1 AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES KEEGAN LUND Aquatic Invasive Species Program Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
2 PRESENTATION OUTLINE 1. Define invasive species & effects 2. MnDNR Invasive Species Program 3. Current AIS distribution and biology 4. Current AIS management efforts & permitting 5. Best Practices to prevent spread 6. Comments & questions
3 WHAT ARE INVASIVE SPECIES?
4 INVASIVE SPECIES ARE NON- NATIVE ORGANISMS THAT CAN ADAPT TO LIFE IN A NEW ENVIRONMENT AND POTENTIALLY CAUSE ECONOMIC LOSS, ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE OR HARM HUMAN HEALTH.
5 WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? NATIVE Species living where it is found naturally NON-NATIVE Species introduced, or moved, by human activities to a location where they do not naturally occur INVASIVE Non-native species invades lands or waters causing ecological or economic problems
6 CHARACTERISTICS OF INVASIVES 1. High reproductive rates 2. Generalist (tolerate a variety of habitats) 3. Compete aggressively for resources 4. Lack natural enemies in the new ecosystem
7 EFFECTS OF AIS 1. ECOLOGY: compete with & may displace native species, reduce quality/quantity of habitat, alter ecosystem processes 2. RECREATION: can degrade water quality, interfere with recreation, and disrupt fisheries 3. ECONOMICS: terrestrial & aquatic invasive species costs the U.S. an estimated $120 billion a year through damage & control costs
8 HOW ARE AIS MOVED? 1. HUMAN ACTIVITY Intentional Unintentional 2. ANIMAL ACTIVITY Feeding Travel pathways (migration) 3. WEATHER RELATED ACTIVITY Floods Storms
9 MN DNR INVASIVE SPECIES PROGRAM & GOALS 1. PREVENT introductions & spread of AIS in Minnesota (watercraft inspection program, enforcement, EDRR, etc.) 2. MANAGE and reduce the impacts caused by AIS to Minnesota's ecology, society, and economy through control efforts and research (Control Grants, IAPM permitting, AIS permits, lake monitoring, etc.) 3. EDUCATE the public of AIS laws and best practices through training and outreach (public outreach, drain pug laws, Lake Service Provide Training, etc.)
10 MINNESOTA AIS HISTORY- PLANTS Curly-leaf Pondweed ~ 750 MN water bodies Eurasian watermilfoil 273 MN water bodies Flowering Rush 27 MN water bodies Purple Loosestrife Recorded in 77 of Minnesota s 87 counties at over 2,400 sites
11 MINNESOTA AIS HISTORY- ANIMALS Zebra Mussels ~ 75 lakes and rivers infested, another 150 designated as infested Faucet Snails ~ 34 MN water bodies Spiny Waterflea ~ 60 MN water bodies Invasive Carp St. Croix River in 1996 Mississippi River in 2008 No documented reproduction
12 AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES IN MINNESOTA Eurasian watermilfoil Curly-leaf pondweed Purple loosestrife Spiny water flea Zebra mussel Carp (common & Asian)
13 EURASIAN WATERMILFOIL (Myriophyllum spicatum) Discovered in MN in leaflets Reddish stem Forms dense surface water mats impeding native plants and recreation Presently in over 270 water bodies in MN
15 CURLY-LEAF PONDWEED (Potamogeton crispus) In MN since the early 1900 s Curly leaves with small serrations Forms dense mats at water surface Produces turions in July Abundant in early spring and dies back late summer, shifts nutrients early in season
16 PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE (Lythrum salicaria) Introduced in the 1800 s as a garden plant Purple loosestrife invades wetlands/lakeshores, displacing emergent plants and reducing quality of habitat for wildlife Flowered spike, square stem Bio-control available and effective (loosestrife beetles Galerucella pusilla and G. calamariensis)
17 SPINY WATER FLEA (Bythotrephes longimanus) Very small zooplankton (< ½ inch) native to Eurasia discovered in 1982, Lake Ontario Eat native zooplankton; alter lake planktonic communities and thus fisheries (food chain disruptor) Has a long tail with spines, difficult for some native fish to consume Attach to and foul fishing equipment, transported in water
18 FAUCET SNAILS (Bithynia tentaculata) Native to eastern Europe, introduced through ballast water to the Great Lakes Snail is an intermediate host for three intestinal trematodes (parasites) which kill scaup and coots Outcompete native snails Found in the Mississippi Crow Wing, and Shell Rivers Difficult to ID correctly
19 RUSTY CRAYFISH (Orconectes rusticus) 5 inches long, rusty-colored spots on carapace; claws with black tips Native to Ohio River valley, discovered in Minnesota around 1960 Feed on fish eggs and young, destroy vegetation Outcompetes native crayfish
20 ZEBRA MUSSEL (Dreissena polymorpha) Freshwater mussel native to eastern Europe Microscopic to 2 inches D or shaped shell with brown & yellow stripes Has a free-floating veliger stage Lives 3 to 5 years Byssal threads that can attach to nearly anything
21 ZEBRA MUSSEL REPRODUCTION Females can broadcast at least 40,000 eggs per year Occurs when water temp near 54 F, max production at 64 F Veliger stage (feeding organ & shell forms) Settling stage (byssal threads have formed)
22 ZEBRA MUSSEL IMPACTS Encrust nearly anything including native mussels Filter plankton from water food chain disruptor Sharp shells Concentrate blue green algae
23 ZEBRA MUSSEL DISTRIBUTION Introduced in 1988 to Great Lakes First in MN in 1989 Duluth Harbor
24 GREAT LAKES INVASIVE FISH Eurasian Ruffe Up to 5 inches Native to Eurasia Spines make eating these difficult for natives Outcompetes native fish Round Goby 3 10 inches Native to eastern Europe Single pelvic fin; black spot on fin High densities; eat eggs of fish
25 GREAT LAKES INVASIVE FISH White Perch 7 to 12 inches Native to Atlantic coast Invaded Great Lakes thru canal Compete with native fish and eat their eggs Sea Lamprey 12 to 20 inches Brown/black with circular mouth Similar looking natives! Can kill fish
26 INVASIVE CARP Many Species Silver Carp Bighead Carp Most are planktivorous, feed on algae and other microscopic organisms Brought to the US for aquaculture pond management Moving northward up rivers such as Mississippi No breeding populations detected in MN
27 INVASIVE CARP Silver and Bighead Carp caught on March 1, 2012 in Mississippi River near Winona, MN Invasive carp feed on algae and other microscopic organisms, often outcompeting native fish for food
28 SILVER CARP Up to 60 lbs Silvery skin Individuals caught on the Mississippi & St. Croix Rivers Impacts Flying fish can leap 10 ft; direct harm to people Compete with native fish
29 BIGHEAD CARP Large, up to 5 ft long &100 lbs More mottled appearance Individuals caught in Mississippi & St. Croix Rivers Impacts Compete with native fish (perch, ciscos, etc) for plankton Which also affects the fish (walleye, etc.) that eat those species
30 DNR MONITORING & MANAGEMENT EFFORTS MONITORING Monitoring is essential, cooperative effort with partners EDRR Early Detection Rapid Response Plan Once AIS is established, eradication is usually not an option Management & Control Options vary depending upon the species PLANTS - controlled with various success using herbicides or mechanical means Control Grants also offered Limited biological control options (Purple loosestrife) Fish and invertebrates more difficult to control due to non-target mortality
32 WHAT CAN YOU DO? 1. Educate yourself Know what waters are infested and how to identify AIS Understand Minnesota s AIS laws Follow laws, clean equipment, get permits 2. Best Practices 3. Inform (educate) others
33 HOW DO I KNOW IF A WATER IS INFESTED? Signs are posted at infested waters List in Fishing Regulations booklet Designation order on DNR Website
34 MN AIS LAWS Minnesota has several state laws intended to minimize the introduction or spread of invasive species of wild animal, insect, and terrestrial or aquatic plants in the state. These laws apply to construction activities, and you should be familiar with them.
35 MN AIS LAWS REQUIRED BY LAW CLEAN All plants and animals off water-related equipment (boats, docks, etc.) DRAIN All water before leaving the access KEEP All draining devices open during travel 21 day dry time for docks & other equip.
36 REGULATIONS ON WATER TRANSPORT Drain all water from equipment where water may be trapped. Remove drain plugs, drain hoses prior to transport. M.S. 84D - When leaving waters of the state a person must drain water-related equipment holding water before transporting the water-related equipment off the water access site or riparian property.
37 REGULATIONS ON INFESTED WATERS TRANSPORT M.R Water from designated infested waters may not: be diverted to other waters, transported on a public road transported or appropriated off property riparian to infested waters except under permit or emergencies Photo credit: Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department
38 BEST PRACTICES Rinse- with water at least 140 F for 10 seconds or 120 F for 2 minutes Spray- water at high pressure to remove anything that may be attached Dry- watercraft for at least 5 days between waters
39 Best Practices for Preventing the Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species
40 CONSTRUCTION RELATED BEST PRACTICES Prior to transportation along roads into or out of any worksite, or between water bodies within a project area, all equipment must be free of any aquatic plants, water, and prohibited invasive species. Drain all water from equipment where water may be trapped, such as tanks, pumps, hoses, silt curtains, and water-retaining components of boats/barges, and, Remove all visible aquatic remnants (plants, seeds, and animals). Removal of mud & soil is not required, though is encouraged as a Best Practice.
41 Drain all water from equipment where water may be trapped. Remove drain plugs, drain hoses prior to transport.
42 Removal of aquatic remnants is required before transporting on public roads.
43 OFF-SITE TREATMENT OPTION With specific conditions, the DNR will allow transportation of equipment off site in order to complete final treatment at a differing location. This is a one-way pass to allow transport to a storage area or disposal facility. The Driver must have permission form Treatment must then be completed off-site prior to re-use in or adjacent to water.
45 Invasive species may not be readily visible on equipment. Most are not easily identifiable when less than ¼ inch in size. Zebra mussels on a barge surface
46 Drying will also kill aquatic organisms. Drying techniques must not trap water.
47 REPORT SIGHTINGS OF AIS Collect a sample Ideally, use a baggie, some water, and put in the fridge Bring to invasive species specialist or DNR office Other information to collect Where/when collected Name and contact information of collector
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