Seas the Day: The Interlinked Future of the Ocean and Humanity

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1 Seas the Day: The Interlinked Future of the Ocean and Humanity Jane Lubchenco Oregon State University and U.S. Department of State G7 Dialogue with Civil Society 29 April 2015, Berlin

2 Outline The Ocean and People Threats to the Ocean Integrated, Science Based Solutions Benefits: Economic, Environmental, Social 5. Impediments: Public Awareness, Political Action

3 Marine ecosystems provide multiple benefits Ian Shive/TNC food, oxygen, medicine, fuel, climate regulation, disease & pest regulation, coastal protection, Tim Laman/Nat Geo Brian Skerry/Nat Geo cultural and spiritual values, nutrient cycling Heather Dine, FKNMS

4 But overfishing, habitat loss, and pollution deplete & disrupt ecosystems, threatening economic, social & environmental

5 Further threats to the ocean with climate change IPCC IPCC 07 poles arctic sea ice shrunk.html warmer, higher, stormier, less oxygen & more acidic

6 Academies Recommendations Photo: Joe Dovala

7 Academies Recommendations 1. Reduce Carbon Emissions 2. Reduce nutrient, chemical and plastic pollution 3. End overfishing 4. Protect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning 5. Enhance international cooperation. Photo: Joe Dovala

8 Academies Recommendations 1. Reduce Carbon Emissions 2. Reduce nutrient, chemical and plastic pollution 3. End overfishing 4. Protect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning 5. Enhance international cooperation. Photo: Joe Dovala

9 Focus on Fisheries One of the most important ocean activities but in recent decades, one of the most destructive activities Photo: K. Ellengoben

10 1 in 7 people rely on fish for their daily protein Photo: CI/Olaf Zerbock Stats: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 569 FAO 2011

11 Infographic: Ocean Health Index, Stats: FAO 2011, 2010 Increasing demand Diminishing supply

12 What is limiting supply of wild caught seafood? 1. No more new places to fish 2. Unsustainable fishing practices 3. Unsustainable fisheries policies 4. Illegal, unregulated & unreported fishing 5. No refuges to hedge against uncertainty Photo: AFP photo/jose Luis Roca, enforcement abets illegal fishing/

13 Unsustainable fishing practices collapsed overexploited fully exploited developing rebuilding FAO data, Pauly 2013 Nature, adapted from Pauly 2007 AMBIO

14 Is this situation hopeless? Fishing harder and harder for fewer and fewer returns

15 NO! The Tide is Changing! Fish smarter not harder Photo: trip to kisite mpunguti/

16 Policy reforms enable sustainable fishing 4th producer globally 3 rd importer globally in th producer globally 1 st importer globally in Mandate to end overfishing science based limits, teeth and timetables, ecosystem focus 2. Rights based approaches give fishermen a voice and a stake in the future.

17 Two types of fishery management Common Pool management (i.e, the Race to Fish ) Fishermen compete with one another until the total quota for the year is reached Rights based management = catch shares = ITQs= fishing concessions A dedicated share of the scientifically determined total catch is allocated to fishermen, communities or cooperatives.

18 Science is driving reforms: Rights based fisheries are less likely to collapse % ITQs Implemented % of Fisheries Collapsed without ITQ Management % of Fisheries Collapsed with ITQ Management Costello et al Science

19 Science + Political Will = Management Reforms for U.S. Pacific Groundfish Economic and ecological collapse lead to fishery being declared a federal disaster in 2000 Photo: Corey Arnold

20 Rights based management began in 2011 & has yielded: A reduction in accidental catch of most vulnerable species by 2/3 13 species of groundfish now certified by the MSC 40 species of groundfish are best choice or good alternative from Seafood Watch Photo: Corey Arnold

21 U.S. Federal Fisheries # Overfished stocks # Rebuilt stocks 0 37 # Rights based plans 6 18 # Unique Stocks in a rights based plan

22 Belize Shallow Water Reef Fisheries Threatened by serial overfishing and illegal fishing in no take areas, became increasingly hard to make a living Photo: Jason Houston

23 By 2011, local fishing communities partnered with government & NGOs to implements pilot rights based TURF system Illegal fishing decreased by 60% 90% reporting rate for catches Success of pilot approach has lead to talks of scaling up to nationwide program Empowering fishermen o From recipients of policy to agents of policy. Photo: Jason Houston

24 Adoption of rights based fisheries around the world: by species ~ 200 rights based fisheries > 500 species In 40 countries

25 What is limiting supply of wild caught seafood? 1. No more new places to fish 2. Unsustainable fishing practices 3. Unsustainable fisheries policies 4. Illegal, unregulated & unreported fishing 5. No refuges to hedge against uncertainty. Photo: AFP photo/jose Luis Roca, enforcement abets illegal fishing/

26 Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported Fishing (= IUU Fishing, aka black market fishing) Global losses: $10 $23 billion USD annually Data: Agnew et al Plos One Photo: 2/fisheries/illegal fishing/

27 Combating IUU Fishing PORT STATE MEASURES AGREEMENT Chile, European Union, Gabon, Myanmar, Mozambique, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Uruguay Need 14 more to ratify

28 Another path to recovery of overfished ecosystems and protection of biodiversity has been the implementation of fully protected conservation areas known as marine reserves Photo: Enric Sala/Nat Geo

29 When ocean areas protected from fishing, ecosystem recovers: Individuals become larger, more abundant, and more diverse N = number of studies PISCO (2009) Science of Marine Reserves; Data from Lester et al. (2009) MEPS

30 Moreover, large reserves are more resilient to impacts of climate change However, despite the multiple benefits of reserves Photo credit: Enric Sala, Pristine Seas, National Geographic Society

31 Marine reserves around the world <1 % of the global oceans are fully protected Figure: PISCO 2007 Science of Marine Reserves Data: Lester et al MEPS

32 Holistic Approaches to Ocean Management Rights based Fisheries Marine Reserves Photo: jpg

33

34 Recent Advances = Cause for Hope 1. Science based policy reforms to end overfishing and rebuild depleted stocks 2. Broader adoption of rights based management 3. Serious attention to ending IUU fishing 4. Creation of large no take reserves 5. Combining rights based approaches with no take marine reserves

35 Solution: fish smarter not harder 1. Holistic Science 2. Science based limits 3. Teeth & timetables 4. Partnerships 5. Empowered and incentivized fishermen and communities

36 Academies Recommendations 1. Reduce Carbon Emissions 2. Reduce nutrient, chemical and plastic pollution 3. End overfishing 4. Protect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning 5. Enhance internat l cooperation. Photo: Joe Dovala

37 Hope: Recover the bounty; use it wisely More fish in the ocean More seafood on plates More profitable businesses Healthier communities Photo: NOAA

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