Phylum Chordata (Focus will be on Subphylum Vertebrata) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata

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1 Phylum Chordata (Focus will be on Subphylum Vertebrata) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata - All members have three basic characteristics: 1) a hollow dorsal nerve cord, - spinal cord has small fluid fill canal running through the middle of it. 2) a notochord A dorsal supporting rod which is eventually replaced by vertebrae. 3) pharyngeal (throat) gill slits/pouches at some point in their development. (many vertebrates only exhibit this characteristic in embryonic stage) LANCELET above (Rare Invertebrate Chordate)

2 - Very few chordates are invertebrates, the majority of chordates are vertebrates (have backbones). - These animals are classified into a subphylum called Vertebrata. - Within this subphylum, vertebrates have been further classified into several main classes. 1) Class Agnatha (Without Jaws) Example: Two families - Lampreys and Hagfish - No paired fins, no scales and no jaws.

3 - Hagfish are scavengers. - Many lampreys are parasitic and use a sucking disk to attach to host fish. Lake Trout - Skeleton of cartilage (firm, flexible tissue, not as hard as bone). Lack true backbones when they reach adulthood. - Use gills for respiration - Heart with a single ventricle. 2) Class Chondrichthyes (Cartilage Fish): Example: Sharks, rays, skates - Have a cartilaginous endoskeleton. - Adapted to possess jaws, fins, and scales

4 3) Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish): Example: Perch, trout, salmon (almost any fish you can think of ) - The bony fish (skeleton of bone) make up 40% of all vertebrates. - Swim bladder (fills with gas to maintain depth) - Also possess jaws, fins, and scales - Heart with single ventricle.

5 4) Class Amphibia (Combining Life Forms): Example: Frog, toad, salamander, newts - Smallest of all classes, only 4000 species. - Aquatic as larvae, usually living in freshwater with the aid of gills. -Adults usually terrestrial and have inefficient lungs for respiration must get help in respiration from moist skin. - Eggs lack a shell, therefore dependant on water during reproduction. -No Claws or Scales. - 3 Chambered heart. Still a single ventricle, but now two atria, one of which can receive oxygenated blood from lungs. - Most use external fertilization.

6 5) Class Reptilia (Crawling): Example: Snake, Turtle, Lizard, Crocodiles - Use only lungs for respiration. - Scaly skin and claws usually present. - Almost all use Internal fertilization. - Usually possess eggs with leathery shell, allowing them to live their entire life outside of water. - Heart may have 3 or 4 chambers. Heart with 1 or 2 ventricles, depending on species. - Much better adapted for living on land than amphibians. 6) Class Aves (Aviation): Example: Birds - Warm-blooded (Endothermic) Have mechanisms to generate body heat allowing them to maintain a constant body temperature independent of the environmental temperature. - Reptile-like endothermic animals that have an outer covering of feathers modified from scales.

7 - Front limbs usually modified as wings, back limbs used for walking and perching. - Use internal fertilization - 4-chambered heart. Heart with 2 ventricles, completely separated by an interventricular septum. - Hard shelled egg. 7) Class Mammalia: Example: Rats, Bats, Kangaroos, Pigs, Humans -Scales modified to form hair -Females have mammary glands for the secretion of milk. -Warm-blooded (Endothermic) Most exhibit live birth (Viviparous) -Four types of teeth (Incisors, Canines, Pre-Molars, and Molars) - 4 chambered heart with 2 ventricles

8 Major Orders of Mammals A) Non- Placental Mammals Description Order Name Example Egg Laying Monotremes Duckbill Platypus Pouched Marsupialia Opossum B) Placental Mammals * Don't Sweat this Order Information Below Just Check it out. Description Order Name Example Insect-eating Insectivora Shrew Flying Chiroptera Bat Toothless Endentata Sloth Gnawing Rodentia Rat Hare-like Lagomorpha Jackrabbit Marine Cetacea Dolphins Marine-Freshwater Sirenia Manatee Trunked Proboscidea Elephant Flesh-eating Carnivora Bear Odd-toed Hoofed Perissodactyla Horses Even-toed Hoofed Artiodactyla Sheep Erect Primates Apes

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