Superorder Protacanthopterygii

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1 Superorder Protacanthopterygii Taxonomically problematic group 4 orders: ~12 families, 94 genera, 366 species Disjunct global distribution Highly modified primitive teleosts Pike and pickerel Salmon and trout Superorder Protacanthopterygii, Argentiniformes barreleyes and marine smelt Formerly part of Osmeriformes (smelt), now thought to be basal to all Protacanthopterygii No spines, adipose fin, light organs Barrel eyes (Opisthoproctidae) have transparent dome: 1

2 Superorder Protacanthopterygii, Order Esociformes 10 species, 4 genera, 2 families Maxilla toothless Posterior dorsal and anal fins No adipose fin No pyloric caeca Two families Umbridae mud minnows Esocidae pikes Superorder Protacanthopterygii, Order Esociformes, Family Umbridae 5 species, 3 genera Reduced snout, smaller body limited air breathers 2

3 Superorder Protacanthopterygii, Order Esociformes, Family Esocidae 5 species, 1 genus, 4 species in North America Snout, forked caudal fin Freshwater Piscivorous Osmeriformes, Galaxiiformes galaxids Coldwater southern distribution (S. Africa, S. America, Australia, New Zealand) Commercial fisheries Salamanderfish no eye muscles, moveable head, reinvented the swim bladder 3

4 Superorder Protacanthopterygii, Order Salmoniformes, salmon, trout, charr and grayling 66 (?) species, 11 genera, 1 family (Salmonidae) Northern hemisphere high commercial recreational value Superorder Protacanthopterygii, Order Salmoniformes, salmon, trout, charr and grayling Adipose fin Small scales Parr marks on young Some Iteroparous, some Semelparous 4

5 Superorder Protacanthopterygii, Order Salmoniformes, salmon, trout, charr and grayling Some freshwater, many anadromous Parr develop in freshwater streams, imprint on stream smell Life history makes them amenable to farming Dams a conservation concern, western states implement ladders Conservation concern with farm reared populations 5

6 Order Osmeriformes, smelts 3 families, 22 genera, 88 species Marine, freshwater and diadramous Single soft rayed dorsal fin Adipose fin usually present Maxilla usually part of gape Order Stomiformes, lightfish, dragonfish, marine hatchetfish 391 species, 53 genera, 5 families Photophores Many taxa with loss of fins Many with chin barbels Cycloid scales often lost Premax and maxilla in gape 6

7 Order Ateleopodiformes, jellynose fish 12 species, 4 genera, 1 family (Ateleopdidae) Pelvic fins reduced to single ray Caudal fin reduced, united with anal fin Bulbous snout Teleostei Ctenoid, cycloid or ganoid scales Lack paired gular plate & most lack any gular plate Branchiostegal rays present Homocercal caudal fin Lack spiral valve in intestine Aulopiformes Myctophiformes 7

8 Order Aulopiformes, lizardfish 236 species, 44 genera, 15 families Benthic and bathypelagic All deep sea except Synodontidae Many synchronous hermaphrodites Spineless fins Adipose fin Order Myctophiformes, lanternfishes 241 species, 35 genera, 2 families Deep sea pelagic and benthic Large terminal mouth Large eyes Photophores 8

9 Lampridiformes Percopsiformes Acanthomorpha Hollow unsegmented spines on dorsal and anal fins Rostal and premaxilla cartilidge and ligaments allow greater jaw protrusability Order Lampridiformes, opahs and oarfish 19 species, 12 genera, 7 families no true spines in fins unique upper jaw protrusion deep bodied or ribbon-like 9

10 Order Lampridiformes, opahs and oarfish Oarfish Longest teleost over 30 feet Only one individual observed alive, used amiiform swimming Order Percopsiformes, trout perch, pirate perch, cavefish 3 families, 7 genera, 9 species All freshwater Few with adipose fin Pirate perch (Aphredoderidae) One species Cavefish (Amblyopsidae) Reduction or loss of eyes Sensory papillae on head, body and tail 10

11 Zeiformes Gadiformes Acanthomorpha Hollow unsegmented spines on dorsal and anal fins Rostal and premaxilla cartilidge and ligaments allow greater jaw protrusability Order Zeiformes Dories 6 families, 16 genera, 32 species Marine, deep and compressed body Vomerine teeth, no palentine teeth 11

12 Order Gadiiformes 555 species, 75 genera, 9 families True cods with 3 dorsal, 2 anal fins marine primarily coldwater 12

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