt(weight) Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F) type < 2.2e-16 *** sex < 2.2e-16 *** type:sex e-06 *** Residuals Signif. codes: 0 `***' `**' 0.01 `*' 0.05 `.' 0.1 ` '
51 SHORT TERM SALINITY TEST Calculation of the salinity at which 50% of fish died (LS 50%) y = -0,2857x + 31,286 R 2 = 0,9057 H3 NiMo R3 10 Nb of fishes alive , Salinity
52 Growth Comparison Model: LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Growth = Type of hybrid + Sex + Type:Sex Results: Relative difference in growth of O. nil males and females was lower than in the hybrids Growth of hybrids were significantly better than O. mos (both males and females)
53 Analysis of the Lost Tags Check for the Hypothesis HETEROSIS EFFECT ON THE GROWTH GROWTH MODEL FITTING ADDITIONAL INFORMATIONS LONG TERM SALINITY TEST Influence of the lost tags on the growth estimation CALCULATION OF THE SALINITY AT WHICH 50% OF FISH DIED (LS 50%)
54 Present salinity + 2 x the gap Present salinity 9 ppt Bukas dapat 12 ppt Solution : 9 + (2 x 3) = 15 ppt
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