Small pelagic fish market in the south of Sicily: socioeconomic linkages between catch volume and local consumption

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1 Session 4, Room 9, ID 215 Small pelagic fish market in the south of Sicily: socioeconomic linkages between catch volume and local consumption Bernardo PATTI 1, Carmen PEDROZA 2, Ignazio PIAZZA 1, Salvatore MAZZOLA 1 1 CNR-IAMC, Capo Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP), Italy 2 UAER-UNAM, s/n Esquina Felicitas del Río en Jiquilpan, Michoacán, Mexico Presenter: Bernardo PATTI CNR-IAMC, Capo Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP), Italy

2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To analyze the links between anchovy landings by pelagic pair trawlers and their market price from data collected in Sciacca harbor (Central Mediterranean Sea, Strait of Sicily) throughout the period

3 INTRODUCTION Along the southern Sicilian coast (Central Mediterranean Sea), Sciacca harbor is the most important landing site for small pelagic fish species. It accounts for about 2/3 of total catch (mainly anchovies and sardines) in GFCM- FAO Geographical Sub-Area 16 (South of Sicily). Two operational units (OUs) are presently active: purse seiners (PS) and pelagic pair trawlers (PT). The GSA16 fleet is composed by about 50 units (17 purse seiners and 30 pelagic pair trawlers; census data, December 2006). About 10 PS e 16 PT are based in Sciacca port. G.S.A. 16 For both OUs, anchovy represents the main target species due to the higher market price. STUDY AREA

4 SCIACCA port

5 Small pelagic fisheries Commercial species: Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)

6 Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) Small pelagic fish Covered with scales Maximum length: 25 cm Common length: 18 cm

7 Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) Small pelagic fish Maximum length: 20 cm Common length: 13 cm Average life: 4 years

8 Purse seine Characteristics Overview: Encircling fishing net. In general purse seine is the most efficient gear to catch large and small pelagic species that are shoaling. Fishing Operation: Searching Checking and evaluating Set the net around the fish Closing and hauling Target Species: Aggregated pelagic species (schools) of all sizes from small sardines to the large tunas. Impacts: No impact on the bottom habitat (except in shallow waters when the gear wipes the sea bottom). Main negative impact: bycatch of dolphins in certain fishing areas. Special techniques have been developed to reduce it.

9 Pelagic pair trawl Characteristics Fishing Gear: A midwater fishing net pulled through the water behind two boats. Fishing Operations: Search for fish (echosounder and sonar) Location, size and determination Paying out the net Towing Hauling Transfer on board Impacts: Almost mono -species fishery. No impact on bottom habitat and bottom structure. Discards higher than purse seine. Bycatch rates are generally low. Some incidental catch of dolphins or other marine mammals.

10 Small pelagic fishing: Purse seine (with light attraction) Anchovy fisheries is very old, it was practiced as early as eighteenth century with the so-called Vacchi ri Sadda", vessels with lateen sails. Fishing for small pelagic fish with purse seine is considered one of the most sustainable systems, because it does not affect the marine ecosystem and helps the rebuiding of fish stocks thanks to seasonality; fishing is practiced, in fact, from March to November. A fishing boat with purse seine system leaving the harbor

11 Small pelagic fishing: Purse seine (with light attraction) Small supporting boats equipped with F.A.D. (lights)

12 Purse seine (with light attraction) A fishing trip begins in the evening. After identifying the fish, lamps are lowered into the sea, so attracting the fish. When fish aggregate below the lamps, the net is lowered into the sea, forming a circle and enclosing the fish into the net.

13 Purse seine (with light attraction) Catch of small pelagic fish

14 Purse seine (with light attraction) Fish caught in the net are put on board

15 Purse seine (with light attraction) Fish are then put in big boxes with ice and water

16 Purse seine (with light attraction) Finally, fish are placed in smaller boxes ready for sale

17 Pelagic pair trawl: Operated during daytime on fish schools In contrast with purse seine, no seasonality

18 Processing of anchovies: Head removing Salting Filleting Head removing Salting Filleting

19 Fillets in glass jars Olive oil filling In spite that small pelagic fishes are quite appreciated for direct fresh consumption, landings are always totally absorbed by local transformation (canning) companies high demand. Local consumption of fresh fish is low, because small pelagic fish are considered relatively poor when compared to the wide fish variety in Sciacca market.

20 D.O.P. Brand ("Protected Designation of Origin, PDO) Product brand is going to be approved by the European Commission D.O.P. means: More controls Higher quality Consumer safety

21 Market data The Sciacca fish processing industry produces about 5,000 tons of small pelagic fish each year The annual business cycle is about 30,000,000 More than 1,000 people work in the fish processing industry

22 MATERIALS AND METHODS This study analyzes the relationship between anchovy landings from pelagic pair trawlers and their market price from daily catch/price data collected in Sciacca harbor throughout the period March December Data were obtained by on the dock interviews. Average monthly values for both the time series were firstly evaluated to the aims of the present study Line Plot (Spreadsheet0.sta 6v*178c) Mar-1999 Mar-2000 Mar-2001 Mar-2002 Mar-2003 Mar-2004 Mar-2005 Mar-2006 Mar-2007 Mar-2008 Mar-2009 Mar-2010 Mar-2011 Mar-2012 Mar-2013 Ave_catch_tons(L) Price_euro(R)

23 MATERIALS AND METHODS Both time series show a seasonal signal (more evident in the landings series, most probably linked to the ecology of the species, which spawns in coastal areas from March to September), and a significant trend, increasing for landings and decreasing for prices Line Plot (Spreadsheet0.sta 6v*178c) Mar-1999 Mar-2000 Mar-2001 Mar-2002 Mar-2003 Mar-2004 Mar-2005 Mar-2006 Mar-2007 Mar-2008 Mar-2009 Mar-2010 Mar-2011 Mar-2012 Mar-2013 Ave_catch_tons(L) Price_euro(R) Inflation adjustment was applied on the price time series (during the considered period the rise in the inflation index was +38.4%).

24 mar-99 set-99 mar-00 set-00 mar-01 set-01 mar-02 set-02 mar-03 set-03 mar-04 set-04 mar-05 set-05 mar-06 set-06 mar-07 set-07 mar-08 set-08 mar-09 set-09 mar-10 set-10 mar-11 set-11 mar-12 set-12 mar-13 set-13 mar-99 set-99 mar-00 set-00 mar-01 set-01 mar-02 set-02 mar-03 set-03 mar-04 set-04 mar-05 set-05 mar-06 set-06 mar-07 set-07 mar-08 set-08 mar-09 set-09 mar-10 set-10 mar-11 set-11 mar-12 set-12 mar-13 set-13 RESULTS In the two figures below a 12-month moving average is superimposed, in order to emphasize the general evolution in the series and better investigate on changes in the relationship between prices and landings over time. In particular, the moving average is able to remove seasonal signals from both the series. The two series appear to be generally anticorrelated, and an apparent 6-7 year long cycle in landings is also evidenced. LANDINGS MARKET PRICES y = x R² = y = x R² = MM12 monthly catch Price MM12 10 Lineare (MM12) 30 Lineare (MM12) As both the landings and the market prices exhibit a significant trend, in order to investigate on their relationship the two series were detrended before further analysis.

25 D RESULTS The relationship between detrended landings and prices evidenced the presence of elasticity for prices, most marked during the Summer and the Autumn. 50 Scatterplot (Spreadsheet0.sta 8v*178c) Season: winter Detrended_Ave_Price = *x Season: spring Detrended_Ave_Price = *x Season: summer Detrended_Ave_Price = *x Season: autumn Detrended_Ave_Price = *x Detrended_Ave_Catch Season: winter Season: spring Season: summer Season: autumn

26 P RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The figure shows the relationship between the 12-month moving averages of the two time series (prices in vertical axis and landings in horizontal axis). It is possible to note three distinct states in the relationship Intermediate years: 2002 and Low years: and Scatterplot (Spreadsheet1.sta 6v*166c) Weight-detrended-MM High years: Year: 1999 Year: 2000 Year: 2001 Year: 2002 Year: 2003 Year: 2004 Year: 2005 Year: 2006 Year: 2007 Year: 2008 Year: 2009 Year: 2010 Year: 2011 Year: 2012 Year: 2013 The first state, in the lower left corner, characterizes the first and the last years of the time series ( and , respectively), when prices were relatively low. Most of the points falls in the intermediate level, characterizing most of the years from 2002 to 2011, with the only exception of years , when prices were relatively higher in relation to landings. The first transition from the lower state to the intermediate state corresponds to the change in currency from the Italian lira to Euro (2002). The sharp transition from the intermediate state to the upper state appears to be a further attempt, extended just for a couple of years (from mid 2003 to mid 2005) to increase profitability by increasing prices. Finally, the last recent transition (in late 2011) from the intermediate to the lower state corresponds to the start of the negative effects of the global crisis on the Italian economy.

27 CONCLUSIONS Sciacca fisheries represents a good example to understand and interpret the dynamics of price elasticity in relation to fish production and in response to economic situation and trends. The results of this study show, on one hand, the importance of fish production levels in modulating market prices. Conversely, the potential relevance of the price lever in modulating fish production demand is also evidenced. This effect may be used to manage fish consumption, e.g. to the aim of fostering the substitutions from unhealthy to healthy food such as blue fish.

28 Thank you for your attention!

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