North and South Atlantic Pelagic longline Fisheries Standard Version F2

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1 Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) Monterey Bay Aquarium North and South Atlantic Pelagic longline Fisheries Standard Version F2 March 12, 2015 (updated December 14, 2016) Seafood Watch Consulting Researcher Disclaimer Seafood Watch strives to have all Seafood Reports reviewed for accuracy and completeness by external scientists with expertise in ecology, fisheries science and aquaculture. Scientific review, however, does not constitute an endorsement of the Seafood Watch program or its recommendations on the part of the reviewing scientists. Seafood Watch is solely responsible for the conclusions reached in this report.

2 Table of Contents About Seafood Watch Guiding Principles Summary Final Seafood Recommendations Introduction Assessment Criterion 1: Impacts on the species under assessment Criterion 2: Impacts on other species Criterion 3: Management Effectiveness Criterion 4: Impacts on the habitat and ecosystem Acknowledgements References Appendix A: Extra By Catch Species Appendix B: Update Summary

3 About Seafood Watch Monterey Bay Aquarium s Seafood Watch program evaluates the ecological sustainability of wild-caught and farmed seafood commonly found in the United States marketplace. Seafood Watch defines sustainable seafood as originating from sources, whether wild-caught or farmed, which can maintain or increase production in the long-term without jeopardizing the structure or function of affected ecosystems. Seafood Watch makes its science-based recommendations available to the public in the form of regional pocket guides that can be downloaded from The program s goals are to raise awareness of important ocean conservation issues and empower seafood consumers and businesses to make choices for healthy oceans. Each sustainability recommendation on the regional pocket guides is supported by a Seafood Report. Each report synthesizes and analyzes the most current ecological, fisheries and ecosystem science on a species, then evaluates this information against the program s conservation ethic to arrive at a recommendation of Best Choices, Good Alternatives or Avoid. The detailed evaluation methodology is available upon request. In producing the Seafood Reports, Seafood Watch seeks out research published in academic, peer-reviewed journals whenever possible. Other sources of information include government technical publications, fishery management plans and supporting documents, and other scientific reviews of ecological sustainability. Seafood Watch Research Analysts also communicate regularly with ecologists, fisheries and aquaculture scientists, and members of industry and conservation organizations when evaluating fisheries and aquaculture practices. Capture fisheries and aquaculture practices are highly dynamic; as the scientific information on each species changes, Seafood Watch s sustainability recommendations and the underlying Seafood Reports will be updated to reflect these changes. Parties interested in capture fisheries, aquaculture practices and the sustainability of ocean ecosystems are welcome to use Seafood Reports in any way they find useful. For more information about Seafood Watch and Seafood Reports, please contact the Seafood Watch program at Monterey Bay Aquarium by calling

4 Guiding Principles Seafood Watch defines sustainable seafood as originating from sources, whether fished 1 or farmed, that can maintain or increase production in the long-term without jeopardizing the structure or function of affected ecosystems. Based on this principle, Seafood Watch had developed four sustainability criteria for evaluating wildcatch fisheries for consumers and businesses. These criteria are: How does fishing affect the species under assessment? How does the fishing affect other, target and non-target species? How effective is the fishery s management? How does the fishing affect habitats and the stability of the ecosystem? Each criterion includes: Factors to evaluate and score Guidelines for integrating these factors to produce a numerical score and rating Once a rating has been assigned to each criterion, we develop an overall recommendation. Criteria ratings and the overall recommendation are color-coded to correspond to the categories on the Seafood Watch pocket guide and online guide: Best Choice/Green: Are well managed and caught in ways that cause little harm to habitats or other wildlife. Good Alternative/Yellow: Buy, but be aware there are concerns with how they re caught. Avoid/Red Take a pass on these for now. These items are overfished or caught in ways that harm other marine life or the environment. 1 Fish is used throughout this document to refer to finfish, shellfish and other invertebrates 4

5 Summary This report focuses on longline fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean for albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Albacore tuna in the North Atlantic is currently overfished while albacore in the South Atlantic is healthy. Yellowfin tuna are overfished, while bigeye tuna populations are overfished with overfishing occurring. Swordfish populations appear to be healthy. The longline fisheries that target these species also capture a number of secondary target and bycatch species including several species of sharks, sea turtles, and seabirds. This report includes species that typically make up 5% of more of the total catch or whose status, e.g., endangered or threatened, justifies their inclusion in this report, per the Seafood Watch criteria. In the North Atlantic tuna and swordfish longline fisheries, the oceanic whitetip shark is of particular note because it has been assessed as a Critically Endangered species, based on its radical declines over time. In the South Atlantic fishery, both leatherback and loggerhead turtles are caught incidentally. These species are considered Endangered and the populations in the South Atlantic depleted; mortality due to fishing is a major threat in this area. These species are managed by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) within the Atlantic Ocean. In the North Atlantic, albacore tuna and bigeye tuna are managed through a total allowable catch (TAC) allotted to different countries (e.g., European Union, Taiwan, United States, and Venezuela) while yellowfin tuna and swordfish are managed through a country-specific TAC. In the South Atlantic, albacore, bigeye, and yellowfin tuna as well as swordfish are also managed under a TAC. ICCAT has implemented several management measures to mitigate bycatch in the longline fishery, including requiring member countries to collect and report information on bycatch and discards, prohibition of catching certain species of sharks (silky, oceanic whitetip, thresher, hammerhead, and shortfin mako), and vessels must carry safe handling, disentanglement, and release equipment for sea turtles. But there are no bycatch cap or catch limits in place, and it is unknown whether current measures have been sufficient to maintain the health of these bycatch species. Longlines do not typically come in contact with bottom habitats but do capture exceptional species, and management does not currently take this into account. 5

6 Final Seafood Recommendations SPECIES/FISHERY CRITERION 1: IMPACTS ON THE SPECIES CRITERION 2: IMPACTS ON OTHER SPECIES CRITERION 3: MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS CRITERION 4: HABITAT AND ECOSYSTEM OVERALL RECOMMENDATION Albacore tuna South Atlantic, Pelagic longline Albacore tuna North Atlantic, Pelagic longline Sw ordfish South Atlantic, Pelagic longline Sw ordfish North Atlantic, Pelagic longline Bigeye tuna South Atlantic, Pelagic longline Bigeye tuna North Atlantic, Pelagic longline Yellow fin tuna South Atlantic, Pelagic longline Yellow fin tuna North Atlantic, Pelagic longline Green (3.831) Critical (0.000) Red (1.732) Green (3.873) Avoid (0.000) Yellow (3.162) Red (1.000) Red (1.732) Green (3.873) Avoid (2.146) Green (4.472) Critical (0.000) Red (1.732) Green (3.873) Avoid (0.000) Green (4.472) Red (1.000) Red (1.732) Green (3.873) Avoid (2.340) Red (1.414) Critical (0.000) Red (1.732) Green (3.873) Avoid (0.000) Red (1.414) Red (1.000) Red (1.732) Green (3.873) Avoid (1.754) Yellow (2.709) Critical (0.000) Red (1.732) Green (3.873) Avoid (0.000) Yellow (2.709) Red (1.000) Red (1.732) Green (3.873) Avoid (2.064) 6

7 Scoring Guide Scores range from zero to five where zero indicates very poor performance and five indicates the fishing operations have no significant impact. Final Score = geometric mean of the four Scores (Criterion 1, Criterion 2, Criterion 3, Criterion 4). Best Choice/Green = Final Score >3.2, and no Red Criteria, and no Critical scores Good Alternative/Yellow = Final score > , and neither Harvest Strategy (Factor 3.1) nor Bycatch Management Strategy (Factor 3.2) are Very High 2, and no more than one Red Criterion, and no Critical scores Avoid/Red = Final Score 2.2, or either Harvest Strategy (Factor 3.1) or Bycatch Management Strategy (Factor 3.2) is Very High or two or more Red Criteria, or one or more Critical scores. 2 Because effective management is an essential component of sustainable fisheries, Seafood Watch issues an Avoid recommendation for any fishery scored as a Very High for either factor under Management (Criterion 3). 7

8 Introduction Scope of the analysis and ensuing recommendation This report focuses on longline fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean for albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Species Overview Albacore tuna are widely distributed in temperate and tropical waters in all oceans including the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. There are two populations in the Atlantic, North and South, and a third in the Mediterranean. These populations have been identified for management purposes. Biological information supports classifying these as separate populations, but also suggests that there are sub-populations within the North Atlantic and Mediterranean and that intermingling may occur between populations in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic. It is suspected that environmental changes may affect albacore populations (ICCAT 2012a). Longlines have historically captured the majority of albacore tuna worldwide (ISSF 2013b). Bigeye and yellowfin tuna are found in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic and Mediterranean (except for bigeye tuna) (ICCAT 2012a). There are four populations of bigeye and yellowfin: Western and Central Pacific Ocean, Eastern Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean. Juvenile yellowfin tuna and juvenile bigeye tuna tend to form schools with skipjack tuna that are mostly found in surface waters. Larger tunas are found in subsurface waters where they also form schools (ICCAT 2012a). Globally, longlines and purse seine fishing gears capture the majority of bigeye and yellowfin tuna, respectively (ISSF 2013). Swordfish is a widely distributed billfish species, found globally from 50 N to 50 S and throughout the Atlantic Ocean as well as the Mediterranean Sea. Spawning occurs in tropical and subtropical waters of the western Atlantic. There are three management units for swordfish: North and South Atlantic, and Mediterranean. There is some genetic evidence for these units as distinct populations, although mixing between the populations likely occurs (ICCAT 2012a). Swordfish are most commonly captured by longline fishing gear (ISSF 2013b). In the Atlantic Ocean, swordfish and tuna are managed by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). Production Statistics Longline fisheries catch the majority of albacore in the North Atlantic. Albacore catches in this region peaked in the 1960s at over 60,000 t and have declined since. In 2013, total catches in the region were 20,948 t (ICCAT 2014). In the South Atlantic, longlines are the primary gear, followed by baitboats, to capture albacore tuna. Catches in the South Atlantic peaked during the 1960s and 1970s, decreased in the early 1980s, and then increased again to a high of 40,630 t in Since the early to mid-2000s, catches have decreased. In 2013, total catches in the region were 19,148 t (ICCAT 2014). Bigeye tuna is principally caught by longlines, but also by purse seines and bait boat fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean. Peak catches of bigeye tuna occurred in 2001 (100,000 t) and catches have been declining since, to 63,066 t in 2013 (ICCAT 2014). The primary gear used to capture yellowfin tuna in the Atlantic are purse seines in the Eastern Atlantic and longlines in the Western Atlantic. By 2007, catches of yellowfin tuna throughout the Atlantic had declined by nearly 50%, from 194,000 t in 1990 to 100,000 t. In recent years, catches have begun to increase again. In the Eastern Atlantic, longline catches varied between 5,700 t and 14,638 t from the 1990s to 2007, but were only 5,434 t in Within the Western Atlantic, longline catches have varied between 10,059 t and 16,019 t since 8

9 1994, and were 10,919 t in 2013 (ICCAT 2014). Longline is the primary gear used to catch swordfish in the North Atlantic and worldwide, but other surface gears, such as handlines and harpoon, are used. Peak catches of swordfish in the North Atlantic (20,236 t) occurred in 1987 but catches have averaged around 11,551 t for the past 10 years. In 2013, total catches in the North Atlantic were 11,980 t, of which 11,293 t came from longline fisheries. Total catches in the South Atlantic were 7,787 t in 2013, with 7,672 t coming from longline fisheries (ICCAT 2014). Figure 1 Swordfish catches in the Atlantic Ocean between 1950 and 2013 (ICCAT 2014). Figure 2 Atlantic bluefin tuna catches in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (ICCAT 2014). 9

10 Figure 3 Bigeye catches in the Atlantic Ocean between 1950 and 2013 (ICCAT 2014). Figure 4 Yellowfin tuna catches in the Atlantic Ocean between 1950 and 2013 (ICCAT 2014).. 10

11 Figure 5 Albacore catches in the North Atlantic between 1950 and 2013 (ICCAT 2014) Importance to the US/North American market. The majority of albacore imported from the ICCAT Convention area by the United States came from Canada (57%), followed by Mexico (22%) (NMFS 2014). Figure 6 Major contributors to US albacore tuna imports (%), ICCAT Convention Area (country of origin) (NMFS 2013). Bigeye tuna were primarily imported from South Korea (32%), followed by Brazil (24%) in 2013 (NMFS 2014). 11

12 Figure 7 Major contributors to US bigeye tuna imports (%), ICCAT Convention Area (country of origin) (NMFS 2014) During 2013, yellowfin tuna were primarily imported from the Philippines (24%), followed by Trinidad and Tobago (18%) (NFMS 2014). Figure 8 Major contributors to US yellowfin tuna imports (%), ICCAT Convention Area (country of origin) (NMFS 2014) 12

13 The US imports the majority of swordfish from Ecuador (24%) (NMFS 2014b). Figure 9 Major contributors to US swordfish tuna imports (%), ICCAT Convention Area (country of origin) (NMFS 2014). Common and market names. Albacore tuna is also known as germon, longfinned tuna, albecore, and T. germo. In Hawaii, bigeye and yellowfin tuna are known as Ahi, and skipjack is known as Aku. Swordfish is also known as broadbilled swordfish, broadbill, espada, and emperado. Primary product forms These species are sold in fresh and frozen form and for the sushi and sashimi markets. 13

14 Assessment This section assesses the sustainability of the fishery(s) relative to the Seafood Watch Criteria for Fisheries, available at Criterion 1: Impacts on the species under assessment This criterion evaluates the impact of fishing mortality on the species, given its current abundance. The inherent vulnerability to fishing rating influences how abundance is scored, when abundance is unknown. The final Criterion 1 score is determined by taking the geometric mean of the abundance and fishing mortality scores. The Criterion 1 rating is determined as follows: Score >3.2=Green or Low Score >2.2 and 3.2=Yellow or Moderate Score 2.2=Red or High Rating is Critical if Factor 1.3 (Fishing Mortality) is Critical Criterion 1 Summary ALBACORE TUNA Region / Method South Atlantic Pelagic longline North Atlantic Pelagic longline Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Score 2.00: Medium 4.00: Low 2.00: Medium 2.00: High 3.67: Low Green (3.831) 5.00: Very Low Yellow (3.162) BIGEYE TUNA Region / Method South Atlantic Pelagic longline North Atlantic Pelagic longline Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Score 2.00: Medium 2.00: High 2.00: Medium 2.00: High 1.00: High 1.00: High Red (1.414) Red (1.414) SWORDFISH Region / Method South Atlantic Pelagic longline North Atlantic Pelagic longline Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Score 2.00: Medium 4.00: Low 2.00: Medium 4.00: Low 5.00: Very Low 5.00: Very Low Green (4.472) Green (4.472) 14

15 YELLOWFIN TUNA Region / Method South Atlantic Pelagic longline North Atlantic Pelagic longline Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Score 2.00: Medium 2.00: High 2.00: Medium 2.00: High 3.67: Low 3.67: Low Yellow (2.709) Yellow (2.709) Albacore tuna in both the North and South Atlantic are currently overfished, and undergoing overfishing in the South Atlantic. Yellowfin tuna are overfished but fishing mortality rates are sustainable. Bigeye tuna populations are overfished and undergoing overfishing. However, skipjack tuna populations appear to be healthy. Criterion 1 Assessment SCORING GUIDELINES Factor Inherent Vulnerability Low The FishBase vulnerability score for species is 0-35, OR species exhibits life history characteristics that make it resilient to fishing, (e.g., early maturing). Medium The FishBase vulnerability score for species is 36-55, OR species exhibits life history characteristics that make it neither particularly vulnerable nor resilient to fishing, (e.g., moderate age at sexual maturity (5-15 years), moderate maximum age (10-25 years), moderate maximum size, and middle of food chain). High The FishBase vulnerability score for species is , OR species exhibits life history characteristics that make is particularly vulnerable to fishing, (e.g., long-lived (>25 years), late maturing (>15 years), low reproduction rate, large body size, and top-predator). Note: The FishBase vulnerability scores is an index of the inherent vulnerability of marine fishes to fishing based on life history parameters: maximum length, age at first maturity, longevity, growth rate, natural mortality rate, fecundity, spatial behaviors (e.g., schooling, aggregating for breeding, or consistently returning to the same sites for feeding or reproduction) and geographic range. Factor Abundance 5 (Very Low ) Strong evidence exists that the population is above target abundance level (e.g., biomass at maximum sustainable yield, BMSY) or near virgin biomass. 4 (Low ) Population may be below target abundance level, but it is considered not overfished 3 (Moderate ) Abundance level is unknown and the species has a low or medium inherent vulnerability to fishing. 2 (High ) Population is overfished, depleted, or a species of concern, OR abundance is unknown and the species has a high inherent vulnerability to fishing. 1 (Very High ) Population is listed as threatened or endangered. Factor Fishing Mortality 5 (Very Low ) Highly likely that fishing mortality is below a sustainable level (e.g., below fishing mortality at maximum sustainable yield, FMSY), OR fishery does not target species and its contribution to the mortality of species is negligible ( 5% of a sustainable level of fishing mortality) (Low ) Probable (>50%) chance that fishing mortality is at or below a sustainable level, but some uncertainty exists, OR fishery does not target species and does not adversely affect species, but its 15

16 contribution to mortality is not negligible, OR fishing mortality is unknown, but the population is healthy and the species has a low susceptibility to the fishery (low chance of being caught) (Moderate ) Fishing mortality is fluctuating around sustainable levels, OR fishing mortality is unknown and species has a moderate-high susceptibility to the fishery and, if species is depleted, reasonable management is in place. 1 (High ) Overfishing is occurring, but management is in place to curtail overfishing, OR fishing mortality is unknown, species is depleted, and no management is in place. 0 (Critical) Overfishing is known to be occurring and no reasonable management is in place to curtail overfishing. ALBACORE TUNA Factor Inherent Vulnerability Medium FishBase assigned a high vulnerability score of 58 out of 100 (Froese and Pauly 2013). However, the lifehistory characteristics of albacore suggest only a medium vulnerability to fishing. For example, albacore reach sexual maturity between 5 and 6 years of age and reach a maximum age of 15 years (ISCAWG 2011). They are broadcast spawners and top predators (Froese and Pauly 2013). These life-history characteristics result in a medium vulnerability. Factor Abundance Low The 2016 assessment of albacore tuna in the South Atlantic showed that the population status has improved since the last assessment (2013). The majority of model runs indicated that the population was not overfished, with the ratio of the current biomass to that which would produce the maximum sustainable yield (B/B MSY) ranging from to (ICCAT 2016). There is a high probability that the population is healthy. We have awarded a low concern and not very low concern score to account for uncertainty in this assessment. High The population of albacore tuna in the North Atlantic has been below the level needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield (B MSY) since the mid-1980s but has improved since the lowest levels in the late 1990s. There is considerable uncertainty surrounding the status of albacore tuna in the North Atlantic, as evidenced by the wide array of model results. But the ratio of the current spawning stock biomass to that at the maximum sustainable yield (SSB CURRENT/SSB MSY) is estimated to be 0.94 ( ). There is a 0.2% probability that the population is overfished and undergoing overfishing, a 27.4% probability that the population is neither overfished nor undergoing overfishing, and a 72.4% probability that the population is either overfished or overfishing is occurring but not both (ICCAT 20013). The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas considers this population overfished and we have awarded a "high" concern score. 16

17 Factor Fishing Mortality Low According to the most recent assessment (2016), fishing mortality rates for South Atlantic albacore tuna have decreased since the previous (2013) assessment. The current ratio of fishing mortality rates to those that produce the maximum sustainable yield (F/F MSY) is estimated to range from to There is a high probability that the population is no longer undergoing overfishing (ICCAT 2016). We have awarded a low concern and not very low concern score to account for uncertainty in this assessment. Very Low The maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of albacore tuna in the North Atlantic is estimated to be 31,680 t. Historically, fishing mortality rates were above the levels needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield (F MSY) from the 1960s to mid-2000s. But currently, F 2012/F MSY = 0.72 ( ) and the population is no longer undergoing overfishing (ICCAT 2013a), so we have awarded a "very low" concern score. BIGEYE TUNA Factor Inherent Vulnerability Medium FishBase assigned a high to very high vulnerability of 72 out of 100 (Froese and Pauly 2013). However, bigeye tuna s life-history characteristics suggest a medium vulnerability to fishing. For example, bigeye tuna reach sexual maturity around cm, reach a maximum size of 200 cm, and live around 11 years (Davies et al. 2011) (Froese et al. 2013). They are broadcast spawners and top predators (Froese and Pauly 2013). These life-history characteristics result in a medium score. Factor Abundance High Bigeye tuna in the Atlantic were last assessed in Several models were used in this assessment. The Stock Synthesis model indicates the biomass has decreased over time and fell below levels necessary to produce the maximum sustainable yield (B MSY) in The Age Structured Production Model indicated the ratio of the biomass in 2014 to that needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield (B /B ) ranged 2014 MSY 17

18 between and The Virtual Population Analysis also indicated the population is overfished (ICCAT 2015a). The current status is assessed to be overfished based on the most plausible model runs ( ). We have awarded a high concern score because there is evidence the population of bigeye tuna in the Atlantic is overfished. Factor Fishing Mortality High According to the Age Structured Production model used in the 2015 assessment, the ratio of fishing mortality in 2014 to that needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield (F 2014/F MSY) ranged from to 1.436, indicating that overfishing may be occurring. According to the stock synthesis model, the F 2014/F MSY ratio appears to have decreased in recent years to below 1, suggesting overfishing is not occurring. The Virtual Population Analysis (VPA) base model indicated overfishing is not occurring, although some model runs indicated overfishing is occurring (the VPA results were sensitive to the values used for recruitment) (ICCAT 2015a). Based on the most plausible model runs ( ) there is an indication that overfishing is occurring (ICCAT 2015a). As some models indicate overfishing is occurring, we have awarded high concern. SWORDFISH Factor Inherent Vulnerability Medium FishBase assigned a high to very high vulnerability of 72 out of 100 (Froese and Pauly 2013). However, the life-history characteristics of swordfish indicate a lower vulnerability to fishing. For example, swordfish reach sexual maturity at around 180 cm in size and around 5 years of age, and they reach a maximum length of 455 cm and live more than 10 years. Swordfish are broadcast spawners and are top predators (Froese and Pauly 2013). This is more indicative of a medium vulnerability to fishing. Factor Abundance Low Swordfish populations in the South Atlantic Ocean were last assessed in There was considerable uncertainty surrounding the results, with the models providing conflicting results. However, it appears that the biomass is most likely above the levels needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield (B MSY), and the population is likely not overfished. The large amount of uncertainty surrounding the results (ICCAT 2013) precludes a score of very low concern, so this is scored as low concern. Low 18

19 The last assessment for swordfish in the North Atlantic was conducted in The population of swordfish in the North Atlantic is estimated to be at or above levels needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield (B MSY) and the population is not overfished. The results from this assessment were very similar to those from the previous assessment in 2009 (ICCAT 2013). However, concern surrounding the size structure of the population (ICCAT 2013) precludes a score of very low concern, so this is scored as low concern. Factor Fishing Mortality Very Low Despite a large amount of uncertainty surrounding the results of the 2013 assessment for swordfish in the South Atlantic, current fishing mortality rates are likely below those necessary to produce the maximum sustainable yield (F MSY) (0.75 ( )) and overfishing is likely not occurring. Because fishing levels on swordfish are sustainable, this is scored as very low concern. Very Low Fishing mortality of swordfish in the North Atlantic has been below levels needed to produce the maximum sustainable yield (F MSY) since 2000 and overfishing is not currently occurring. Fishing mortality peaked in 1995 and has shown a downward trend since, with a slight increase from (ICCAT 2013). Because fishing levels on swordfish are sustainable, this is scored as very low concern. YELLOWFIN TUNA Factor Inherent Vulnerability Medium FishBase assigned a moderate vulnerability score of 46 out of 100 (Froese and Pauly 2013). Yellowfin tuna reach sexual maturity around 100 cm in size and 2 5 years in age. A maximum length of cm can be attained and they can live 8 9 years. They are broadcast spawners and high-level predators in the ecosystem (Froese and Pauly 2014) (ICCAT 2014). These life-history characteristics also support a medium vulnerability. Factor Abundance High Yellowfin tuna in the Atlantic Ocean was last assessed in The population is currently estimated to be about 5% below Convention objectives (B 2014/B MSY = 0.95 ( )), with a 45.5% chance that the population is not overfished or undergoing overfishing. Their status has improved since the 2011 assessment, when it was estimated at 85% of B MSY with a 26% chance the population is not overfished or undergoing overfishing. However, the stock is still considered to be overfished (ICCAT 2016b). This rates as high concern 19

20 because the population is classified as overfished. Factor Fishing Mortality Low The current fishing mortality rate is estimated to be 23% below F MSY (F current/f MSY = 0.77 ( )) and the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is estimated at 126,304 t (ICCAT 2016b). This suggests that fishing mortality rates are sustainable and overfishing is not occurring. The assessment suggested only a 13.3% chance the stock is both overfished and undergoing overfishing and suggested that the continuation of current catch levels into the future will be sustainable through We have therefore awarded a low concern score. 20

21 Criterion 2: Impacts on other species All main retained and bycatch species in the fishery are evaluated in the same way as the species under assessment were evaluated in Criterion 1. Seafood Watch defines bycatch as all fisheries-related mortality or injury to species other than the retained catch. Examples include discards, endangered or threatened species catch, and ghost fishing. To determine the final Criterion 2 score, the score for the lowest scoring retained/bycatch species is multiplied by the discard rate score (ranges from 0-1), which evaluates the amount of non-retained catch (discards) and bait use relative to the retained catch. The Criterion 2 rating is determined as follows: Score >3.2=Green or Low Score >2.2 and 3.2=Yellow or Moderate Score 2.2=Red or High Rating is Critical if Factor 2.3 (Fishing Mortality) is Crtitical Criterion 2 Summary Only the lowest scoring main species is/are listed in the table and text in this Criterion 2 section; a full list and assessment of the main species can be found in Appendix B. ALBACORE TUNA - NORTH ATLANTIC - PELAGIC LONGLINE Subscore: Discard Rate: 1.00 C2 Rate: Species Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Subscore Oceanic whitetip shark 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 1.00:High Red (1.000) Bigeye tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Silky shark 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Atlantic sailfish 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Loggerhead turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Leatherback turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Atlantic bluefin tuna 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Hawksbill turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 3.67:Low Olive ridley turtle 1.00:High 2.00:High 2.33:Moderate Red (1.526) Red (1.526) Red (1.526) Red (1.916) Red (2.159) 21

22 Blue shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate Shortfin mako shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate Frigate tuna 3.00:Low 3.00:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate Yellow (2.644) Yellow (2.644) Yellow (2.644) Yellowfin tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 3.67:Low Yellow (2.709) Swordfish 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 5.00:Very Low Green (4.472) ALBACORE TUNA - SOUTH ATLANTIC - PELAGIC LONGLINE Subscore: Discard Rate: 1.00 C2 Rate: Species Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Subscore white-chinned petrel 1.00:High 2.00:High 0.00:Critical Critical (0.000) Leatherback turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Loggerhead turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High yellow-nosed albatross 1.00:High 1.00:Very High wandering albatross 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) black-browed albatross 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) grey-headed albatross 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Bigeye tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Silky shark 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Atlantic sailfish 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Yellowfin tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 3.67:Low Yellow (2.709) 22

23 Blue shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate 3.67:Low Green (3.318) Shortfin mako shark 1.00:High 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) Dolphinfish (Mahi Mahi) 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) Swordfish 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 5.00:Very Low Green (4.472) BIGEYE TUNA - NORTH ATLANTIC - PELAGIC LONGLINE Subscore: Discard Rate: 1.00 C2 Rate: Species Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Subscore Oceanic whitetip shark 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 1.00:High Red (1.000) Silky shark 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Atlantic sailfish 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Loggerhead turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Leatherback turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Atlantic bluefin tuna 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Hawksbill turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 3.67:Low Olive ridley turtle 1.00:High 2.00:High 2.33:Moderate Blue shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate Shortfin mako shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate Frigate tuna 3.00:Low 3.00:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate Red (1.526) Red (1.526) Red (1.526) Red (1.916) Red (2.159) Yellow (2.644) Yellow (2.644) Yellow (2.644) Yellowfin tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 3.67:Low Yellow (2.709) 23

24 Albacore tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 5.00:Very Low Swordfish 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 5.00:Very Low Yellow (3.162) Green (4.472) BIGEYE TUNA - SOUTH ATLANTIC - PELAGIC LONGLINE Subscore: Discard Rate: 1.00 C2 Rate: Species Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Subscore white-chinned petrel 1.00:High 2.00:High 0.00:Critical Critical (0.000) Leatherback turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Loggerhead turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High yellow-nosed albatross 1.00:High 1.00:Very High wandering albatross 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) black-browed albatross 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) grey-headed albatross 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Silky shark 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Atlantic sailfish 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Yellowfin tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 3.67:Low Yellow (2.709) Blue shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate 3.67:Low Green (3.318) Albacore tuna 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) Shortfin mako shark 1.00:High 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) Dolphinfish (Mahi Mahi) 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) 24

25 Swordfish 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 5.00:Very Low Green (4.472) SWORDFISH - NORTH ATLANTIC - PELAGIC LONGLINE Subscore: Discard Rate: 1.00 C2 Rate: Species Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Subscore Oceanic whitetip shark 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 1.00:High Red (1.000) Bigeye tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Silky shark 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Atlantic sailfish 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Loggerhead turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Leatherback turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Atlantic bluefin tuna 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Hawksbill turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 3.67:Low Olive ridley turtle 1.00:High 2.00:High 2.33:Moderate Blue shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate Shortfin mako shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate Frigate tuna 3.00:Low 3.00:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate Red (1.526) Red (1.526) Red (1.526) Red (1.916) Red (2.159) Yellow (2.644) Yellow (2.644) Yellow (2.644) Yellowfin tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 3.67:Low Yellow (2.709) Albacore tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 5.00:Very Low Yellow (3.162) 25

26 SWORDFISH - SOUTH ATLANTIC - PELAGIC LONGLINE Subscore: Discard Rate: 1.00 C2 Rate: Species Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Subscore white-chinned petrel 1.00:High 2.00:High 0.00:Critical Critical (0.000) Leatherback turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Loggerhead turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High yellow-nosed albatross 1.00:High 1.00:Very High wandering albatross 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) black-browed albatross 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) grey-headed albatross 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Bigeye tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Silky shark 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Atlantic sailfish 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Yellowfin tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 3.67:Low Yellow (2.709) Blue shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate 3.67:Low Green (3.318) Albacore tuna 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) Shortfin mako shark 1.00:High 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) Dolphinfish (Mahi Mahi) 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) YELLOWFIN TUNA - NORTH ATLANTIC - PELAGIC LONGLINE Subscore: Discard Rate: 1.00 C2 Rate:

27 Species Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Subscore Oceanic whitetip shark 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 1.00:High Red (1.000) Bigeye tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Silky shark 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Atlantic sailfish 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Loggerhead turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Leatherback turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Atlantic bluefin tuna 1.00:High 1.00:Very High Hawksbill turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 3.67:Low Olive ridley turtle 1.00:High 2.00:High 2.33:Moderate Blue shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate Shortfin mako shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate Frigate tuna 3.00:Low 3.00:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate 2.33:Moderate Albacore tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 5.00:Very Low Swordfish 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 5.00:Very Low Red (1.526) Red (1.526) Red (1.526) Red (1.916) Red (2.159) Yellow (2.644) Yellow (2.644) Yellow (2.644) Yellow (3.162) Green (4.472) YELLOWFIN TUNA - SOUTH ATLANTIC - PELAGIC LONGLINE Subscore: Discard Rate: 1.00 C2 Rate: Species Inherent Vulnerability Abundance Fishing Mortality Subscore white-chinned petrel 1.00:High 2.00:High 0.00:Critical Critical (0.000) Leatherback turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 0.00:Critical Critical (0.000) 27

28 Loggerhead turtle 1.00:High 1.00:Very High yellow-nosed albatross 1.00:High 1.00:Very High wandering albatross 1.00:High 1.00:Very High 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical 0.00:Critical Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) Critical (0.000) black-browed albatross 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) grey-headed albatross 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Bigeye tuna 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Silky shark 1.00:High 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Atlantic sailfish 2.00:Medium 2.00:High 1.00:High Red (1.414) Blue shark 1.00:High 3.00:Moderate 3.67:Low Green (3.318) Albacore tuna 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) Shortfin mako shark 1.00:High 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) Dolphinfish (Mahi Mahi) 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 3.67:Low Green (3.831) Swordfish 2.00:Medium 4.00:Low 5.00:Very Low Green (4.472) This report focuses on tuna and swordfish longline fisheries operating in the Atlantic Ocean. Several species of sharks, sea turtles, and sea birds are also incidentally captured in these fisheries. Bycatch of seabirds in the Atlantic occurs in the highest amounts south of 30 S, specifically for albatrosses, giant petrels, and petrels. Few, if any, interactions have been observed between pelagic longlines and seabirds north of 30 S {Inoue et al. 2012}. This report includes species that either make up at least 5% of the total catch and are considered main species (per the Seafood Watch criteria) or are a stock of concern, endangered, etc. Reported catches from the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) Task I database for 2011 were used to determine the main species. Other species were identified through the literature, which is cited in the tables below. The worst scoring species for the North Atlantic longline fishery is the oceanic whitetip shark because of its stock status. For the South Atlantic fishery, loggerhead and leatherback sea turtles are the worst scoring species due to their stock status. 28

29 North Atlantic-pelagic Species Justification Source Blue shark 23% reported catch 2011 ICCAT 2 Shortfin mako shark Third most commonly caught species; 3% reported catch 2011 ICCAT 2 Oceanic whitetip shark <5%, depleted Cortes e Shortfin mako shark 3% 9% reported catch 2011 (NW/NE), status ICCAT 2 Frigate tuna 6% reported catch 2011 (NE) ICCAT 2 Hawksbill turtle Depleted Wallace Leatherbak Depleted Wallace loggerhead Depleted Wallace Olive ridley Depleted Wallace South Atlantic-pelagic Species Justification Source Blue shark 50% reported catch 2011 ICCAT 2011 Shortfin mako shark 2-7% reported catch 2011 (SW/SE) ICCAT 2011 Blue shark 20-59% reported catch 2011 (SW/SE) ICCAT 2011 Dolphinfish 9% reported catch 2011 (SW) ICCAT 2011 Leatherbak Depleted Wallace et al loggerhead Depleted Wallace et al Grey-headed albatross Depleted Inoue et al Black-browed albatross Depleted Inoue et al Wandering albatross Depleted Inoue et al White-chinned petrel Depleted Inoue et al Yellow-nosed albatross Depleted Inoue et al Criterion 2 Assessment SCORING GUIDELINES Factor Inherent Vulnerability (same as Factor 1.1 above) 29

30 Factor Abundance (same as Factor 1.2 above) Factor Fishing Mortality (same as Factor 1.3 above) WHITE-CHINNED PETREL Factor Inherent Vulnerability High Sea birds have a high level of vulnerability (Seafood Watch 2013). Factor Abundance High The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed white-chinned petrel as Vulnerable with a decreasing population trend. The global population is estimated to have declined from 1,430,000 pairs in the 1980s to 1,200,000 pairs currently (BirdLife International 2012d). Based on the IUCN status, this is scored as high concern. Factor Fishing Mortality Critical The incidental capture of white-chinned petrels in longline fisheries is thought to be a factor in ongoing population declines (BirdLife International 2012d). Between 1997 and 2009, 47 white-chinned petrels were observed as incidentally captured in longline fisheries in the South Atlantic, the fourth-most commonly observed species (Inoue et al. 2012). This species also has a high overlap with the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) Convention Area (Phillips et al. 2006). Bycatch mitigation measures that meet best practices are in place in pelagic longline fisheries operating in the Atlantic (Gilman 2011), but these measures may not be fully implemented throughout the region. This results in a score of critical concern. Factor Discard Rate < 20% Tuna longline fisheries have an average discard rate of 28.5%, although discard rates can range from 0 40% (Kelleher 2005). Within the Atlantic, discard rates typically range from 10 19% (Kelleher 2005). 30

31 LOGGERHEAD TURTLE Factor Inherent Vulnerability High Sea turtles have a high level of vulnerability (Seafood Watch 2013). Factor Abundance Very High The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classified loggerhead turtles as Endangered in 1996, although it has been suggested that this needs to be updated (MTSG 2006). Loggerheads are listed on Appendix 1 of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES). The population of nesting turtles in the Western North Atlantic has been declining since the late 1990s (NMFS 2009). Based on the IUCN and CITES listings, this is scored as very high concern. Very High The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classified loggerhead turtles as Endangered in 1996, although it has been suggested that this needs to be updated (MTSG 2006). Loggerheads are listed on Appendix 1 of CITES. Populations of nesting turtles in Brazil (South Atlantic) increased between 1988 and 2004 (NMFS 2009). However, it is unclear if this trend exists throughout the region. This is scored as very high concern. Factor Fishing Mortality Moderate The incidental capture of loggerhead turtles is considered a primary threat to their populations (MTSG 2006). In the Atlantic Ocean it has been estimated that between 150,000 and 200,000 loggerheads were incidentally caught during 2000 (Lewison et al. 2004). The majority of information available is from the U.S. pelagic longline fishery, and the Canadian fishery to an extent. For example, it is estimated that the U.S. fishery catches 30,000 loggerheads a year, resulting in 872 deaths per year (NMFS 2009b). The Canadian fishery caught 1,200 loggerhead turtles between 2002 and 2008 (Paul 2010). An assessment conducted during 2009 determined that there was not enough information to assess the effect of loggerhead mortality in individual fisheries (NMFS 2009b) (Paul 2010). However, a meta-data analysis found that bycatch impacts to this population are low (Wallace et al. 2013). There are sea turtle management measures in place for pelagic longline fisheries in the Atlantic, but they do not meet best practices, such as specific hook and bait requirements (Gilman 2011). Because bycatch impacts may be low but sea turtle mitigation measures do not meet best practices, this is scored as moderate concern. 31

32 Critical The incidental capture of loggerhead turtles is considered a primary threat to their populations (MTSG 2006). In the Atlantic Ocean it has been estimated that between 150,000 and 200,000 loggerheads were incidentally caught during 2000 (Lewison et al. 2004). The Brazilian and Uruguayan fisheries in the South Atlantic are reported to have high sea turtle bycatch rates, which may include loggerheads (Giffoni et al. 2008) (Sales et al. 2010). In the Southwest Atlantic, loggerheads have a low population risk but high impact from bycatch (Wallace et al. 2013). There are sea turtle management measures in place but they do not meet best practices, such as hook and bait requirements (Gilman 2011). Because loggerheads are depleted in this area, bycatch from longline fisheries is a contributing factor, and adequate management measures are not in place, this is scored as critical concern. Factor Discard Rate < 20% Tuna longline fisheries have an average discard rate of 28.5%, although discard rates can range from 0 40% (Kelleher 2005). Within the Atlantic, discard rates typically range from 10 19% (Kelleher 2005). LEATHERBACK TURTLE Factor Inherent Vulnerability High Sea turtles have a high level of vulnerability (Seafood Watch 2013). Factor Abundance Very High Leatherback sea turtles have been listed as Endangered by the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) since 1970 (NMFS 2012). The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classified leatherback turtles as Critically Endangered, with a decreasing population trend, in 2000 (Martinez 2000). In addition, leatherback turtles have been listed on the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) since 1975 and are currently listed on CITES Appendix 1, meaning that they are threatened with extinction if international trade is not prohibited. In the Atlantic, the population size is estimated between 34,000 and 94,000 (TEWG 2007). Based on the IUCN and CITES listings, this is scored as very high concern. Factor Fishing Mortality Moderate 32

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