1 Florida Seagrass Integrated Mapping and Monitoring Program The following document is composed of excerpts taken from the 2011 publication, Seagrass Integrated Mapping and Monitoring for the State of Florida, and highlights the Northwest Florida and South Alabama Watersheds. Summary Report for Perdido Bay Sea grasses in Perdido Bay are primarily shoal grass (Halodule wrightii) and have diminished in area 80% between 1987 and In 2002 approximately 125 acres of sea grass remained. The 2004 storm season showed few short-term effects on sea grasses. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill affected the bay, particularly near the inlet on the eastern side. Table 1. Seagrass Status in Perdido Bay Sea Grass Status Indicators Sea grass cover Water clarity Seagrass meadow texture Seagrass species composition Overall seagrass trends Figure 1. Seagrass map of Perdido Bay Status Trend Assessment, Causes either acutely over a short period of time, or chronically over a period of years. Declining, some stress present, some threats to ecosystem health either acutely over a short period of time, or chronically over a period of years. Declining 82% loss, Stable? Variable Declining No information Runoff from storms
2 Seagrass Mapping Assessment: Most of the seagrass beds surveyed in 1987 had disappeared by Interpretation of aerial photography acquired in 2010 (result of Deepwater Horizon) will evaluate current trends in seagrass cover. Table 2. Seagrass Acreage in Perdido Bay in 1987 and Change % Change 642 acres 125 acres -517 acres Monitoring Assessment: No monitoring program is in place. Some seagrass transplant sites are monitored by the NW FDEP. Summary Report for Pensacola Bay and Santa Rosa Sound Between 1950 and 1980, about 95% of seagrass habitat was lost in this coastal region of the far western Panhandle of Florida. In 2003, mapped seagrass covered 511 acres in the Pensacola Bay System and 3,032 acres in Santa Rosa Sound. Seagrass mapping data from 1992 and 2003 show a loss of seagrass acreage of about 43% in the Pensacola Bay System and a gain of almost 10% in Santa Rosa Sound. During recent surveys, seasonal hypoxia was found to affect as much as 25% of the bottom area. Portions of the bay, particularly those in the vicinity of Pensacola Pass and Gulf Breeze, were repeatedly exposed to Deepwater Horizon oil product during summer Damage assessment is ongoing. Figure 1. Seagrass cover in Pensacola Bay and Santa Rosa Sound, 2003.
3 Sea Grass Status Indicators Seagrass cover Seasonal hypoxia Seagrass meadow texture Seagrass species composition Overall seagrass trends Status Trend Assessment, Causes either acutely over a short period of time, or chronically over a period of years. either acutely over a short period of time, or chronically over a period of years Declining, some stress present, some threats to ecosystem health Declining, some stress present, some threats to ecosystem health either acutely over a short period of time, or chronically over a period of years. Declining Continuing Poor growth Little change Declining Losses, hypoxia Natural phenomena Mortality, stunted, sparse Salinity changes, high sulfide levels Salinity changes, high sulfide levels Seagrass Stressors Intensity Impact Explanation Water clarity Declining, some stress present, some threats to ecosystem health Some improvement Poor in some areas Nutrients Phytoplankton Natural events Propeller scarring Seasonal hypoxia Healthy, improving, stable conditions Healthy, improving, stable conditions Healthy, improving, stable conditions Declining, some stress present, some threats to ecosystem health either acutely over a short period of time, or chronically over a period of years. Good Good N/A N/A Continuing Table 1. Status and Trends of seagrasses in Pensacola Bay and Santa Rosa Sound. Low levels, little runoff Low levels High sulfide levels Seagrass Mapping Assessment: Between 1992 and 2003, total seagrass cover for the Pensacola Bay System declined 43%, from 894 to 511 acres, all in the upper reaches of Escambia Bay and East Bay, primarily due to increased salinity. Losses in the upper system were partly offset by a gain of 91 acres in southern Pensacola Bay. Between 1992 and 2003, seagrass beds in Santa Rosa Sound increased by 272 acres, to 3,032 acres, an increase of almost 10%. These beds are composed primarily of turtle grass along with some shoal grass, but seagrasses are sparse and stunted.
4 Basin Change % Change Total Pensacola Bay System Escambia Bay East Bay Pensacola Bay Santa Rosa Sound 2,760 3, Table 2. Acreage of Seagrass Habitat Area (Acres) Monitoring Assessment: Routine monitoring is not being conducted in this region. Summary Report for Santa Rosa Sound and Big Lagoon Seagrass beds in Santa Rosa Sound and Big Lagoon appear stable in area. In 2003, mapping from aerial photography found 3,032 acres of seagrass in Santa Rosa Sound and 543 acres in Big Lagoon. Seagrass beds in southern Santa Rosa Sound/Big Lagoon [along the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GINS)] are prone to sediment burial from unconsolidated sand carried in from nearby barrier islands. In 2009, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection s (FDEP) Ecosystem Restoration Program (ERS) found that as much as 9 cm of sand had been deposited (timeframe unknown) on monitored transplanted plots adjacent to Johnson s Beach (GINS). The FDEP ERS maintains in the area an active seagrass salvage program that relocates seagrasses about to be destroyed by marine construction to areas in which seagrasses are in need of restoration. Areas of Big Lagoon and Santa Rosa Sound near Pensacola Pass were repeatedly exposed to oil product from the Deepwater Horizon spill during the summer of Damage assessment of seagrass beds is ongoing. Figure 1. Seagrass coverage in Santa Rosa Sound, 2003.
5 Figure 2. Seagrass coverage in Big Lagoon, Sea Grass Status Status Trend Assessment, Causes Indicators Seagrass cover Healthy, improving, stable conditions Stable Seagrass meadow texture Healthy, improving, stable conditions Stable Seagrass species Healthy, improving, stable conditions Stable composition Overall seagrass trends Healthy, improving, stable conditions Stable Seagrass Stressors Intensity Impact Explanation Water clarity Healthy, improving, stable conditions Good Improving Nutrients Healthy, improving, stable conditions Good Low levels, little runoff Phytoplankton Healthy, improving, stable conditions Good Low levels Natural events Healthy, improving, stable conditions Possible Hurricanes Propellor scarring Healthy, improving, stable conditions N/A Table 1. Status and Trends of seagrasses in Santa Rosa Sound and Big Lagoon, Seagrass Mapping Assessment: Based on mapping data from aerial photography in 1992 and 2003, the area of seagrass beds in Santa Rosa Sound and Big Lagoon has increased. In 1992, there were 2,760 acres of seagrass in Santa Rosa Sound; by 2003 acreage had increased to 3,032 acres, or 9.9%. In 1992, Big Lagoon had 537 acres of seagrass; in 2003, 543 acres were mapped, an increase of 6 acres, or 1%. Basin Change % Change Santa Rosa Sound 2,760 3, % Big Lagoon Continuous % Patchy % Total (Big Lagoon) % Table 2. Acreage of Seagrass Habitat Area (Acres) in Santa Rosa Sound and Big Lagoon. Monitoring Assessment: Routine monitoring is not being conducted in this region.
6 Summary Report for Choctawhatchee Bay In 1992, seagrasses covered 4,261 acres in Choctawhatchee Bay. In 2003, total seagrass cover had decreased to 2,623 acres, a loss of 38%. In 2003, only 2% of the bay s total bottom area of 133,300 acres was covered with seagrass. Of the seagrass mapped in Choctawhatchee Bay in 1992, 83% was located in the western bay. In 2003, that percentage was even greater. No seagrass was observed in the eastern segment during mapping in In 1992, the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the eastern segment was largely composed of brackish species widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) and tape grass (Vallisneria americana) and these species are vulnerable to fluctuations in salinity and turbidity related to rainfall and runoff. Heavy winter rainfall in 2009 caused significant animal mortality and also may have affected seagrasses. Heavy rainfall also occurred in fall 2009 and winter 2010, associated with an El Niño. Figure 1. Seagrass Coverage in Choctawhatchee Bay, 2003.
7 Sea Grass Status Indicators Seagrass cover Seagrass meadow texture Seagrass species composition Overall seagrass trends Status Trend Assessment, Causes seagrass health Declining Losses, storm and stressors, either acutely over a short runoff period of time, or chronically over a period of years. Declining, some stress present, some threats Declining? to ecosystem health seagrass health and stressors, either acutely over a short period of time, or chronically over a period of years. seagrass health and stressors, either acutely over a short period of time, or chronically over a period of years. Significant change Declining Salinity changes Salinity changes, storm runoff Seagrass Stressors Intensity Impact Explanation Water clarity Declining, some stress present, some threats Declining? Storm runoff to ecosystem health Nutrients Healthy, improving, stable conditions Good Phytoplankton Healthy, improving, stable conditions Good Low levels Natural events seagrass health and stressors, either acutely over a short period of time, or chronically over a period of years. Impacts Hurricanes, El Niño Propeller scarring Healthy, improving, stable conditions Negligible Little impact Table 1. Status and Trends of Seagrasses in Choctawhatchee Bay, Seagrass Mapping Assessment: Seagrass acreage decreased from 1992 through 2003, especially in the eastern portions of the bay, where freshwater runoff caused almost complete losses of the brackish-water widgeon grass and tape grass. Impacts from hurricanes and El Niño may continue this trend Change % Change 4,261 2,623-1, % Table 2. Acreage of Seagrass Area (Acres) in Choctawhatchee Bay in 1992 and Monitoring Assessment: Monitoring was begun in summer Where seagrass is present, shoal grass (Halodule wrightii) is the most abundant seagrass in Choctawhatchee Bay. Turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) occurs at a few sites near the western end of the bay and at the entrance to Santa Rosa Sound. In 2009, m2 quadrats were evaluated for the presence of seagrasses. Of those, 76% were bare, and shoal grass was found in the remaining 24%. As shown in Figure 2, below, seagrass, for the most part, is limited to the western half of Choctawhatchee Bay. This pattern of distribution could be related to a strong, corresponding gradient in water clarity. Seagrasses are also limited to shallow water in Choctawhatchee Bay. We found shoal grass near many locations for which seagrass was mapped in 2003, and we did not find seagrass where it was not mapped in There is one large continuous seagrass bed immediately inside the inlet at Destin and another at the west end of the bay along the Intracoastal Waterway entrance to Santa Rosa Sound. Other beds within the bay are very patchy.
8 Figure 2. Location of seagrasses and water Clarity in Choctawhatchee Bay, Summary Report for St Andrew Bay In 2003, seagrasses covered 11,232 acres in St. Andrew Bay, and between 1992 and 2003 seagrass acreage increased 14%. Cover increased throughout the bay, but the greatest areal and fractional increases occurred in West Bay (585 acres, 30%). Based on aerial photos taken in 1953 and 1992, however, West Bay lost 49% of its seagrasses, or 1,853 acres over a 49 year period. Heavy winter rainfall in 2009 caused significant animal mortality and may also have affected seagrasses. Heavy rainfall associated with an El Niño event also occurred in fall 2009 and winter 2010.
9 Figure 1. Seagrass Coverage in St. Andrew Bay, Sea Grass Status Indicators Status Trend Assessment, Causes Seagrass cover Healthy, improving, stable conditions Increasing Throughout bay Seagrass meadow texture Healthy, improving, stable conditions Stable Hurricanes, tropical storms Seagrass species composition Healthy, improving, stable conditions Stable Changing over time Overall seagrass trends Healthy, improving, stable conditions Increasing Possible winter storm impacts Seagrass Stressors Intensity Impact Explanation Water clarity Declining, some stress present, some Variable threats to ecosystem health Nutrients Healthy, improving, stable conditions Variable Low levels, except West Bay Phytoplankton Healthy, improving, stable conditions Variable Low levels, except West Bay Natural events Healthy, improving, stable conditions Possible Winter rains Propeller scarring Declining, some stress present, some threats to ecosystem health Significant All shallow areas Table 1. Status and Trends of Seagrasses in St Andrew Bay, Seagrass Mapping Assessment: Seagrass beds in St. Andrew Bay expanded during the period from 1992 to 2003, with most of the increase creating continuous beds (2,205 acres). Patchy seagrass beds, however, decreased in size (804 acres). On a percentage basis, the greatest increase occurred in West Bay, and continuous beds increased by 1,495 acres. Areas showing the least change in seagrass were North Bay and St. Andrew Sound. In East Bay in particular, mapping data indicate that about half of the continuous beds in 1992 were patchy in Aerial photography scheduled for 2010 will provide an update on seagrass acreage and the effects of the storms of 2004 and 2005 and increasing development on seagrasses.
10 East Bay North Bay St Andrew Sound St Andrew bay West Bay Total 2003 Continuous 960 1, ,862 1,722 6,429 Patchy 1, , ,803 All seagrass 2,724 1, ,060 2,537 11, Continuous 1, , ,224 Patchy ,258 1,725 5,607 All seagrass 2,521 1, ,582 1,952 9,832 Percent change % 5.9% 2.7% 18.5% 30.0% 14.2% Table 2. Seagrass Acreage in St Andrew Bay in 1992 and Monitoring Assessment: Monitoring occurs in the fall in two main areas of the bay: St. Andrew Bay (SAB), behind Shell Island, and in West Bay Bowl (WBBOWL), below the Intracoastal Waterway. Five permanent transects are sampled in SAB; four permanent transects are sampled in WBBOWL. The St. Andrew Bay Resource Management Association also has three permanent transects in West Bay Arm (WBARM), two between Crooked and Burnt Mill creeks and a third on the opposite side of the bay, and annual monitoring will eventually incorporate these stations. Most of the sites in SAB and WBBOWL have been monitored since Water quality has been monitored in the entire St. Andrew Bay system since 1990, and data analysis comparing the water quality of WBBOWL, WBARM, and SAB has been completed. Increasing the number of permanent transects in the St. Andrew Bay system will help determine the impact of upland development on this pristine ecosystem. Upland development in the West Bay watershed will be substantial in the next several decades as approximately 35,000 acres of forest and wetlands will be converted to residential, commercial, and industrial use. References Seagrass Integrated Mapping and Monitoring for the State of Florida, Mapping and Monitoring Report No. 1 Edited by Laura A. Yarbro and Paul R. Carlson Jr., Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Florida, March 2011 Entire report may be accessed at:
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