The Sustainable Development and Management of St Helena s Fisheries and Marine Tourism Dr Siân Rees The Marine Institute, Plymouth University

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1 The Sustainable Development and Management of St Helena s Fisheries and Marine Tourism Dr Siân Rees The Marine Institute, Plymouth University St Helena Tourism

2 St Helena Island Located: south and 5 45 west Size: 47 square mile island Population: 5000 (approx.) Ascension Island, is 703 miles (1,125km) to the North West It is miles (1 950km) from the South-West coast of Africa miles (2 900km) from the coast of South America.

3 On the beach Biological Diversity St Helena Island's waters are home to approximately 780 marine species of which 50 are endemic to the islands waters. St Helena puffer Martin Collins

4 Whale shark (Rhincodon typus)

5 Commercial fishing Quota Yellowfin Thunnus 110,000t 1 Tuna albacares Bigeye Thunnus obesus 2100 t tuna Longfin Thunnus alalunga 100t tuna Swordfish Xiphias gladius 25 t Blue marlin Makaira nigricans 10t 2 White Kajikia albida 2t 2 marlin Grouper (jack or rock hind) Epinephelus adscensionis Spiny lobster Slipper lobster Panulirus echinatus Scyllarides obtusus 36t (Choat JH & Robertson DR, 2012) Unlimited. Though 0.37t recommended (Nines, 1991) Unlimited. Though 0.37t recommended (Nines, 1991) 1 Quota set for the ICCAT Convention Area 2 Can only be landed under 45kg on St Helena due to mercury levels in larger fish (St Helena Government, 2016) Martin Collins

6 Tourism RMS St Helena Cruise Ships Yachts Tourism has been identified as being a key driver for the future economic development of St Helena (St Helena Government, 2012). RMS St Helena AW Ship Management Ltd

7 Recreation and Culture Direct Scuba Diving Sport Fishing, Spear Fishing and Recreational Boat fishing Wildlife Watching/Interactions Rock Fishing Indirect Scenic Trips Swimming Water Sports Martin Collins

8 Drivers of Change for Environmental Management Economic development (investment in an airport) Independence from UK aid Global fisheries (quota, IUU fishing) The St Helena Government recognise that the natural environment (the natural capital) of St Helena supports the well-being of the island residents and, if used sustainably, will provide the foundations for future economic growth (St Helena Government, 2015)

9 MPA formally announced last week Marine Management Plan (now adopted) 200nm Exclusive Fisheries Zone (EFZ) as IUCN Category VI protected area with sustainable use of natural resources (444,916km 2 MPA) an IUCN category III protected area natural feature at Lots Wife s ponds There is a key evidence gap in understanding the relationship between marine conservation, marine management measures and the social and economic benefits generated by fisheries and tourism on St Helena

10 Ecosystem Service Assessment (March 2016) Provide baseline values (monetary and non-monetary) of ecosystem service benefits; Determine the critical pathways (and interactions) between the ecosystem and the ecosystem service benefits for those ecosystem services identified as being at most risk from change; Identify sustainable use thresholds for future management; and Make recommendations for management. Rees S., Fletcher S., and Clingham E, The Marine Ecosystem Services of St Helena. Part Two: Ecosystem Service Valuations, Future Development Thresholds and Management. A report for the Environment and Natural Resources Directorate, St Helena Government by the Marine Institute, Plymouth University

11 Results (1) * * Total value from sales minus purchases (landings value)

12 Results (2)

13 Results (4)

14 Future development thresholds and management The extreme future scenario e.g. Commercial fishing Overfishing and inappropriate fishing have destroyed the fish stocks and ecology There is no development of fisheries markets, no more money to fishermen and industry collapse. No fresh fish is readily available for the local market. e.g. Recreation and Tourism There are so many tourists that whale sharks and humpback whales stay away. Dive sites are damaged by careless divers. Dive sites are crowded, the natural experience is ruined. There is a decrease in the numbers of migratory marine mammals visiting St Helena.

15 Decline in landings of grouper Thresholds Red flags Decline in landings of longfin and skipjack An increased in reported marine accidents A decline in economic values associated with fisheries A decline in economic values associated with recreation A decline in economic values associated with tourism An increase in the deployment of Floating Aggregating Devices (FADs) by recreational fishermen An increase in sales of fish through the black market Dead areas of the sea related to sewerage and nutrients Decline in numbers of endemic species Damaged dive sites Overfished sites Persistent disturbance to vulnerable species Poor feedback on social media (eg. trip advisor) on recreation and tourism experiences. Wildlife watching experiences are overcrowded

16 The desired future scenario The marine environment is valued; Marine management is integrated, effective with sufficient operational capacity and resources; The natural environment is managed holistically; Stock management (commercial and recreational) is underpinned by robust science; Recreation activities are managed and monitored (species and habitats); There is a thriving export and local market in fish products; and Tourists are satisfied with their experience of the natural environment on St Helena.

17

18 Recommendations Natural Capital Accounting A method to include the value of the physical environment and ecosystem services into the national accounting balance sheet. Any gains and losses in the natural capital can be monitored in relation to economic development. MPA Performance Management A need to understand changes that are associated with both the demand for ecosystem services and management interventions in order to determine whether management measures are effective or not. Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Payments are made by the beneficiaries of the services to natural resource managers in return for a guaranteed flow of ecosystem services (or, more commonly, for management actions likely to enhance their provision) A Hub for Research Excellence Making research excellence central to the broader sustainable development of the island economy is an opportunity to raise the profile of St Helena as a top class eco-tourism destination.

19 With thanks to all who supported this research on St Helena

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