Fisheries and Conservation

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1 Fisheries and Conservation 1. Threatened fishes 2. Habitat loss and modification 3. Species introduction 4. Pollution 5. Commercial exploitation and fisheries

2 Threatened Fishes IUCN listed spp of imperiled fishes and at least 93 extinctions all extinctions from freshwater e.g., harelip sucker Specialist make up majority of extinct and endangered fishes e.g., the Devil s hole pupfish

3 Threatened Fishes Occupies 3 x 6 m limestone cave smallest habitat of any vertebrate The Devil s Hole pupfish Cyprinodon diabolis

4 Threatened Fishes IUCN listed spp of imperiled fishes and at least 93 extinctins all extinctions from freshwater Specialist make up majority of extinct and endangered fishes e.g., harelip sucker or the Devil s hole pupfish Big river fishes with need for clear water have been strongly affected e.g., sturgeons, paddlefishes, suckers Comparatively few marine fishes broader distributions

5 Habitat loss

6 Habitat loss Woody debris in streams and rivers provides habitat for fishes and their food Can contain 60% of the total invertebrate mass Produce four times more prey than mud or sand habitats Many state agencies emphasize removal for habitat improvement

7 Habitat loss Channelization involves straightening a riverine system and smoothing its sides

8 Habitat loss Channelization involves straightening a riverine system and smoothing its sides River is basically transformed into a pipe Great reduction in native fishes Floodplain habitat is eliminated 10x reduction in fish biomass in lower Mississippi

9 Habitat loss Dams fishes adapted to flowing water fare poorly in impounded water

10 Habitat loss Dams fishes adapted to flowing water fare poorly in impounded water stream assemblages replaced by sunfishes and catfishes Impede movement of spawning fishes upstream of damn Modify ecosystems more than most other human perturbations Colorado river is f****d, only about 1% of its virgin flow reaches Sea of Cortez

11 Habitat loss Giant Totoaba, Totoaba macdonaldi

12 Habitat loss Giant Totoaba, Totoaba macdonaldi

13 Habitat loss Watershed perturbation: altering the surrounding landscape or groundwater which through water must flow Logging, bulldozing for construction, groundwater and surface water withdrawal, overgrazing of streamside vegetation Deforestation

14 Habitat loss Watershed perturbation: altering the surrounding landscape or groundwater which through water must flow Logging, bulldozing for construction, groundwater and surface water withdrawal, overgrazing of streamside vegetation Deforestation increased temp due to loss of shade, increased variation in flow rates due to loss of uptake by plants, intensified erosion leading to turbidity, siltation, and stream bank collapse, and loss of nutrient input from falling leaves and fruits cessation of input of woody debris

15 Habitat loss Coral loss: bleaching, direct mining, inadvertently by harmful fishing techniques (poisons, bottom trawling, explosives), boat anchoring and diver activities, sedimentation and pollution, and changes in coral predator abundance as result of fishing practices

16 Introduced predators Nile Perch to Lake Victoria elimination of herbivorous cichlids algal blooms 70% or 200 spp are threatened or extinct Nile perch has high oil content, drying ineffective Must be smoked deforestation Species Introductions

17 Centrarchidae 31 species native to North America native east of the Rockies except for the Sacramento Perch reduced range in CA least abundant where non-native sunfishes have been introduced Bass and sunfish have been introduced all over the world now illegal Species Introductions

18 Pollution Acidic rain has led to declines in acid sensitive fishes of North America and Europe e.g., Atlantic Salmon, brook trout, and minnows in eastern US

19 Pollution Agricultural chemicals directly and indirectly cause harm to many fishes Directly ingested with food Indirectly lead to eutrophication

20 Pollution Agricultural chemicals directly and indirectly cause harm to many fishes Directly ingested with food Indirectly lead to eutrophication changes balance of algal species to inedible blue greens can raise temps and lower oxygen zones e.g., Gulf of Mexico & Clear Lake

21 Pollution

22 Pollution Agricultural chemicals directly and indirectly cause harm to many fishes Directly ingested with food Indirectly lead to eutrophication changes balance of algal species to inedible blue greens can raise temps and lower oxygen zones e.g., Gulf of Mexico & Clear Lake Clear Lake Splittail

23 Fisheries

24 Shift Towards Aquaculture

25 Shift Towards Aquaculture Today ~ 50% of seafood derived from aquaculture

26 Shift Towards Aquaculture Human growth rate is about 1.13% in ,000 people added everyday or LA county in 45 days

27 Download the app

28 Importance of Global Fisheries... Marine sources provide about 20% of the animal protein eaten by humans. Another 5% is provided indirectly via livestock fed with fish. 60% of fish consumption is by the developing world. In Asia, about 1 billion people rely on fish as their primary source of protein. The fishing enterprise employs some 200 million people worldwide

29 Fishing methods. Hook and Line Long line Jigging Trolling Traps Gill net set drift Seine Beach Purse Trawl Bottom Midwater

30 Hook and Line Trolling

31 Hook and Line Longline Drift Set

32

33 Fishing methods. Hook and Line Long line Jigging Trolling Traps Gill net set drift Seine Beach Purse Trawl Bottom Midwater

34 Drift Set

35

36

37

38 Fishing methods. Hook and Line Long line Jigging Trolling Traps Gill net set drift Seine Beach Purse Trawl Bottom Midwater

39 Purse

40 Purse Seine Roundhaul Netting

41

42 Seining Beach Seine

43 Fishing methods. Hook and Line Long line Jigging Trolling Traps Gill net set drift Seine Beach Purse Trawl Bottom Midwater

44 Bottom Trawling

45 Trawl Bottom Trawl

46 Bottom Trawl

47 Bottom Trawl

48 Satellite picture - China trawlers

49 Trawl Midwater Trawl

50

51

52 Fishing down the food web 90% decline in biomass of large predators in last 40 years

53

54 Bluefin Tuna ~3% prefishing

55 In 2013, a single Bluefin tuna weighing 222 kg sold for 1.76 million dollars or $3,603 per lb

56 Objective of Fisheries Harvest Obtain food for people to eat Objective of Fisheries Management Maximize amount of harvest Objective of Sustainable Fisheries Management Maximize amount of harvest that can be sustained indefinitely

57 Fisheries Management How can ecological knowledge contribute? Most fisheries models simple Why do stocks collapse? Objective: understand basic models within framework of population biology understand how they go wrong

58 Bottom line questions... Is there an optimal population size from which to harvest? Requires information on population growth and factors that affect it What age of fish should we harvest? Requires information on fish life history

59 Fecundity Number of eggs produced by a female (per spawning season) Variability- fecundity varies with body size and species: Atlantic cod: 200,000 (small females) to 12 million eggs (large females) Smallmouth bass: 2,000 eggs (small females) to 20,000 eggs (large females) Ocean sunfish up to 300 million eggs per year

60 Fish Egg Production Number of Eggs Body Mass

61 Body Growth Fish grow their whole lives (indeterminate growth) - rates highly variable Rates change with life stage Grow most rapidly early in life (exponential growth) Growth slows at sexual maturity (gonadal vs. somatic growth) Exponential growth curve "breaks" to form a sigmoid curve Growth plateaus when older (larger maintenance cost, more into reproduction)

62 Annual Production Population size low production limited by growth rate of population Population size high production limited by carrying capacity Low Population Size High

63 Fisheries biologists call populations STOCKS Stock Size Annual Production Limited by small population size Time Limited by carrying capacity Notice: This level is K/2! Low Stock Size High

64 What does fishing do to Stock Size? REDUCES IT! The more fishing effort, the more fish you catch, and the smaller the stock size Can we combine this with our population model to come up with something useful for fish management?

65 What is the best fishing effort to put out to maximize catch? Total Catch Maximum Sustainable Yield! Maximizes amount of fish caught per unit of fishing effort Fish stock high limited by carrying capacity Fishing Effort Fish stock low limited by growth rate of population

66 Catch vs. Fishing Effort Used as basis to define fishery status Below MSY = underfished Above MSY = overfished Total Catch Fishing Effort

67 Economics of overfishing Maximum Economic Yield Maximum Sustainable Yield Open Access Yield

68 The MSY Model as a scientific concept - assumptions: The environment is constant no fluctuations in the resources available to the populations - El Nino s, etc... All population regulation is density-dependent All mortality is due to harvesting Population reaches stable equilibrium fish populations intrinsically variable recruitment controlled by external factors No species interactions fishery changes predation, competition dynamics which affect population Replenishment independent of fishing effort

69 New Management Approaches Maintain recruitment Cut fishing effort Gear restriction Quotas Temporal restrictions Fisher ownership Ecosystem management Spatial management - Marine Reserves Essential Fish Habitats Habitats of Particular Concern Fully Protected Marine Reserves

70 Marine Reserves

71

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