Crustacean and Molluscs - production and diseases in Europe. Ed Peeler Isabelle Arzul Grant Stentiford

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1 Crustacean and Molluscs - production and diseases in Europe Ed Peeler Isabelle Arzul Grant Stentiford

2 Disease emergence & host switching Disease spread through trade in live animals Spill over from farmed to wild populations Wild populations as disease reservoirs Disease control in open water farming

3 Farmed Wild Managed Exploited

4

5 Crustacea Molluscs Major European Shellfish Spp. Wild Farmed Oysters (Ostrea edulis, Crassostrea gigas) Mussels (Mytilis edulis, M. galloprovincialis) Scallops (e.g. Pecten maximus) Cockles (Cerastoderma edule) Clams (e.g. Venerupis decussata) Native crayfish Non-native crayfish (Signal crayfish ) Crabs Lobsters Norway lobster Brown shrimp Shrimp (P. Japonicus)

6 European crustacean consumption (annual mt)

7

8 Crustacean production mt

9 Shrimp production (2011mt)

10 European mollusc production (FAO 2008)

11 Mollusc production Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oysters) France, Ireland, Spain, Portugal Mytilis edulis (blue mussel) France, Netherlands, Ireland, UK M. galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) Spain, Italy

12 European aquaculture relies on non-native species Invasive Non-invasive

13 at least 80% increase in shellfish, especially mussel, production by 2020

14

15 OIE listed diseases CRUSTACEAN DISEASES Crayfish plague White spot disease Yellow head disease Taura syndrome Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis Infectious myonecrosis Necrotising hepatopancreatitis White tail disease MOLLUSCAN DISEASES Bonamia exitiosa Bonamia ostreae Marteilia refringens Perkinsus marinus Perkinsus olseni Microcytos mackini Xenohaliotis californiensis abalone herpesvirus [Oyster herpesvirus µvar]

16 Diseases listed in EU legislation Taura syndrome White spot? Yellowhead virus

17 Diseases listed in EU legislation Perkinsus marinus Microcystos mackini? Bonamia ostreae Marteilia refringens Bonamia exitiosa?

18 Other crustacean diseases of interest Gaffkaemia (Aerococcus vividans) Haematodinium infections

19 White spot syndrome virus

20 No reports of WSSV in the EU since 2001

21 WSSV The EU may be free of WSSV BUT No WSSV approved free areas in the EU have been established

22 Establishing WSSV freedom costs benefits

23

24 Crayfish plague

25

26 Crayfish plague in Europe 1859 Introduction from US via ballast water / fish / crayfish

27 1960 Introduction of signal crayfish for farming further spread to UK and Greece

28 Oyster production in France

29 Marteilia refringens Not known outside Europe May have emerged in flat oysters by jumping from mussels Can cause mortality in mussels but economic impact unknown Small proportion of production in M. refringens free areas

30 Bonamia ostrea Contributed to the decline in O. edulis First identified in Northern France and Spain in 1979 Associated with the import of O. edulis from a hatchery in Californian Original host is a North American species of oyster? Small proportion of production in free areas

31 Bonamia exitiosa Well established in Australia and New Zealand Discovered in Spain in 2009? Identified in France and Italy Date of introduction unknown Route of introduction unknown No observed impact on C. gigas Eradication not attempted

32 Oyster herpesvirus new variant Emergence in France in 2008 Spread through France and to other European countries via movement of infected stock Subsequently observed in Australia and New Zealand Free areas in Ireland the UK established under EU legislation Recent spread through movement of stock for human consumption Planned listing by the OIE Sets precedent for listing a specific strain

33 Vibrio aestauranius a new threat? Vibrios are endemic, ubiquitious bacteria in the marine environment which can cause mortality in oysters In 2012 mortality in adult C. gigas attributed to V. aestauranius

34 Disease emergence & host switching Disease spread through trade in live animals Spill over from farmed to wild populations Wild populations as disease reservoirs Disease control in open water farming

35 Disease emergence Challenges Underlying processes Early detection Rapid response to prevent spread Spread of disease through international trade Importance of trade in commodity Notification of emerging diseases Rapid disease listing

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