5.16 NETHERLANDS. Short description of the national fleet. Fleet capacity. Fleet structure. Employment. Effort. Production

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1 5.16 NETHERLANDS Short description of the national fleet Fleet capacity In 2015, the Dutch fishing fleet consisted of 718 registered vessels, 203 of which were inactive, with a combined gross tonnage of 126 thousand GT, a total power of 266 thousand kw and an average age of 31 years. Within the last 8 years the size of the fishing fleet fluctuated between vessels. In 2015, the number of fishing enterprises totalled 571, with the vast majority (84%), owning a single vessel. Around 16% of the enterprises owned two to five fishing vessels and only a few enterprises owned more than 5 vessels. Fleet structure According to the EU standards the Dutch fishing fleet can be divided into a small scale coastal fleet (33% of the vessels in 2015) and a large scale fleet (67% of the vessels in 2015). Nationally, the fishing fleet is divided into an active cutter fleet (active vessels with a minimum vessel length of 12m and an income of euro or more), a trawler fleet (targeting pelagic fish species) and the other small scale fisheries fleet (fisheries that do not fit in above mentioned fleets). The cutter fleet can be divided into 4 kw-categories. The first category is the 191 kw shrimp vessels fishing with beam trawls or demersal trawls. The second category, vessels with kw engines, fish with pulse/sumwing/beam trawls or demersal trawls on shrimps and/or flatfish and are called Eurokotters. The largest kw-category, vessels with kw engines, mainly fish with pulse/sumwing/beam trawls on flatfish. The vessels between the Eurokotters and the largest kw-category, vessels with engines between kw, fish mainly with seine trawl (flyshoot) or demersal trawls. The trawler fleet fish with midwater trawls on pelagic fish species. The other small scale fisheries fleet can be subdivided into inactive vessels, static gear vessels, and other coastal fisheries like dredges, pole and line fisheries, etcetera. Employment Total employment in 2015 was estimated around jobs, corresponding to around FTEs % of the jobs come from the small scale coastal fleet, where the rest comes from the large scale fleet. The decrease of the number of vessels in the pelagic trawler fleet caused a decrease in the number of jobs. The cutter fleet represents around 60% of the jobs in Dutch fisheries, where the trawler fleet and the other small scale fisheries represent 20-25% and 15-20% respectively. Effort In 2015, the Dutch fleet spent a total of 49 thousand days at sea, a slim increase from Compared with average the effort decreased by 5%. The quantity of fuel consumed in 2015 is estimated around million litres, an increase of <1% from 2014 but a decrease of 27% compared with the average. In reality the fuel consumption decreased, but this is not reflected in the model outcome as the reasons for the reduction (shift to more fuel efficient gears) is not included in the calculations. The major factors causing the decrease in fuel consumption include the results of innovation programmes (introduction of new technics in fishing gear) that commenced in 2008 and the decrease of effort in kw-days. Transition to sustainable fisheries is an ongoing process. In 2015, almost all EU allowances for pulse technique were in effect in the Netherlands. This resulted in 40 to 60% less fuel consumption per vessel per day at sea. In the same year a new innovative fuel efficient vessel (MDV-vessel) was introduced in the flatfish fleet. The first results show that the fuel consumption for this vessel is around 400 litres per landed tonne. The fuel consumption per landed tonne for comparable fisheries amounted litres in It is estimated that fuel consumption will decrease again in the next few years, depending on the size of the vessels. The average Landings per unit of Effort (LpuE) for the Dutch large scale fisheries amounted 7.18 tonne per DaS in 2015, a decrease of 14% compared to De reason of this decrease can be found in the reduced landings of pelagic fish by the pelagic trawler fleet. The average LpuE for the trawler fleet amounted tonne per DaS. Without the trawler fleet, the large scale LpuE amounted 1.98 tonne per DaS. The small scale coastal fleet amounted 0.16 tonnes per DaS. Production The total weight of fish and shellfish landed by the Dutch fleet in 2015 was thousand tonnes, with a value of million. Compared to 2014, the total landings weight and value decreased by 14% and 1% respectively. The decrease in weight is mainly caused by the decreased landings weight of pelagic fish species. The total landings of pelagic fish fluctuates from year to year. Due to increased fish prices for the most important demersal fish species there was only a slight decrease in landings value. The demersal fleet targets mainly flatfish and common shrimp. The top landed flatfish species are European plaice and sole. Where sole is generating the highest landed value ( 94.4 million) and representing about 26% of the total landings value, European plaice is most important in terms of the landings weight. European plaice (32.2 thousand tonnes) 337

2 generating the third highest landed value ( 46.8 million). The second highest landed value is generated by common shrimp ( 57.3 million). The trawler fleet targets mainly pelagic species. In 2015 the most important species were herring ( 25.6 million), mackerel ( 24.0 million), horse mackerel ( 22.9 million), blue whiting ( 16.9 million) and pilchard ( 5.1 million). Economic results for 2014 and recent trends National fleet performance The economic performance of the Dutch national fleet improved in 2014 and it is expected to continue in 2015 and The total amount of income generated by the Dutch national fleet in 2014 was million. This consisted of million landings value and around 1.4 million in non-fishing income. When including income from leasing fishing rights, total income amounted to million. Total income increased between 2013 and 2014 but is expected to have decreased in Total costs in 2014 were 371 million, consisting of 328 million in operating costs and a further 43 million in capital costs. Total costs for 2014 increased. Labour and energy costs, the two major fishing expenses, amounted to 98 and 79 million, respectively in Saving fuel is one of the most important goals of the Dutch fleet. Energy costs decreased 19% between 2013 and 2014 (37% since 2008). Energy costs are likely to decrease further in 2015 and 2016, due to decreasing fuel prices and increased investments in fuel saving gears. Gross Value Added (GVA), gross profit and net profit generated by the Dutch national fleet in 2014 were estimated at 178 million, 71 million and 27 million, respectively. GVA increased 18%, gross profit and net profit increased 45% and 655%. These results indicate a highly improved economic situation compared to previous years. All indicators are expected to further increase in 2015 and The major factors causing the improvement in economic performance include higher landings of more valuable species, higher fish prices and lower costs mainly because of decreasing fuel prices and fuel saving (e.g. pulse) techniques in the flatfish fleet. In 2014, the Dutch fleet had a (depreciated) replacement value of 317 million, which was higher than the year before, and a value of fishing rights of 274 million. Fishing rights and quota are transferable in the Netherlands. Selling/buying and leasing these rights are quite common and prices fluctuate substantially from year to year, depending on market availability (e.g. quota for sole or plaice available or not). Since the introduction of the pulse (high selectivity for sole) sole prices grew substantially (lease prices of around 3.35 in 2015). Investments amounted to 45 million in 2014 and did not change significantly with Dutch vessels are old: the average age is 31 years. The age increases almost every year as no investment in building new vessels is being made. The introduction of the MDV vessel and improved economic performance can stimulate fleet renewal in the cutter fleet. Resource productivity and efficiency indicators The gross profit margin in 2014 was 18.5%, indicating a high operating efficiency of the sector. This percentage increased yearly since 2011 (gross profit margin of 5.9%). Net profit margin was estimated at 7.1%, a 644% increase on The Rate of Return on Fixed Tangible Assets (RoFTA) improved substantially in comparison with previous years and moved from negative to positive between 2013 and 2014, from -2 to 10%. Labour productivity (GVA/FTE) increased substantially in 2014: 106 thousand per FTE. GVA increased (18%) and the number of FTE decreased (4%), indicating efficiency gains. Fuel consumption per landed tonne has followed an overall decreasing trend since 2008, and amounted 0.39 thousand litres per tonne landed in LpuE (in days at sea) also showed a decreasing trend since 2008 but increased by 15% in The landed weight per DaS amounted 7.86 tonne. Drivers affecting the economic performance trends As mentioned earlier in this chapter higher average fish prices, lower fuel costs and further introduction of innovative fuel saving fishing gears were the main driving forces behind the overall improvement. The Dutch demersal fishing fleet is dominated by trawlers, beam trawlers and demersal trawlers. As trawling is typically fuel intensive, fluctuations in fuel consumption and fuel prices are therefore key drivers of the fleet s profitability. Markets and Trade European plaice generally compete with other (non-)european flatfish species. However, they also compete with white fish species on the same market in and outside Europe. An increased dollar exchange rate helped this flatfish to become more attractive, where important non-european whitefish species became less attractive due to relatively higher import prices. As effect of the increased attractiveness the plaice price went up. 338

3 Most flatfish caught by the Dutch fishing sector is consumed in southern Europe in countries like Italy, Spain and France. In northern Europe Germany is an important country for the consumption of flatfish. In terms of product characteristics demand varies across Europe. Countries in southern Europe tend to prefer whole fish whereas north western European countries prefer convenience products like fillets. Nigeria, an important export market for small pelagics, started a structured fish embargo at the start of In this same year Russia introduced a ban on seafood imports from Europe. These changes decreased the market opportunities for the pelagic trawler sector. In reaction, the EU allowed the fisheries to bank quota to 2015 to prevent waste of fish products. Management instruments The Dutch fleet is managed mainly through ITQs for the most important species, together with a range of input controls. In the context of the recovery of cod stocks, a number of effort measures (including real time closures) were implemented depending on the fishing gear in the North Sea, the Irish Sea, Skagerrak and west of Scotland. Many additional yearly restrictions exist, depending on the fleet segment, the species and area. Due to Natura 2000 demersal trawl fisheries are facing many closed areas. Beside that other activities in the North Sea other than fisheries claim more and more space. As a result, fisheries are forced to change their fishing grounds. TACs and quotas Total initial available quota for the Dutch fleet in 2014 was 294 thousand tonnes. For the most important species, quota are managed through ITQs. The global quota for sole, which is especially important for the Dutch fleet, was kept more or less stable at tonnes in The Dutch quota for European plaice increased 14% to Most of the sole and plaice quota is available for the North Sea and Norwegian Sea, tonnes and tonnes, respectively. The Netherlands conducts quota trades with other member states. This, together with the transferable quota from 2014 to 2015, allowed for a sufficient amount of quota for important fish species like plaice in Trading with other member states allowed for a 4% increase in sole quota, amounting to a total of tonnes. For European plaice this amounted to a total of tonnes (+30%). In 2014 and 2015 sole quota was fully used. Lease prices for this species went up from around 0.28 in 2012 to around 3.35 in Reduced sole TACs and the introduction of pulse technic in the Netherlands (high selectivity for sole) were the main drivers for this increase in quota lease prices. The utilisation of plaice quota was low in 2014 and 2015 and lease prices were also very low. Status of Key Stocks Most of the imported stocks fished by the Dutch fleet are fished at MSY. Some other stocks (like Cod) are still overfished. Innovation and Development Research on technical innovation as an alternative for the beam trawl in the flatfish fishery is on-going. Around 80 commercial vessels are currently using pulse technique. Most of these vessels target flatfish. There are 4 vessels licensed to fish with pulse technique on shrimp. Dissension within the (Dutch) shrimp sector inhibits the developments of this technique. Increased cooperation between (and within) the Dutch, German and Belgian shrimp fishers could accelerate the innovation process. Different projects to shorten the fish value chain are also on-going. Some fishers did research on different kinds of cooperation, where other started to sell their own fish directly via internet. Performance by fishing activity Small-scale fleet In 2014, there were 178 vessels belonging to the small-scale coastal fleet according to the European definition (vessels under 12m using passive gears). The segment accounts only <1% of the national total volume of landings. The segment employs 18% of total number of fishers and 6% in terms of FTE. The segment generated 2.6 million of gross value added ( 2.7 million in 2013), 1.4 million of gross profit ( 1.4 million in 2013) and 0.4 million of net profit ( 0.6 in 2013). 339

4 Large-scale fleet In 2014, there were 357 vessels belonging to the large-scale fleet. The large scale fleet is dominated by the pelagic trawler fleet and demersal beam trawl fleet. The segment accounts over 99% of the national total volume of landings. The segment employs 82% of total number of fishers and 94% in terms of FTE. The segment generated million of gross value added ( million in 2013), 69.3 million of gross profit ( 47.3 million in 2013) and 26.9 million of net profit (- 5.6 million in 2013). Performance results of selected fleet segments The Dutch fleet is highly diversified with a broad range of vessel types targeting different species predominantly in the North Sea (demersal fleet) and North East Atlantic Ocean (pelagic fleet), around the UK and Ireland. Besides that, a part of the pelagic fleet operates in African waters and in the Pacific. The economic performance of the fleet relies heavily on innovation and technical/structural development. The Dutch government and the EU supported the fisheries sector to produce fish in a more sustainable way with economic perspectives. Projects started a few years ago (e.g. knowledge networks ) helped to improve entrepreneurship in fisheries so that fishers will be able to compete in international fish business in future. The national fleet consisted of 14 (DCF) fleet segments in Almost all of the larger active fleet segments made profits in Table provides a breakdown of key performance indicators for all 14 fleet segments in A short description of the five most important segments in terms of total value of landings is provided below. Beam trawl over 40m 51 vessels make up this segment which operates predominantly in the North Sea. The fleet targets a variety of species but in particular flatfish, such as sole, plaice and turbot. In 2014, the total value of landings was almost 106 million and around 343 FTEs were employed in this fleet segment, contributing to 28% and 20% of the total income from landings and FTEs generated by the Dutch fishing fleet, respectively. This fleet segment was profitable in 2014, with a reported GVA, gross profit and net profit of 53.1 million, 25.9 million and 19.7 million respectively. Conventional beam trawl vessels and SumWing vessels made a small profit whereas vessels fishing with pulse techniques made a high profit. Pelagic trawl over 40m 11 vessels made up this segment which operated predominantly in the North East Atlantic Ocean and to a lesser extend in the North Sea. The fleet targeted pelagic species, particularly herring, mackerel, horse mackerel, blue whiting, pilchard and sardinella. The total value of landings was over 123 million and around 408 FTEs were employed in this fleet segment, contributing to 33% and 24% of the total income from landings and FTEs generated by the Dutch fishing fleet, respectively. This fleet segment was not profitable. It should be noted that the prices obtained from the pelagic sector are internal prices used to calculate the wage of the crew of the fishing vessel. The integrated companies cover the whole production chain from fishing to the consumer and there are no real market prices to compare with. Information about the economic performance of the overall companies is not available, so it is hard to evaluate whether the profits presented here resemble reality. Beam trawl 18-24m 154 vessels made up this segment which operated predominantly in the North Sea and in the coastal zone. The fleet mainly targeted common shrimp and some vessels targeted langoustines (seasonally) and flatfish, such as sole, plaice and turbot. In 2014, the total value of landings was around 71 million and around 434 FTEs were employed in this fleet segment, contributing to 19% and 26% of the total income from landings and FTEs generated by the Dutch fishing fleet, respectively. This fleet segment was profitable in 2014, with a reported GVA, gross profit and net profit of 40.4 million, 14.7 million and 8.3 million respectively. Beam trawl 24-40m 28 vessels made up this segment which operated predominantly in the North Sea. The fleet targeted in particular flatfish, such as sole, plaice and turbot. In 2014, the total value of landings was over 28 million and around 138 FTEs were employed in this fleet segment, contributed to 8% of both the total income from landings and FTEs generated by the Dutch fishing fleet. This fleet segment was profitable in 2014, with a reported GVA, gross profit and net profit of 13.2 million, 5.7 million and 3.3 million respectively. Demersal trawls and seiners 24-40m 22 vessels made up this segment which operated predominantly in the North Sea. The fleet targeted a variety of species like mullet, gurnard, squid and sea bass (mainly fly shoot method) but also flatfish, such as plaice and turbot. In 2014, the total value of landings was over 24 million and around 116 FTEs were employed in this fleet segment, contributing to 6% and 7% of the total income from landings and FTEs generated by the Dutch fishing fleet, respectively. 340

5 This fleet segment was profitable in 2014, with a reported GVA, gross profit and net profit of 10.4 million, 3.8 million and 1.5 million respectively. Projections for 2015 and outlook The number of vessels within the trawler fleet will decrease to 8 in The pelagic vessels become more efficient (faster freezing technics) and have enough capacity to fish their quota. Despite the reduced landings of pelagic fish species in 2015 (-18%), it is expected that this segment will make further economic performance improvements in this year. Increased fish prices for sole (+10% to 10.27), plaice (+20% to 1.45) and common shrimp (+7% to 3.03) in 2015, together with increased landing volumes for plaice (+10% to 32.2 thousand tonne), stable landing volumes for sole (+0% to 9.2 thousand tonne) and reduced landing volumes for common shrimp (-19% to 18.9 thousand tonnes) will improve the landings income for the demersal flatfish fisheries and decrease the income for the demersal shrimp fisheries. These changes in income, together with decreased fuel prices (-28% to 0.41) and fuel consumption per vessel (due to further innovations in fishing technics) will realise generally improve economic performance across fleet types and for the Dutch fishery overall. Projections for 2015 show an overall decrease of 15% in landed weight and a 1% decrease in landed value. However, with the decrease in fixed and variable costs across all measures, most notably fuel costs (-23%), gross profits and net profits are expected to increase by 43% and 129% respectively. These gains in 2015 gains are also expected for 2016 if fish and fuel prices do not fluctuate too much in the 2 nd half of the year. Increases in landed weight (17%) and value (8%) are projected to feed through to further increases in profitability with gross profit margins and net profit margins reaching 30% and 19% respectively. Vessels that do not own sole quota (e.g. static gear vessels) may face problems in 2015 and The lease price for sole increased substantially the last years due to optimal use of sole TAC. The relatively high lease price (around 3.30) could realise an enormous increase in total costs for these vessels. One important future driver is that the fisheries sector is preparing to meet the requirements with respect to landing obligation which started in January 2015 for the pelagic fisheries and in January 2016 for the demersal fisheries. Fishers started projects (supported by the Dutch government and EU) to decrease unwanted bycatch and to develop markets for landed unwanted catch. Generally, fishers share ideas (within knowledge networks) about designs of gear to diminish discards. Besides that, ideas about fishing behaviour are exchanged so that the impact of fisheries will be minimised. Data issues Most of the segments in the Dutch fishing fleet were well covered. In some of the smaller segments (DRB 0-10 m, DTS 0-10 m and TBB m) variation in activity levels was high resulting in high uncertainty in the economic indicators estimates and large fluctuations from year to year. Moreover the smaller fleet segments are clusters of vessels using different fishing techniques: - Drift and/or fixed netters 12-18m include drift and/or fixed netters 12-18m and vessels using pots and/or traps 12-18m - Drift and/or fixed netters 18-24m include drift and/or fixed netters 18-24m, vessels using pots and/or traps 18-24m and vessel using other active gears 18-24m - Dredgers 24-40m include drift and/or fixed netters 24-40m, dredgers 24-40m and dredgers 40m or larger - Beam trawlers 0-10m include demersal trawlers and/or demersal seiners 10-12m, purse seiners 0-10m, beam trawlers 0-10m, beam trawlers 10-12m, pelagic trawlers 0-10m and pelagic trawlers 10-12m. - Beam trawlers 12-18m include demersal trawlers and/or demersal seiners 12-18m, beam trawlers 12-18m and pelagic trawlers 12-18m. Therefore, these figures should be viewed as indicative for the size of the sector rather than describing the exact trends. Currently work is being carried out to improve the estimation procedures. 341

6 Data source: MS data submissions under the DCF 2016 Fleet Economic (MARE/A3/AC(2016)); All monetary values have been adjusted for inflation; constant prices (2015). Figure 5.15 Netherlands: Main trends in economic performance indicators (absolute value, panel 1a/top left and relative value, panel 1b/top right); cost structure (panel 2a); productivity (panel 2b); key input/outputs (panel 3a); efficiency (panel 3b); landings (panel 4a); average price of top species (panel 4b). 342

7 Table 5.66 Netherlands: National fleet statistics and economic performance results. Data source: MS data submissions under the DCF 2016 Fleet Economic (MARE/A3/AC(2016)); All monetary values have been adjusted for inflation; constant prices (2015) Trend 2014 to to avg Total number of vessels (#) % 1% Number of Inactive vessels_ms (#) % 11% Vessel tonnage (thousand GT) % -3% Engine power (thousand kw) % -6% Average vessel age (year) % 5% Average vessel length (metre) % -5% Enterprises with one vessel (#) % 4% Enterprises with 2 to 5 vessels (#) % -6% Enterprises with more than 5 vessels (#) % -45% FTE (#) 1,883 1,752 1,792 1,705 1,720 1,742 1,680-4% -5% Total employed (person) 2,211 2,089 2,097 2,054 2,034 2,098 2,024-4% -3% Days at sea (thousand day) % -5% Fishing days (thousand day) % -4% Number of fishing trips (thousand) % -1% Energy consumption (million litre) % -27% Live weight of landings (thousand tonne) % 4% Value of landings (million ) % -1% Income from landings (million ) % 0% Other income (million ) % -26% Income from leasing fishing rights (million ) % 90% Wages and salaries of crew (million ) % 6% Unpaid labour value (million ) % 13% Energy costs (million ) % -26% Repair & maintenance costs (million ) % -10% Other variable costs (million ) % -9% Other non-variable costs (million ) % -1% Annual depreciation costs (million ) % -20% Rights costs (million ) % 200% Opportunity cost of capital (million ) % -37% Tangible asset value (million ) % -31% Fishing rights (million ) % 28% Investments (million ) % -50% Financial position (%) % -3% Gross Value Added (million ) % 24% GVA to revenue (%) % 25% Gross profit (million ) % 63% Gross profit margin (%) % 65% Net profit (million ) % 326% Net profit margin (%) % 323% GVA per FTE (thousand ) % 31% Return on fixed tangible assets (%) % 672% 343

8 Table 5.67 Netherlands: National fleet statistics and economic performance results based on fleet segment level data. Data source: MS data submissions under the DCF 2016 Fleet Economic (MARE/A3/AC(2016)); All monetary values have been adjusted for inflation; constant prices (2015). Data for 2015 and 2016 are projected. Variable / indictor unit Trend 2015 to to 2015 Total number of vessels (#) % 3% Total employed (person) ,850 1,991-9% 8% FTE (#) 1,883 1,752 1,792 1,705 1,720 1,742 1,680 1,534 1,522-9% -1% Days at sea (day) 50,900 53,934 51,302 47,141 51,833 50,715 48,672 49,000 47,047 1% -4% Energy consumption (thousand litres) 252, , , , , , , , ,238-3% 4% Live weight of landings (tonne) 415, , , , , , , , ,106-14% 17% Value of landings (thousand ) 421, , , , , , , , ,138-1% 8% Income from landings (thousand ) 430, , , , , , , , ,769-2% 9% Other income (thousand ) 1,471 1,653 1,906 1,828 2,395 2,008 1,394 1,944 1,867 39% -4% Wages and salaries of crew (thousand ) 98,565 91,914 90,562 86,573 90,626 93,362 97,878 92, ,285-5% 8% Unpaid labour value (thousand ) 10,933 9,486 8,030 6,616 8,036 9,262 9,883 9,087 8,751-8% -4% Energy costs (thousand ) 126,079 81, , , ,385 98,384 79,262 60,686 51,176-23% -16% Repair & maintenance costs (thousand ) 58,788 60,862 51,036 59,688 61,823 50,973 51,344 45,154 52,201-12% 16% Other variable costs (thousand ) 41,419 37,196 40,173 37,624 33,700 34,361 34,151 30,559 33,963-11% 11% Other non-variable costs (thousand ) 41,582 39,727 38,387 37,296 35,277 37,009 37,766 33,708 35,033-11% 4% Annual depreciation costs (thousand ) 52,480 42,813 47,015 53,476 46,097 55,336 39,823 37,246 44,926-6% 21% Opportunity cost of capital (thousand ) 10,495 14,361 10,487 2,153-2,846-1,659 3,479 1,202 1,413-65% 18% Tangible asset value (replacement) (thousand ) 527, , , , , , , , ,518-19% 18% Gross Value Added (thousand ) 164, , , , , , , , ,263 14% 15% Gross profit (thousand ) 54,618 50,793 51,010 21,612 32,666 48,694 70, , ,228 43% 22% Net profit (thousand ) - 8,356-6,381-6,492-34,016-10,584-4,983 27,323 62,434 76, % 23% 344

9 Table 5.68 Netherlands: National fleet statistics and economic performance results by fishing activity. Data source: MS data submissions under the DCF 2016 Fleet Economic (MARE/A3/AC(2016)); All monetary values have been adjusted for inflation; constant prices (2015). SSF LSF Trend SSCF to to 2013 avg Trend LSF 2014 to to avg Total number of vessels (#) % -2% 3% -6% Vessel tonnage (thousand GT) % -9% 4% -4% Engine power (thousand kw) % 27% 2% -10% FTE (#) ,751 1,658 1,667 1,633 1,615 1,637 1,581 3% 2% -3% -5% Total employed (person) ,861 1,788 1,773 1,753 1,701 1,714 1,662-4% 4% -3% -6% Days at sea (thousand day) % 11% -5% -5% Fishing days (thousand day) % 11% -4% -5% Number of fishing trips (thousand) % 6% 1% 0% Energy consumption (million litre) % -2% -8% -27% Live weight of landings (thousand tonne) % 2% 11% 4% Value of landings (million ) % -28% 1% -1% Income from landings (million ) % -52% 3% 0% Other income (million ) % 47% -32% -30% Direct income subsidies (million ) Wages and salaries of crew (million ) % 21% 5% 7% Unpaid labour value (million ) % 14% 8% 15% Energy costs (million ) % -12% -20% -26% Repair & maintenance costs (million ) % 35% 1% -11% Other variable costs (million ) % -9% -1% -9% Other non-variable costs (million ) % -14% 2% -1% Annual depreciation costs (million ) % -19% -28% -19% Opportunity cost of capital (million ) % -53% 311% -37% Tangible asset value (million ) % -14% 14% -31% Investments (million ) % -100% -2% -62% Gross Value Added (million ) % -90% 18% 25% GVA to revenue (%) % -80% 15% 26% Gross profit (million ) % -164% 46% 68% Gross profit margin (%) % -228% 43% 70% Net profit (million ) % -414% 584% 315% Net profit margin (%) % -739% 573% 313% GVA per FTE (thousand ) % -91% 22% 32% 345

10 Table 5.69 Netherlands: National fleet statistics and economic performance results by fleet segment. Data source: MS data submissions under the DCF 2016 Fleet Economic (MARE/A3/AC(2016)); All monetary values have been adjusted for inflation; constant prices (2015). Value of landings (real) Live weight of landings Average landed price (real) (thousand ) (tonne) ( ) Common sole Common shrimp European plaice Atlantic mackerel Atlantic herring Atlantic horse mackerel Turbot European pilchard(=sardine) Blue whiting(=poutassou) Round sardinella Table 5.70 Netherlands: Landed value, weight and average price of principal species. Data source: MS data submissions under the DCF 2016 Fleet Economic (MARE/A3/AC(2016)); All monetary values have been adjusted for inflation; constant prices (2015). Total number of vessels FTE Days at sea Energy consumed per landed Live weight Value of tonne of landings landings Revenue Gross Value Added GVA to revenue Gross profit Gross profit margin Net profit Net profit margin Average wage per FTE GVA per FTE (labour productivity) Return on fixed tangible assets (#) (#) (day)litre/tonne) (tonne) (thousand ) (thousand ) (thousand ) (%) (thousand ) (%) (thousand ) (%) (thousand ) (thousand ) (%) NLD A27 TM40XX , , , ,448 49, , , Weak 54% Improved NLD A27 TBB40XX ,130 1,270 31, , ,297 53, , , High 400% Improved NLD A27 TBB , ,861 70,972 73,878 40, , , High 1309% Improved NLD A27 TBB ,410 1,406 9,617 28,045 28,132 13, , , High 588% Improved NLD A27 DTS , ,878 23,837 24,143 10, , , Reasonable 502% Improved NLD A27 DTS ,927 1,017 3,169 7,815 7,965 3, , Reasonable 261% Improved NLD A27 DRB ,896 6,156 5,485 3, , , High 68% Improved NLD A27 PG ,590 2, ,055 4,465 2, , Reasonable -37% Deteriorated NLD A27 TBB , ,973 1, Weak 6% Improved NLD A27 DFN High 32% Improved NLD A27 TBB Weak 83% Improved NLD A27 PG Reasonable -37% Deteriorated NLD A27 DFN Reasonable -37% Deteriorated NLD A27 DTS Reasonable 107% Improved Profitability (2014) Net profit margin % average ( ) Economic development trend 346

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