1 EXTINCTION RISK AND SPATIAL ECOLOGY OF SHARKS AND RAYS Nov. 21/2017 Lindsay
3 Biggest fish, shark, or ray in the WORLD! Whale shark 18 m 36 tonnes
4 Second biggest fish, shark, or ray in the WORLD! Basking Shark 9 m
5 Biggest But there ray are in more the world! Manta ray 8 m 3 tonnes
6 BIG SKATE
7 Thresher Shark
9 Goblin Shark
11 Smallest shark in the world Dwarf Laternshark 24 cm Painted electric ray 20 cm
13 VERSUS 450 million years 250 million years
14 FEEDING ECOLOGY
15 DIVERSE REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES
16 DIVERSE REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES Live bearing - viviparous Egg laying - oviparous
17 How do sharks and rays give birth? BIG SKATE
20 CLASS: CHONDRICHTHYAN
21 CLASS: CHONDRICHTHYAN Pee in meat Take oxygen through gills Vertebrate made of cartilage Skin is not scales, dermal denticles (like teeth) Shed their teeth Paired fins
22 TAKE HOME 1. What are the shared characterisitics of chondrichthyans 2. How many chondrichthyans are there 3. Why are chondrichthyans unique from other vertebrate groups?
23 TOPICS 1. Diverse morphology, feeding, and reproductive ecology of sharks 2. Ecological correlates of extinction risk 3. Spatial patterns of diversity 4. Using patterns of diversity to inform conservation
24 ENDANGERED SPECIES
25 EXTINCTION RISK IN THE SEA relatively few known marine species risk extinction Why would marine species be different?
26 EXTINCTION RISK IN THE SEA Range and depth buffers them from extinction marine fish are resilient to extinction risk as economic extinction will precede biological extinction Doesn t consider subsidies, ecological extinction, increase value with rarity and multispecies nature of fisheries
27 Regional population status Med. Sea Irish Sea 88% decline in hammerheads recorded in US longline fishery Baum, et al Ferretti et al Dulvy et al 2000
28 MANY SHARKS ARE THREATENED WITH ELEVATED EXTINCTION
29 MANY SHARKS ARE THREATENED WITH ELEVATED EXTINCTION 18% THREATENED 47% DATA DEFICIENT 35% LEAST CONCERN OR NEAR THREATENED Percent of sharks threatened with extinction risk n=1,083
30 EXTINCTIONS ARE NON-RANDOM Vulnerability Intrinsic Extrinsic of a species = characteristics + threatening to extinction pressures
31 INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS: BODY SIZE Purvis et al., 2000
32 INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS: GEOGRAPHIC RANGE SIZE
33 INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS: LIFE HISTORY
34 INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS: LIFE HISTORY Age of maturity: 20 to 40 years Gestation: 2 years Litter size: 2 11 pups Age of maturity: 7 years Gestation: 9-12 months Litter size: 25 to 50 pups
35 INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS: LIFE HISTORY Age of maturity: 20 to 40 years Gestation: 2 years Litter size: 2 11 pups Age of maturity: 7 years Gestation: 9-12 months Litter size: 25 to 50 pups
36 INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS: LIFE HISTORY Age of maturity: 20 to 40 years Gestation: 2 years Litter size: 2 11 pups Age of maturity: 7 years Gestation: 9-12 months Litter size: 25 to 50 pups
37 INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS: Body size Geographic range size Life history characteristics Depth
38 PREDICT THE EXTINCTION RISK OF DATA DEFICIENT SPECIES Build a model of predictors (body size etc) and predict whether a species is threatened or not Threatened Not Threatened BIOLOGICAL OR ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
40 RESULTS. Threatened Not Threatened Biological or Ecological characteristic
41 RESULTS. Threatened Not Threatened Biological or Ecological characteristic
43 Dwarf spotted wobbegong Abyssal skate
44 RESULTS. 25% THREATENED 75% LEAST CONCERN OR NEAR THREATENED Percent of sharks threatened with extinction risk 68 Data Deficient species are predicted to be threatened based on ecological and biological characteristics
47 Finding Priorities Legend FINS Proportion of Shark The_sum_of fin export as Percent of Total <1% 1-7 3% % % 28% 21-28
48 TAKE HOME MESSAGE What are intrinsic characteristics What are extrinsic threatening pressures? How does this relate to extinction risk?
49 TOPICS 1. Diverse morphology, feeding, and reproductive ecology of sharks 2. Ecological correlates of extinction risk 3. Spatial patterns of diversity 4. Using patterns of diversity to inform conservation
50 IS MARINE BIODIVERSITY DISTRIBUTED DIFFERENTLY?
51 IS MARINE BIODIVERSITY DISTRIBUTED DIFFERENTLY? Seasonal patterns in temperatures are much more pronounced in the terrestrial environment
52 IS MARINE BIODIVERSITY DISTRIBUTED DIFFERENTLY? 2 distinct realms in the marine environment (without equivalent in terrestrial environment)
53 IS MARINE BIODIVERSITY DISTRIBUTED DIFFERENTLY? Fluid nature of the ocean could means less limits to dispersal VS.
54 SPECIES RICHNESS GRADIENTS Global patterns and predictors of marine biodiversity across taxa
55 Global hotspots of species richness are not congruent with endemism or threat
56 Patterns of diversity and conservation implications Find the global patterns of shark and ray species richness Shark and ray endemic species Shark and ray evolutionarily distinct species
57 Where are species richness hotspots?
58 Where are species richness hotspots?
59 Where are species richness hotspots?
60 Where are species richness hotspots?
61 (1)Where are the global areas that should expand MPAs for imperilled biodiversity? (2)Where are the global areas for improved fisheries management and conservation to protect imperilled biodiversity?
62 Species richness, 1081 chondrichthyan species
63 Endemic chondrichthyan richness Range Area (log 10, km 2 )
64 Endemic chondrichthyan richness Range Area (log 10, km 2 )
65 Endemic chondrichthyan richness Median 595,749 km 2 n = 504 Range Area (log 10, km 2 )
66 ENDEMISM HOTSPOTS
67 EVOLUTIONARILY DISTINCT A phylogeny is a diagram showing how all the species in a particular taxonomic group are related to one another.
69 EVOLUTIONARILY DISTINCT HOTSPOTS
70 Unique hotspots, 49 countries species richness endemic top 25% ED species
71 TRIPLE HOTSPOTS endemic species richness top 25% ED species
72 TAKE HOME For coastal and continental species, species richness is higher at lower latitudes For pelagic species, species richness is higher at higher latitudes Processes that creation species richness, endemic, of evolutionarily distinct species are not necessarily same
73 TOPICS 1. Diverse morphology, feeding, and reproductive ecology of sharks 2. Ecological correlates of extinction risk 3. Spatial patterns of diversity 4. Using patterns of diversity to inform conservation
74 Global marine protected area goals Aichi Target 11: 10% of coastal oceans in MPAs by 2020
75 Global MPA area (million sq km) Lubchenco and Grorud-Colvert 2015 Progress towards the 10% goal
76 Global MPA area (million sq km) Lubchenco and Grorud-Colvert 2015 Progress towards the 10% goal % of global oceans protected
77 Global MPA area (million sq km) Lubchenco and Grorud-Colvert 2015 MPA coverage has grown by 1% in 5 years
79 Protect threatened species? Aichi Target 11: 10% of coastal oceans in MPAs by 2020 Aichi Target 12: Prevent the extinction of known threatened species
80 Protect threatened species? Aichi Target 11: 10% of coastal oceans in MPAs by 2020 Hitting the target but missing Aichi Target 12: the point? Prevent the extinction of known threatened species
81 Sharks & rays as a case study Dulvy et al. 2014
82 Sharks & rays as a case study Dulvy et al. 2014
83 Sharks & rays as a case study Dulvy et al. 2014
84 Sharks & rays as a case study Shark MPAs only Shark MPAs only
85 Sharks & rays as a case study All MPAs Shark MPAs only
86 1. Are threatened endemic sharks and rays in MPAs? 2. Where should MPAs be placed to protect threatened sharks and rays? 3. Are MPAs enough?
87 Methods: range maps from IUCN (1)Where are the global areas that should expand MPAs for imperilled biodiversity? (2)Where are the global areas for improved fisheries management and conservation to protect imperilled biodiversity? 1,007 marine chondrichthyans species maps
88 Endemic sharks and rays Range Area (log 10, km 2 )
89 Endemic sharks and rays Range Area (log 10, km 2 )
90 Endemic sharks and rays Median 595,749 km 2 n = 504 Range Area (log 10, km 2 )
91 99 threatened endemics 50 th percentile 595,749 km 2 n = 504 Range Area (log 10, km 2 )
92 Methods: 16,888 MPAs globally
93 Methods: 866 no-take (all or part)
94 1. Are threatened endemic sharks and rays in MPAs? 2. Where should MPAs be placed to protect imperiled sharks and rays? 3. Are MPAs alone enough?
95 Are threatened endemics in MPAs?
96 Are threatened endemics in MPAs?
97 Are threatened endemics in MPAs?
98 Are threatened endemics in MPAs?
99 Are threatened endemics in MPAs?
100 12 of 99 threatened endemics
101 1. Are threatened endemic sharks and rays in MPAs? 2. Where should MPAs be placed to protect imperiled sharks and rays? 3. Are MPAs alone enough?
102 Find the global areas with the biggest bang per conservation buck
103 Find the global areas with the biggest bang per conservation buck Myers et al 2000
104 1.4% of land surface, almost half of threatened plants Myers et al 2000
105 Where are hotspots of the 99 species?
106 Where are hotspots of the 99 species?
107 Where are hotspots of the 99 species?
108 Where are hotspots of the 99 species?
110 What countries are responsible for the hotspots?
111 12 countries harbour over half (53) of the 99 threatened endemics in only % of the world s coastal oceans
112 1. Are threatened endemic sharks and rays in MPAs? 2. Where should MPAs be placed to protect imperiled sharks and rays? 3. Are MPAs enough?
113 Are MPAs enough? The average size of an MPA is 3.3km 2
114 Are MPAs enough? The average size of an MPA is 3.3km 2 The average geographic range of sharks and rays is 595,749 km 2
115 4 management measures: global and comparable
116 finning management
117 National Plan of Action
118 Convention of Migratory Species Memorandum of Understanding Legally non-binding international instrument Achieves to maintain a favourable conservation status for listed species 29 species of sharks listed in the Appendix 1 of the MoU
119 Port States Measures Agreement Legally binding international instrument Aims to prevent, deter, and eliminate Illegal Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing
124 Takehome message Strategic placement of MPAs could protect species and meet area goals 12 countries have 53 of the 99 threatened endemics in their waters 50% need finning management 5 need Shark-plan 10 need to become a signatory to CMS MoU 8 need to ratify PSMA for IUU fishing
125 Takehome message Strategic placement of MPAs could protect species and meet area goals 12 countries have 53 of the 99 threatened endemics in their waters 50% need finning management 5 need Shark-plan 10 need to become a signatory to CMS MoU 8 need to ratify PSMA for IUU fishing
126 Takehome message Strategic placement of MPAs could protect species and meet area goals 12 countries have 53 of the 99 threatened endemics in their waters 50% need finning management 5 need Shark-plan 10 need to become a signatory to CMS MoU 8 need to ratify PSMA for IUU fishing
127 Thanks for listening Dulvy lab Earth to Ocean lab IUCN SSG
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