1 Growth. Survival and Distribution of Gammarus /acustris (Crustacea- Amphipoda) Stocked into Ponds <J: "'~ ~ N. ~ o athias and M. Papst.!J..-- ~=--~'(')... > 0 ej 0 Ul 0 w 0 Lt.. 0 ~ N n Region ~ ~ nent of Fisheries and Oceans ~ ; ~g, Manitoba R3T 2N6 Ul =>_ August. 198~ Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences No.989 ' '
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3 Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 989 August 1981 GROWTH, SURVVAL AND DSTRBUTON OF Gammarus ~custris (CRUSTACEA - AMPHPODA) STOCKED NTO PONDS J. A. Mathias and M. Papst Western Region Department of Fisheries and Oceans Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 This is the 132nd Technical Report from the Western Region, Winnipeg
4 ERRATA SHEET Mathias, J.A., and M. Papst Growth, survival and distribution of Gammarus Zacustris (Crustacea - Arnphipoda) stocked into~. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 989: iv + 11 p. ip~ 'i The correct figure captions should read: Figure 1. Fish pond designed for amphipod-trout food chain. Zone A is shallow, a refuge and production habitat for G. lacustris, Zone C is deeper, a cool-water habitat for Salmo gairdneri. Zones Band D are shallow pond margins. Figure 2. Frequency distribution of Gammarus lacustris brood size. Mean, standard error and sample size are indicated. A. Pond population, June 2 and June 18 combined; B. Lake 100 population, May 30 and June 4, 13 and 16 combined. Figure 3. Figure 4. Proportion of female Gammarus Zacustris with broods, as a percentage of adult population (solid circles) and as percentage of female population (open triangles). Numbers in brackets indicate the percentage of broods which have developed to the juvenile stage. Sample sizes are indicated at top of graphs. A. Pond population. B. Lake 100 population. Growth rate of adult and juvenile Gammarus lacustris in the pond (solid circles) and in Lake 100 (open triangles). Vertical lines indicate 95% confidence limits. Figure 5. Mortality of Gammarus Zacustris in the pond. A. Eggs plus juveniles. Open circle, estimated egg density, solid circle, observed egg density; solid squares, observed juvenile densities. 8. Adults. Open circles, estimated adult densities; solid squares, observed adult densities. Percentage values are calculated mortality rates in percent per day. Figure 6. Density of Gammarus Zacustris adults (shaded bars) and juveniles (open bars) found in the four sampling zones. Note different scale for juveniles and adults. The relative area of each zone is shown as a percentage.
5 i i ( ) Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1981 Cat. no. Fs 97-6/989 Correct citation for this publication: Mathias, J.A., and M. Papst Gammarus Zacustris (Crustacea Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. SSN Growth, survival and distribution of - Amphipoda) stocked into ponds. Can. 989: iv + 11 p.
6 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS NTRODUCTON METHODS RESULTS Reproduction Growth. Mortality Distribution Predators DSCUSSON. Reproduction Growth.. Mortality. Distribution REFERENCES Table LST OF TABLES 1 Percentage of G. Zacustris by weight (by volume for N. Dakota lakes) in stomachs of rainbow trout, SaZmo gairdneri 5 Figure LST OF FGURES 1 Fish pond designed for amphipod-trout food chain. 2 Frequency distribution of Gammarus Zacustris brood size 3 Proportion of female Gammarus Zacustris with broods 4 Growth rate of adult and juvenile Gammarus Zacustris 5 Mortality of Gammarus Zacustris in the pond 6 Density of Gammarus Zacustris Page g 10 11
7 iv ABSTRACT Mathias, J.A., and M. Papst Growth, survival and distribution of Gammarus Zacustris (Crustacea - Amphipoda) stocked into~. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 989: iv + 11 p. pa (J Gammarus Zacustris was stocked at a density of 411 animals m- 2 into a 1.8 ha pond with no fish predators. A high mortality rate of 8% da- 1 was attributed to invertebrate predation. Growth rates and brood sizes of the stocked amphipods were similar to those of the parent population. Sex ratio, body size and reproductive stage of adult G. Zacustris were biased by the harvest method and therefore differed between the stocked and parent populations. Stocking of G. Zacustris into ponds as a food organism for fish is feasible if invertebrate predators can be controlled. Key words: invertebrates; amphipods; growth; survival; stocking; pond; Gammarus. RESUME Mathias, J.A., and M. Papst Growth, survival and distribution of Gammarus Zacustris (Crustacea - Amphipoda) stocked into~. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 989: iv + 11 p. P J L'experience a consiste a peupler de Gammarus Zacustris un etang de 1.8 ha, a une densite de 411 gammares par m 2 L'etang ne contenait aucun poisson predateur. Le taux eleve de mortalite (B% par jour) a ete attribue a 1'action d'invertebres predateurs. La vitesse de croissance des gammares experimentaux et le nombre de petits de leurs femelles, ressemblent a ceux de la population cousine temoin. Les donnees sur la repartition sexuelle, la taille et le stade de reproduction chez le gammare adulte ont ete faussees par la methode de recolte et, en consequence, different de celles relatives a la population temoin. Peupler les etangs de Gamnarus Zacustris pour les faire servir d'aliment aux poissons est donc faisable, a condition que 1'Dn contr6le les invertebres predateurs. Mots-cles: invertebres; amphipodes; croissance; survie; peupler; etang; Gammarus.
8 NTRODUCT ON The arnphi pod Gcunll/CU"us laaustl~is lacuatl'is Sars is commonly found in lakes and ponds throughout the Hudson Bay drainage basin. t attains densities of up to 7000 per m 2 in small lakes on the Canadian prairies where there are no fish predators (Mathias, unpublished data). Johnson et al. (1970) su9gested that G. Zacustris production in these prairie lakes could form the basis for the free-ran9in9 (extensive) culture of rainbow trout. Thousands of pothole lakes have since been used for trout culture. and several studies of trout food habits in these lakes have shown that G. lacustris makes up about 30% of the diet of larger trout (over 50 9rams) in lakes where forage fish are not available as a food (Table 1). n some lakes, 40% to 70% of the stomach contents were composed of G. lacubtl~is. An alternative strategy for the use of G. laaustris would be to harvest them live (Mathias et al., MS) and either feed them live to trout under intensive culture. or use them as feed ingredient to replace more costly marine sources of animal protein (Lombard North Group 1973). The nutritional quality of G. Zacuatria as a fish food has been documented by Driver et al. (1974) and Kelso (1973), and high feed conversion efficiencies of rainbow trout, SaZmo gairdneri~ fed on live G. lacustris have been demonstrated by Mathi as et a1. (in press). The present paper addresses another strategy; that of stocking G. lacuetris into special lbenthic production" fish ponds \''here they would establish reproducing populations and form the basis for the semi-intensive culture of rainbow trout. Ponds were designed to contain two distinct habitats; a large, central shallowwater area primarily for amphipods, and a surrounding deeper-water habitat primarily for trout. We hypothesized that the gammarids would colonize the central part of the pond, and as their population increased, move out into the trout habitat where they would be exposed to predation. Here we examine the growth, survival and distribution of G. Zacustl~iB stocked for the first year into the ponds in the absence of predatory fish. METHOOS The artificial pond is shol;n in Fig. 1. ts surface area is 1.8 ha. The center of the pond (zone A) is at ground level and consists of productive prairie loam. The excavated portion of the pond (zones 8-D) is 2.8 m deep and is designed to be a cool-water refuge for.a trout population. ts soils are clay and much less productive than surface soils. Prior to 1979, the pond had been drained during the winter to eliminate fish predators such as sticklebacks (Culea inconstans Kirtland) and fathead minnows (PimephaZee promelas Rafinesque). Ouring the summer of 1979, the pond was filled to a water depth of em over the central area. This zone (zone A, Fig. 1) was covered by partially submerged terrestrial grasses which died off slowly during the summer. Aquatic vegetation in the littoral zones 8 and 0 extended only into tile pond. Pota/C/tleton pectinatus and MyFiop71ylllan exalbescenfj were the dominant species. The pond bottom (zone C) was bare, ~'Jith scattered patches of Ch,..ll''a sp. n the spring of 1979, a large number of sweep samples taken with fine-mesh dip net in zones A, B, C, and 0 of the pond produced only two G. lacustyifj adults and several HyalelZa a2teca. An estimated 7.6 x 10 6 G. lacustris (mean density, 411 individuals m- Z ). were stocked into the pond between May 16 and June 14, The animals were harvested (see Mathias et a1. MS for methods) one to three days prior to stocking from lake 100 near Erickson, Manitoba (see Sarica 1975 and Sunde and 8arica (1975) for lake description), held overnight in floating cages. They were then transported 400 km to the Rockwood Fish Hatchery and jettisoned through a fire hose into the pond. The amphipods were not damaged by the harvest or the transport technique (Mathias et a1. in press). Quantitative core samples were taken from the pond three times during the summer to measure amphipod density, growth rate and distribution. The sampling was stratified into four zones (A, 8, C and 0, Fig. 1). Samples were allocated in the following way: zone A (54% of pond area), 32 cores; zone B (2.7% of pond area), 8 cores; zone D (3.4% of pond area), 8 cores. The cores wer.e a 10.2 cm diameter steel tube which could be pushed into the sediment by hand and used in water depths up to 1 m. n zone C (39.8% of pond area) which was deeper, 24 samples were taken with a multiple corer (Hamilton et al. 1970) which contained three, 5.1 cm diameter cores. The pond was divided into B equal sections and samples from each zone (A-D) Were allocated equally into the sections and pooled before analysis. Benthic sweep samples were taken from the pond with a fine-mesh dip net on June 2 and 18 to monitor reproductive condition and growth of adults. A series of similar sweep samples were also taken from shallow water in lake 100 throughout the summer to compare the lake population and the stocked population of G. lacustris. Growth, sex ratio, population size structure and brood sizes were measured. Growth was measured as change in the head length l but expressed in terms of dry weight according to the following relationship: (log dry weight, mg) = (log head length, mm) , (r 2 = 0.98). The natural logarithm of dry weight was regressed against time in days, and the slope of the lines, multiplied by 100, taken as the size-specific growth rate in %dry body wei9ht per day. Mortality was measured as 100 (n Nt - n No)/t, (where Nt and No are population densities at time t and time o. t days apart), and expressed as %of the population per day. To assess the density of invertebrate predators in the pond, 3 quantitative sweep samples were taken on June 2. A fine-mesh dip net was used to sweep 1 m 2 areas of the pond bottom. The sediment, vegetation, and water column was swept repeatedly in each location.
9 2 REPRODUCTON RESULTS The average number of eggs carried by G. Zaaustria females during the first two weeks of June was similar in the pond and in lake 100 (Fig. 2), indicating that the stocking procedure did not interfere with the broods (p<0.05). However, brood sizes declined slightly with time. n the pond, the average brood size between June 2 and June 18, 16.2 eggs/female! was significantly smaller (t-test, p<0.05) than that on May 25 (20.2 eggs/female; Mathias et a1. MS). Similarly, in lake 100, the average brood size decreased between June 4 and June 16, although the difference was not statistically significant. The variance of the brood size in the pond was not significantly different from that in lake 100 (Fig. 2; 2-tai1ed F ratio test). The timing of the hatching of G. laaustris eggs can be characterized by the date on which 50% of broods are composed of juveniles. n lake 100, 50% of the eggs had hatched by June 14 (Fic. 38), while in the pond eggs hatched on about June 25 (Fig. 3A). Similarly, the timing of brood release in G. lacuatris can be expressed as the date on which 50% of females have released their broods. n lake 100, brood release occurred on about June 16 (Fig. 28) while in the pond it occurred about 13 days later (Fig. 2A). GROWTH The growth rate of adult G. ZacuBtria (0.3% dry weight day-) in the fish pond and in lake 100 was similar (Fig. 4). A sizeselective bias of the harvest procedure (Mathias et a1. MS) is reflected in the larger mean size of adults in the fish pond at all times during the summer. The growth curves of juveniles in the fish pond and lake 100 were different (Fig. 4). n lake 100, the average growth rate (7 sampling dates) was 4.6% dry weight day-. The apparent lag during the first week was presumably an artifact caused by continued recruitment of small animals into the population until June 25. n the fish pond, the early rapid increase in average weight probably resulted from a combination of high growth rates as well as size-selective predation by dytisicids, causing a bias toward the larger juveniles. Growth rates would have to be 16%-22% dry weight day-l to account for the apparent size increase between June 18 and 27. These are higher than any published values for amphipods. The smaller size variation of juveniles in the pond on June 27 and July 19 compared with that in lake 100 is consistent with the hypothesis of size-selective predation. (The large variance on June 18 resulted from a small sample size of 4 animals). MORTALTY Mortality of G. lacustria in the pond was high. The first quantitative sample taken on June 27 revealed that only 42 adults m- z remained of the estimated 411 animals m- z which had been stocked between May 17 and June 14. Amortality rate was estimated for the stocking period by fitting various mortality values to the density of animals stocked (indicated by the vertical lines in Fig. 58) and the measured adult density on June 27. A constant mortality rate of 8% day-' fit the data well (curved line, Fig. 58). The adult mortality rate decreased to 4.7% day-l between June 27 and July 19, and was negligible after that. A high mortality rate was also characteristic of juveniles. Amortality rate of 7.7% day- fitted the decline in the egg-p1usjuvenile density shown in Fig. SA. Egg density and juvenile density were combined for this estimate because eggs were hatching into juveniles during the period June 18-Ju1y 19 (Fig. 3A). The June 18 egg density (arrow, Fig. SA) is based on 100 adults m- z (Fig. 5B) x Bl.5% of adults carrying broods (Fig. 4A) x 16 eggs per brood (Fig. 2A). There were no juveniles on June 18. On June 27 there were 643 juveniles m- z in the pond population (solid square, Fig. SA) plus an estimated 255 eggs m- z. The density of eggs was estimated from the measured adult density, 42 m- 2 (Fig. 5B), x 38% of adults carrying broods (Fig. 3A) x 16 individuals per brood. The July 19 and August 14 values are observed juvenile densities. From June B to June 27, the B% mortality rate of adults would also apply to their broods, but from June 27 to August 19 juveniles became free swimming. An overall egg-p1us-juveni1e mortality rate of 7.7% day- therefore suggests that the mortality rate of juveniles alone would be slightly lower than 7.7% day-. DSTRBUTON The density of G. lacuatria in zones A, B, C and 0 of the pond is shown in Fig. 6. Two weeks after stocking (June 27), adult densities were highest in zones C and D and lowest in zone A. The distribution of juveniles on June 27 tended to reflect that of adults, except that juveniles were over-represented in zone A and under-represented in zone C. n later samples (July 19-August 14), adults moved away (or were eliminated) from zone D and moved centrally into zones A, Band C. Like adults. juveniles also moved into the pond center (zones A and B), but they avoided deep water (zone C), and their density remained relatively high in zone D. The relative number of G. lacustria in each zone of the pond can be calculated by multiplying the density in each zone by the relative area of the zone.
10 3 PREDATORS The average densities of G. lac!wtl'id and predators of G. Lam.wtl' is found; n the pond on June 2 were as fol'ol,o/s: Group Common Name X no. m- 2 G. lacustl'is 102 Dyti sci d, arvae (predaceous di- 21 Oytiscid adults ving beetle) 35 Notonectids (back swimmers) 1 Zygoptera nymphs (damselflies) 1 The 51-eep samples gave reasonable estimates of invertebrate densities since the amph;pod density agreed fairly well with the June 2 estimate from Fig. 58 (ca. 130 individuals m- 2 ). Oytiscid larvae held in the laboratory consumed 2-4 adult G. Lacuatris per day, depending on size, when fed no other food. REPRODlCTON DSCUSSON The harvest. transport and stocking procedures had no effect on the average number of eggs carried by female G. lacuatris (Fig. 2). and recruitment of juveniles in the stocked population was unimpaired. The ratio of the density of juveniles in the pond to the mean density of adults,after completion of recruitment on July 19, was about 9 juveniles/adult. This is lower than the 12.8 juveniles/adult expected if each female on June 15 (females were 80% of the adult population; Fig. 3A) released 16 juveniles. but it compares well with other field studies. n 3 pothole lakes we have studied, the postrecruitment ratio of juveniles/adults ranged from 5-7 (Mathias. unpublished data). The slight decrease in brood size which was noted in the pond between May 25 and June 2-18 suggests that there is a tendency for eggs to be lost during the brooding period. Gammal"'tls la~tlbtr"ib in the pond released their broods about 13 days later than those in lakes 100. Presumably, eggs carried by femal es in the pond were at an earlier stage of development than those in lake 100. Water temperatur~ was not a factor because the pond was about 2 C warmer than 100 (Mathias. unpublished data), and this would have accelerated the rate of egg development and advanced the time of brood release. The amphipods were transferred from lake 100 to the pond continuously from May 17 until June 14 (Fig. 5), so that if there were no bias in the harvested population, females in lake 100 carrying advanced eggs or juveniles (i.e. on June 13. Fig. 38) should have appeared in the pond with juveni le broods on June 16 and contributed to earlier brood release. Presumably female l~. Zacusi;l'is which were captured from the harvest net in lake 100 \'Jere -in an earl ier stage of egg production, on avel~age, than those sampled from the lake 100 population with a dip net. Reasons for this sort of bias are unclear, although the harvesting procedure is selective for other characteristics of G. l.aclwtl'-is. such as the sex ratio and size (Fig. 4 and Mathias et al. in press). GROWTH The growth rate of G. lar.!lwtr'is adul ts in the pond and in lake 100 is characteristic of other prairie lakes we have studied (Mathias, unpublished data). n other lakes. however, adults which have oveli-'lintered generally weigh mol~e in the spring (approximately 7-10 mg dry weight) than animals in lake 100 and the pond. We attribute the smaller average adult size in lake 100 to crowding, since densities there appear higher than in other lake studies (l4athias. personal observation). The growth rate of juveniles in the pond (Fig. 4) is difficult to assess because the high juvenile mortality occurring from June 18 to July 19 (Fig. SA) probably removed smaller animals from the juvenile size distributions of June 27 and July 19, inflating the apparent growth rate. Nevertheless, the size attained by juveniles on August 13 indicates that growth in the pond is adequate to produce sexually mature adults by the following spring. MORTALTY The high mortality rate of G. lacustl'is juveniles in the pond is consistent with rates measured in prairie lakes (t.lathias, unpublished data). However, the period of highest mortality in natural lakes is generally shorter (10-14 days) than that observed in the pond (Fig. 5A). resulting in survival of a much larger fraction of the new cohort. The adult mortal ity rate of B% day -, in the pond was extremely high compared to rates of about X per day measured in natural ponds without fish (Mathias, unpubl ished data). t does compare, however, with rates of 8-10% day-l in prairie lakes where rainbow trout fingerlings have been stocked at high densities (0.5 fish m- 2 ). n the pond. where no fish were present. the mortality was attributed largely to invertebrate predation. The ratio of the densities of all invertebrate predators to G. laer/stria (0.56:1) in the pond was extremely high. The density of dytiscid larvae alone was easily sufficient to account for G. Z-amwtris mortality during this period. At the maximum amphipod densitr of 200 m- 2 (Fig. 5B). a mortality rate of 8% day- would imply a death rate of 16 adults m- 2, dal-1. The dytiscid larvae, at a density of 21 m--would have to consume less than one amphipod day-l to generate the observed mortality, whereas in the laboratory dytiscid larvae were capable of consuming an average of 2-4 G. laeuetris day-'. DSTRBUTON The pond (Fig. 1) was designed to provide two habitats; a shallo\'/, \'Jarm-water area (zone A) for production of benthic invertebrates, and a deep-water area (zone C) for tl~out. t was hypothesized that juvenile G. lactlstris would prefer the warm-water refuge where their growth would contribute to population production.
11 4 \ljhereas the more acti ve adul ts woul d move into deepel~ water and become vulnerable to trout predation. The habitat distribution of G. lacustris in the pond is compatible with this concept of a two-step amphipod-trout food chain. By mid August when pond-cultured trout begin to accumulate most of their body weight, 40% of adult amphipods were found in the trout habitat (zone C). Approximately 50% were found in the central production zone. At the same time, over 80% of juveniles were found in the production zone (A) and none in the trout habitat. At this time the t-year old adults are expendable in terms of population increase while the smaller juveniles will form the next season1s breeding stocks. The distribution pattern of G. lacustris in the pond could probably be improved further by stocking the amphipods directly into zone A rather than into zone D. The central problem with stocking G. lacustris into ponds is the high mortality caused by invertebrate predators. Predator control must be initiated prior to stocking. A technique for controlling dytiscids and notonectids, used commonly by pond managers rearing bass fry, is to spray the water with an oil mixture (1 part cod-liver oil: 2-3 parts gasoline). The technique reportedly does not harm fish fry or crustaceans (Brown 1940; Ki ngsbury 1936). f predators can be controlled, the introduction of G. lacustris into ponds as a forage organism for fish appears feasible. REFERENCES ANOERSON, R., and L.G. RAASVELOT Gamma:l'LS predat i on and the pass i b1e effects of Gammcu'us and Chaoborus feedi ng on the zooplankton composition in some small lakes and ponds in western Canada. Can. Wild. Servo Occ. Pap. B: 23 p. BARCA, J Geochemistry and nutrient regime of saline entrophic lakes in the Erickson-Elphinstone district of southwestern Manitoba. Can. Fish. Mar. Ser. Tech. Rep. 511: B2 p. BERNARO, 0., and C. HOLM5TROM. 197B. Growth and food habits of strains of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) in winterkill lakes of western Manitoba. Can. Fish. ~lar. Serv.. <15 Rep. 1477: 20 p. BROWN, M.W Smallmouth bass propagation in California. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 70: ORVER, E.A., L.G. SUGOEN, and R.J. KOVACH Clorific, chemical and physical values of potential duck foods. Freshwat. Biol. 4: HAMLTON, A.L., W. BURTON, and J.F. FLANNAGAN A multiple corer for samplin9 profundal benthos. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 27: B69. JOHNSON, L., G.H. LAWLER, and L.A. SUNOE Rainbow trout farming in Central Canada. Fish. Res. Board Can. Tech. Rep. 165: 17 p. KELSO, J.R.M Seasonal energy changes in walleye and their diet in West Blue Lake, Manitoba. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 103: KNGSBURY, Q.R Foes encountered in the rearing of smallmouth bass. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 66: LDMBARO NORTH GROUP The developmental potential of aquaculture in Alberta. Report to the Alberta Department of Agriculture, December B9 p. MATHAS, J.A., J. MARTN, M. YURKDWSK, J.G.. LARK, M. PAPST, and J.L. TABACHEK. A technique for harvesting Gammarus lacuetrie and its suitability as a fish food. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. (in press). MEYERS, G.L Prairie pothole ecol09y and and the feasibility of growing rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) in prairie potholes. M.Sc. thesis, North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, N.D. 91 p. SUNOE, L.A., and J. BARCA Geography and lake morphometry of the aquaculture study area in the Erickson-Elphinstone district of southwestern Manitoba. Can. Fish. Mar. Serv. Tech. Rep. 510: 32 p. TAVARUTMANEEGUL, P Production of rainbow trout in small eutrophic lakes subject to periodic anoxia. M.Sc. Thesis, Univ. of Manitoba. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 170 p.
12 5 Table 1. Percentage of G. Zacus-tr>is by weight (by volume for N. Dakota lakes) in stomachs of rainbow trout, SaLmo gairdneri. All trout were larger than 50 9 and taken from lakes where foraae fish were absent.nis the numberoffish.stomachsexamined. Regi on Lake Year G. Zacus-tr>is N Erickson, Manitoba 721 a a b b c North Dakota V Mean 32.8 a Data from Bernard and Holmstrom (1978). b Data from Tavarutmaneegul (1978). c Data from Meyers (1973).
13 6 201 m - A,8 C D SECTON VEW PLAN VEW Fig. 1. Fish pond designed for amphipod-trout food chain.
14 7 24 A POND «) 20 w...j «16- :ie W.L. 12.L Z 4~ «) 24- W 20...J «:ie 16 W.L..L. 12 o o 8 Z 4 LO, a ill LO 1 x= E. =0.87 n =69 LO'a LO'a - C\J ~ '? ill C\J ~ NO. EGGS PER FEMALE x= 15.3 l LO '? r(), T, LO a r(), a ill a C\J ill LO C\J 1 C\J ill C\J LO r() r() NO. EGGS PER FEMALE 1. 8 LAKE E.=0.91 r n=78 1 a "'" ill r() Fig. 2. Frequency distribution of Gammarus Zacustris brood size.
15 8 t FROM ADULT POPULATON 100 (0) (0) A SAMPLE SZE e tl \ \\ POND 60 \ % OF ADULT \ POPULATON \ \ \\ \ \ "- % OF FEMALE "- ~ "- POPULATON :::e "- 0 ~ 20 "- "- (!:) "- "- Z "- ::::> "- "- 0 "- >- (!:) Z JUNE JULY AUG >- 76 0::: ! SAMPLE SZE 0::: FROM ADULT «POPULATON U (0) 100 rj) (0) w...j «:2 80 (50) w LL 60 % OF FEMALE POPULATON B LAKE _- (57) , % OF ADULT 20 POPULATON -- "- "- "-"-"- " JUNE JULY AUG Fig. 3. Proportion of female Gamma!'UB Zacustris with broods.
16 g J 1 LAKE JUNE JULY Fig. 4. Growth rate of adult and juvenile Gmnmarus lacustris.
17 lo A (\J : :: ~ 1100 ~OOO (,!) w <l: C/) 700 W..J ~ 500 ::J "'? 400 l.l 220 ~ N : % 3.7% ffi 140 a.. C/) 120 ~ ::J <l: 80 d % % MAY JUNE JULY AUG Fig. 5. t"lortality of Gammarus ZacuBtris in the pond. B
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