What do animals do to survive?

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2 What do animals do to survive? Section 26-1 All Animals have are carry out Eukaryotic cells with Heterotrophs Essential functions such as No cell walls Feeding Respiration Circulation Excretion Response Movement Reproduction

3 Invertebrate feeding and digestion Invertebrates can either have intracellular or extracellular digestion: Intracellular meaning that food is digested within each individual cell of the organism. Animals without a digestive tract. Examples: Sponges (can excrete extracellular enzymes) Extracellular means that digestion occurs in a digestive tract and the digested material is moved across the membrane into the cell. Animals with a digestive tract. Examples: mollusks, worms, arthropods, echinoderms

4 Invertebrate Digestive Systems Section 29-2 Label these diagrams on your notes: Intestine Mouth/anus Gastrovascular cavity Annelid Gizzard Crop Pharynx Mouth Anus Gastrovascular cavity Cnidarian Pharynx Crop Arthropod Anus Pharynx Mouth/anus Flatworm Mouth Stomach and digestive glands Rectum Intestine

5 Vertebrate Digestive Systems The digestive systems of many vertebrates have organs that are well adapted for different feeding habits. Carnivores, such as sharks have short digestive tracts that produce fast-acting digestive enzymes. Herbivores have long intestines that have large colonies of bacteria that help in digesting the cellulose fibers in plant tissues.

6 The Digestive Systems of Vertebrates Label these diagrams on your notes with liver, intestine, stomach and esophagus: Esophagus Stomach Intestine Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Cloaca Crop Gizzard Cecum Rectum Shark Salamander Lizard Pigeon Cow

7 Respiration in animals Aquatic invertebrates Aquatic animals have natural moist respiratory surfaces, and some respire through diffusion through their skin and others use gills. Terrestrial Invertebrates There are many different respiratory specialized organs in terrestrial invertebrates. Spiders use parallel book lungs Insects use openings called spiracles where air enters the body and passes through a network of tracheal tubes for gas exchange Snails have a mantel cavity that is lined with moist tissue and an extensive surface area of blood vessels.

8 Invertebrate Section 29-2 Respiratory Systems Label these diagrams on your notes: Gill Siphons Tracheal tubes Mollusk Movement of water Insect Spiracles Airflow Spider Book lung

9 Vertebrate respiratory systems Chordates have one of two basic structures for respiration: Gills for aquatic chordates Example: tunicates, fish and amphibians Lungs - for terrestrial chordates Examples: adult amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

10 Aquatic Gills Water flows through the mouth then over the gills where oxygen is removed Section 33-3 Carbon dioxide and water are then pumped out through the operculum Vertebrate Lungs Nostrils, mouth, and throat Trachea Lung Air sac Salamander Lizard Primate Pigeon

11 Invertebrate Circulatory systems Invertebrate circulatory system can range from a system where cells simply do diffusion to take in oxygen or systems with many hearts and even systems with one heart. Open circulatory systems Blood is pumped through a system of vessels BUT is only partially contained in these vessels. Most of the time the blood is pumped through open cavities. This system is beneficial to arthropods and mollusks because the blood comes into direct contact organs and tissues. Closed circulatory systems A closed system forces blood through vessels that extend throughout the body of the organism. Since the system is closed the blood never leaves the vessels. This system is beneficial to larger organisms because the blood is kept at a higher pressure which allows for more efficient circulation within the organism.

12 Section 29-2 Invertebrate Circulatory Systems Label the diagrams of the organisms only on your notes: Hearts Heartlike structure Small vessels in tissues Blood vessels Heart Sinuses and organs Insect: Open Circulatory System Heartlike structures Annelid: Closed Circulatory System Blood vessels

13 Vertebrate circulatory systems Chordate circulatory systems range from a single loop system (found in organisms with gills) to double loop systems. Label the heart, atria and ventricles only. Double-Loop Circulatory System Single-Loop Circulatory System FISHES MOST REPTILES CROCODILIANS, BIRDS, AND MAMMALS

14 Aquatic Invertebrate excretion Some aquatic invertebrates simply diffuse ammonia out their bodies into the surrounding water where it is diluted and carried away. Example: sponges, cnidarians, and some round worms. Other aquatic invertebrates swell up with water, dilute the wastes and excrete the wastes through tiny pores in their skin. Terrestrial Invertebrate excretion Many terrestrial invertebrates convert ammonia into urea. Urea is a simpler nitrogenous compound that is much less toxic than ammonia. This urea is eliminated from the body in urine

15 Section 29-2 Invertebrate Excretory Systems Label what s in red Excretory tubules Nephrostome Flame cells Flatworm Excretory pore Flame cell Excretory tubule Nephridia Digestive tract Annelid Arthropod Malpighian tubules

16 Vertebrate Excretion Label diagram: Aquatic vertebrates kidneys and rely on gill slits to release excretory wastes into surrounding water for dilution. Terrestrial vertebrates rely on the kidney s to filter out the ammonia and change it into urea and send it to be released in urine.

17 Nervous system All animals respond to their environment through specialized cells called nerve cells. In most animals nerve cells hook together to form the nervous system. Nervous systems can range from fairly simple to extremely complex. The arrangement of nerve cells from phylum to phylum can be dramatically different.

18 Section 29-2 Invertebrate Nervous Systems Label what is in red: Brain Arthropod Vertebrate Nervous Systems Ganglia Ganglia Brain Flatworm Mollusk

19 Now, go back and read through your notes (yes, everything). Make sure you understand them. Look at the images you labeled. Compare and contrast them to identify similarities and differences.

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