1 Mark/Recapture Data for the Atlantic Sharpnose Shark (Rhizoprionodon terranovae), in the Western North Atlantic from the NEFSC Cooperative Shark Tagging Program Nancy E. Kohler, Danielle Bailey, Patricia A. Turner, and Camilla McCandless SEDAR34-WP-25 Submitted: 1 June 213 This information is distributed solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy.
2 Please cite this document as: Kohler, N.E., D. Bailey, P.A. Turner, and C. McCandless Mark/Recapture Data for the Atlantic Sharpnose Shark (Rhizoprionodon terranovae), in the Western North Atlantic from the NEFSC Cooperative Shark Tagging Program. SEDAR, North Charleston, SC. 23 pp.
3 SEDAR34-WP-25 Mark/Recapture Data for the Atlantic Sharpnose Shark (Rhizoprionodon terranovae), in the Western North Atlantic from the NEFSC Cooperative Shark Tagging Program Nancy E. Kohler Danielle Bailey Patricia A. Turner Camilla McCandless NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service Northeast Fisheries Science Center Narragansett Laboratory 28 Tarzwell Drive Narragansett, RI 2882 June 213 Workshop Draft not to be cited without permission of authors. Summary Mark/recapture information from the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Cooperative Shark Tagging Program (CSTP) covering the period from 1969 through 212 are summarized for the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terranovae) in the western North Atlantic. The extent of the tagging effort, areas of release and recapture, and movements and length frequencies of tagged sharks are reported. Two areas were distinguished in order to identify exchange between the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Overall, there was no movement between the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico and limited exchange (8) between the US and the Mexican-managed portion of the Gulf of Mexico; the true extent of this movement is unclear due to the possibility of underreporting of recaptures.
4 Introduction The Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terranovae, inhabits coastal waters in the western North Atlantic, from the Bay of Fundy to shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico (Castro 1983, Parsons 1983); inhabiting a seasonal temperature range of C (Branstetter 1987). Females reproduce annually with pups born late April to early June (Branstetter 1981, Parsons 1983). The gestation period is 11 months producing a litter size of one to eight pups, increasing with female size (Loefer and Sedberry 23). Mating season is mid May to early July (Loefer and Sedberry 23, Branstetter 1981). Sexual maturity for both sexes is reached at approximately age three (Loefer and Sedberry 23). The maximum age is estimated to be between 8 and 1 years (Branstetter 1987). This species is frequently caught by a variety of commercial fishing gear such as bottom longline, gillnet, bandit reel, trawls, and hook-and-line fishing (Loefer and Sedberry 23). The purpose of this document is to summarize mark/recapture information from the NMFS Cooperative Shark Tagging Program (CSTP) for the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terranovae) in the western North Atlantic. These data cover the period from 1969 through 212 presenting the extent of the tagging effort, areas of release and recapture, and movements of tagged sharks. Data synopses include numbers of fish tagged and recaptured, overall recapture rate, maximum and mean distance traveled, maximum time at liberty, mean lengths, and length frequencies. Materials and Methods The NMFS Cooperative Shark Tagging Program (CSTP) was initiated in Information on the history and methods of the CSTP are detailed in Kohler et al and Kohler and Turner 21. Recreational and commercial fishermen conducted the majority of tagging for these sharks, providing information on size, sex, condition, location, and date of capture. The two primary types of tags used were a fin tag (Jumbo Rototag) and a dart tag ( M-tag ). Tagging studies have been mostly single release events in which recoveries are made opportunistically by recreational and commercial fishermen. When a marked shark is re-caught, information similar to that obtained at release is requested from the recapture, allowing for the calculation of time at large, displacement, and speed. Distance traveled in nautical miles (nm) between tagging and recapture sites is a minimum straight-line distance. For the purposes of these analyses, the boundary between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic region was a line beginning on the east coast of Florida at 25º1.4 N latitude, proceeding due east to the U.S. EEZ. This report summarizes the CSTP mark/recapture information for the Atlantic sharpnose shark in the western North Atlantic from 1969 through 212. Length and weight for CSTP tag returns are reported with varying units of measure. Fork length (FL) was used when provided and converted to cm when applicable. Total length (TL) was converted to fork length by rearranging the following formula: TL (cm) = (1.158) FL (cm) (SEDAR 13 27). When neither FL nor TL were provided, weight in kilograms was converted to FL by rearranging the following formula: weight (kg) = ( *1-6 ) FL (cm) (SEDAR 13 27). Sharks were categorized into life stages according to length (cm, FL) determined from Loefer and Sedberry 23 (Table 1). The boundaries
5 between young of the year and juvenile were defined at ~49cm. Sharks measuring less than 5cm FL were classified as young of the year. Sharks between 5cm FL and 67cm were considered to be juveniles. Males and females were considered mature when FL was greater than 67cm. Sharks without a size estimate or sharks of unknown sex were categorized as unknown maturity. Sharks were classified as embryos when they were taken from pregnant females. Results A total of 4,653 Atlantic sharpnose sharks were released with tags along the U.S. east coast and the Gulf of Mexico between 1969 and 212 (Table 2, Figure 1). Of the 4,37 fish of known sex, 2,612 (6%) were males and 1,758 (4%) were females resulting in a 1:.67 male: female sex ratio. Atlantic sharpnose sharks were predominantly caught by rod and reel (7%), longline (24%), and gill net (6%). Sharks were also caught in smaller numbers (n<2) with handline, otter trawl, beach seine, set line, hand landing net, and by hand. Mature fish were the most commonly caught life stage for both males and females (Table 3, Figure 2, 3). The largest measured male and female fish were 19.2cm and 114cm FL, respectively. The mean fork length for both males and females and overall was 71 cm (Table 3). A total of 77 sharks were recaptured from 1969 through 212 with an overall recapture rate of 1.7% and mean distance traveled of 13nm (Table 2). Young of the year had the highest displacement (187nm) relative to the other life-stages (juvenile, 14 nm; mature, 83nm) (Figure 4). The Atlantic sharpnose shark at liberty the longest was 7.3 years and was recaptured 7nm from its original tagging location. The longest distance traveled was 57nm from a fish that was originally tagged off Texas and recaptured in Mexican waters 4.8 months later. There was no movement between the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico (Figures 5-17). The majority of the recaptured fish showed Atlantic coastal movements with some exchange between US Gulf and Mexican waters. Eight Atlantic sharpnose sharks that were tagged off Texas were recaptured off Mexico; this represents.2% of the total numbers tagged. Overall, there was no movement between the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico and limited exchange (8) between the US and the Mexican-managed portion of the Gulf of Mexico. The true extent of this movement is unclear due to the possibility of under-reporting of recaptures.
6 References Branstetter, S Notes on the sharks of the Biological north central Gulf of Mexico. Contrib. Mar. Sci. 24: Branstetter, S Age and Growth Validation of Newborn Sharks Held in Laboratory Aquaria, with Comments on the life history of the Atlantic Sharpnose Shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae. Copeia 2: Castro, J. I., The sharks of North American waters. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, Texas: 179. Kohler, N.E., J.G. Casey and P.A. Turner NMFS Cooperative Shark Tagging Program, : An atlas of shark tag and recapture data. Marine Fisheries Review 6:1-87. Kohler, N.E. and P.A. Turner. 21. Shark tagging: a review of conventional methods and studies. Environmental Biology of Fishes 6: Loefer, J.K and G.R. Sedberry. 23. Life history of the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) (Richardson, 1836) off the southeastern United States. Fishery Bulletin, 1: Parsons, G. R., Growth and reproduction of the Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson). M.S. thesis, 71 p. Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL. Parsons, G.R The reproductive biology of the Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae, Richardson. Fish. Bull. 81: Parsons, G. R., Growth and Age Estimation of the Atlantic Sharpnose Shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae: a comparison of Techniques. Copeia 1:8-85. SEDAR SEDAR 13 Stock Assessment Report. NOAA/NMFS Highly Migratory Species Management Division, Silver Springs, Maryland.
7 Table 1. Literature values for lengths associated with maturity. Reference n Location Condition Female (FL)* Male (FL)* Parsons Alabama YOY (birth) Juvenile Mature Parsons 1981 Length at birth Max. length Branstetter 8 Texas Born Mature Loefer,** Sedberry Virginia to northern Florida Max. length Length at birth Largest full term embryo Young of the year Mature Max. length Sex ratio 1:1 *Values given in TL were converted to FL (cm) using formula from SEDAR 13 **Values given in PCL were converted to FL using formula from Loefer &Sedberry 23
8 Table 2. CSTP data distributed by sex for Atlantic sharpnose sharks tagged and recaptured. Displacement and speed values are calculated using the straight line distance from the tagging location to the recapture location. Sex Tagged Recaptured Recaptured Rate Mean Displacement (nm) Max Displacement (nm) Mean Time at Liberty (days) Max Time at Liberty (days) Mean Speed (nm/day) Male Female Unknown Total Sex ratio (M:F) 1:.67 Max Speed (nm/day)
9 Table 3. CSTP data distributed by sex and life stage for Atlantic sharpnose sharks tagged (including recaptures). YOY = young of the year Sex Mature Juveniles YOY Embryos* Unknown Maturity Males Females Unknown Sex Fork Length Total Min Max Median Mean SD Total *embryos from captured pregnant females, that were tagged and released Key Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent
10 Figure 1. Total number of Atlantic sharpnose sharks tagged (A) and recaptured (B) by year. A B Year Year
11 Figure 2. Length frequency for Atlantic sharpnose sharks tagged (including recaptures) Frequency Fork length (cm) Figure 3. Length frequency by sex for Atlantic sharpnose sharks tagged (including recaptures). 8 7 Males Females Fork Length (cm)
12 Figure 4. Mean displacement of Atlantic sharpnose sharks at large for days. N=3, 21, and 51 for young of the year, juveniles, and mature sharks, respectively. Displacement values are calculated using the straight line distance from the tagging location to the recapture location Young of the year Juvenile Mature Life Stage
13 Figure 5. Atlantic sharpnose shark tagging data (including recaptures) by sex. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
14 Figure 6. Atlantic sharpnose shark tagging data (including recaptures) in the Gulf of Mexico by sex. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
15 Figure 7. Atlantic sharpnose shark tagging data (including recaptures) off the Atlantic Coast by sex. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
16 Figure 8. Atlantic sharpnose shark tagging data (including recaptures) by life stage. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
17 Figure 9. Atlantic sharpnose shark tagging data (including recaptures) in the Gulf of Mexico by life stage. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
18 Figure 1. Atlantic sharpnose shark tagging data (including recaptures) off the Atlantic Coast by life stage. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
19 Figure 11. Locations of tagged young of the year and pregnant Atlantic sharpnose sharks (including recaptures). The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
20 Figure 12. Atlantic sharpnose shark recaptures by sex. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
21 Figure 13. Atlantic sharpnose shark recaptures off the Atlantic Coast by sex. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
22 Figure 14. Atlantic sharpnose shark recaptures in the Gulf of Mexico by sex. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
23 Figure 15. Atlantic sharpnose shark tagging data (including recaptures) by sex and life stage. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
24 Figure 16. Atlantic sharpnose shark tagging data (including recaptures) off the Atlantic Coast by sex and life stage. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
25 Figure 17. Atlantic sharpnose shark tagging data (including recaptures) in the Gulf of Mexico by sex and life stage. The solid blue line represents the 2m depth contour. The solid black line represents the U.S. EEZ.
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