1 2 Bivalves: Global production and trade trends S. Pawiro The international trade in bivalves (shellfish) is very much regionalized. Few countries are able to penetrate distant markets outside their regions, mainly due to technical barriers such as strict regulations on imports of bivalve products in major markets. As a result, the contribution of bivalves to the total global trade in fish and fishery products was only around 2.3% of the total world export of fisheries products at approximately US$ 78.9 billion in PRODUCTION TRENDS The world production of bivalves i.e. oysters, clams (including cockles and arkshell), scallops and mussels, has been steadily increasing since the 1990s to reach anew record of 13.6 million metric tonnes(mt) in During the period # 2010 World Health Organization (WHO). Safe Management of Shellfish and Harvest Waters. Edited by G. Rees, K. Pond, D. Kay, J. Bartram and J. Santo Domingo. ISBN: Published by IWA Publishing, London, UK.
2 12 Safe Management of Shellfish and Harvest Waters between 1995 and 2005, the average growth in bivalve production was approximately5%per year. Thegrowth was mainly attributed to twofactors: the rapid growth in the aquaculture sector and asharp increase in bivalve production in China. Global bivalve production from aquaculture has consistently increased over the years from 7.1 million mt in 1995 to 11.9 million mt in 2005, an average increase of 6.8% annually during the period. Aquacultures contribution of bivalves to the overall bivalve production increased from 72.8% in 1993 to 87.3% in Meanwhile, the production from wild harvest has exhibited a downward trend and in fact its contribution declined from 21.5% to 12.7% during the period under review (Table 2.1). Table 2.1 Global bivalve production by sector, (in 1000 mt) Year Sector Total Aquaculture Wild Source: Globefish-FAO China became the single largest producer of bivalves with a production of 9.5 million mt in 2005, contributing almost 70% of the global harvest in that year. Japan was the second largest producer, far behind China with a production of approximately mt (5.8%), followed by the United States of America (5.2%), South Korea (2.8%) and Thailand (2.8%). Other main bivalve producing countries are Canada, Chile, France, Italy and Spain.The bulk ( ^ 71%) of global bivalves production consists of oysters (35%) and clams (36%, including cockles and arkshell) followed by scallops (14.6%) and mussels (14.4%) (Table 2.2).
3 Bivalves: Global production and trade trends 13 Table 2.2 World production of bivalves, by species, (in 1000 mt) Year Oyster Clams, cockles, arkshells Scallops, pectens Mussels Total Source: Globefish-FAO 2.2 TRADE World exports of bivalves (all product forms) reached US$ 1.82 billion in 2005, from US$ 1.41 billion in 2002, representing an increase of 29.1% during that period. In the global market more than 90% of bivalves are traded in live, fresh, frozen and dried forms, and less than 10% as canned or preserved products. In terms of quantity, mussels dominate the global bivalve trade, accounting for approximately 57%. In terms of value, however, scallops contributed more than 45% to the total bivalve export market in Over the past 10 years, the growth in bivalve trade was mainly comprised of the growth in exports of fresh, chilled and frozen bivalves, particularly mussels, which are widely traded in international markets (Table 2.3). The bivalve trade, as mentioned earlier, is concentrated in certain regions. The main markets for clams,cockles and arkshells are Japan and the Republic of Korea with supplies mainly from China and the Korean Peninsular. Another important market for clams is the USA with Canada as the main supplier while Spain, the most important market for clams in Europe, is supplied mainly by other European Union (EU) Member States Asia There is an active trade in clams and cockles among south-east Asian countries particularly between Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore. Large quantities of cockles and clams from Malaysia are sold to Thailand for reprocessing (canned)
4 14 Safe Management of Shellfish and Harvest Waters Table 2.3 Fresh, chilled and frozen bivalve exports, by species, (in US$ million) Year Commodity Total Scallops Mussels Clams Oysters Source: Globefish-FAO and to Singapore for local consumption. Meanwhile, Thailand is the largest supplier of bivalves from the south-east Asia region, especially canned clams, exported mainly to Canada and the USA. Singapore imported 5085 mt of other live/fresh molluscs (mainly cockles and clams), predominantly from Malaysia (4738 mt) in In general there is also growing demand for oysters and mussels in Asian markets, particularly to satisfy the catering sector (hotel and restaurants). Imports of mussels to major markets in south-east and far-east Asia are rising (Table 2.4). Mussels are mainly imported from New Zealand. Table 2.4 Imports of mussels into Asian markets (mt) Country China Malaysia Singapore Source: China Society of Fisheries, 2004; 2005; 2006; Department of Statistics, Malaysia, 2004, 2005, 2006; Singapore Trade Statistics, 2007 Japan is one of the largest markets for bivalves in Asia, and in fact the country is the largest importer of clams,mainly from neighbouring countries like China and the Republic of Korea. Its importsofclams in 2006 totalled mt and were valued at US$121.8 million, China accounting for 83% of the supply. Overall, bivalve imports into Japan in 2006 reached mt, worth US$160 million, with China contributing 77.6% of the share, followed by the Republic of Korea (16.7% share) (Table 2.5).
5 Bivalves: Global production and trade trends 15 Table 2.5 Japan: Imports of live, fresh and frozen bivalves by main suppliers, 2006 (Q ¼ mt; V ¼ US$1000) Origins Clam Oyster Scallop Mussel Total Q V Q V Q V Q V Q V Canada China The Democratic People s Republic of Korea The Republic of Korea New Zealand The Russian Federation Total (incl. others) Source: Japan Fish Traders Association, 2007
6 16 Safe Management of Shellfish and Harvest Waters China is the largest bivalve producer and also the largest market for bivalves, but it is mainly supplied from its own internal sources. The country, however, also imports high value bivalves from other countries to serve the growing demand from the catering sector. The major bivalve suppliers to China are the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, USA and Canada (predominantly mussels, clams and oysters). Other important markets for bivalves in Asia are China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China (Province of Taiwan) and Singapore. In 2006, Hong Kong (China) imported mt of bivalves mainly from mainland China, Japan, USA and Canada while China (Province of Taiwan), an important market for oysters and scallops, imports mainly from the USA, Canada and Japan. Tables 2.6 and 2.7 how the imports of oysters and scallops respectively into Asian markets in 2004, 2005 and Table 2.6 Imports of oysters into Asian markets (mt) Country China China (Hong Kong SAR) Malaysia The Republic of Korea Singapore Sources: China Society of Fisheries-China, 2004, 2005, 2006; Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department; Department of Statistics, Malaysia, 2004, 2005, 2006; Korean Customs Service, 2004, 2005, 2006; Singapore Trade Statistics, 2007 Table 2.7 Imports of scallops into selected Asian markets (mt) Country Malaysia The Republic of Korea Singapore Sources: Department of Statistics, Malaysia, 2004, 2005, 2006; Korean Customs Service, 2004, 2005, 2006; Singapore Trade Statistics, European Union In Europe the most important bivalve markets are France, Italy and Spain. The trade is mainly intra-regional between EU Member States with a smaller contribution from third countries. The United Kingdom and France produce oysters, and Denmark, Ireland, The Netherlands and Spain produce mussels.
7 Bivalves: Global production and trade trends 17 Only afew third countries, such as Chile and New Zealand, are able to penetrate the EU markets. France, the largest mussel consumer in Europe, imported mt in 2006, with almost 88% of supplies coming from fellow EU Member States. The EU Member States, particularly France, Italy and Spain import significant amounts of scallops, clams and cockles from third countries such as Canada, various Latin American countries (particularly Argentina,Chileand Peru) and the USA. Fresh and frozen clams and cockles are imported from Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Canned products are mainly from south-east Asia and Chile. Table 2.8 shows the yearly mussel imports by France, by product form and by country of origin (in 1000 mt). Table 2.8 Yearly mussel imports by France, by product form and by country of origin (in 1000 mt) Country Fresh/chilled/live Greece 5.2 Ireland Italy The Netherlands Spain The United Kingdom Others Total Frozen Ireland The Netherlands Others Total Grand Total included under others ; including dried, salted and in-brine. Source: Globefish-FAO United States In 2006, the USA imported mt of fresh/frozen and dried scallops mainly from Canada, China and Japan. Imports of fresh and frozen oysters and clams were supplied mainly by Canada while canned products were mostly imported from Canada, China, Thailand and Viet Nam (Table 2.9).
8 18 Safe Management of Shellfish and Harvest Waters Table 2.9 United States bivalve imports, 2006 Products Total (MT) Main suppliers (%) Oyster Fresh/frozen 5194 The Republic of Korea (38%) Canada (47%) Canned 5954 The Democratic People s Republic of Korea (38%) China (60%) Scallop(meat) Fresh/frozen/dried Canada (13%) China (50%) Japan (12%) Clams Fresh/frozen 4985 Canada (71%) Canned/prepared/preserved Canada (13.9%) China (30%) Thailand (13.9%) Viet Nam (15%) Source: National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division, Silver Spring, MD, USA (Personal communication). More information is available at: TRADE ISSUES Trade in bivalve species between developing countries and major markets has not developed as well as that for other seafood products. This is mainly because of public health concerns. Importing countries enforce strict regulations on live, fresh and frozen bivalveswhich manyexporting developing countries are unable to meet. Under the EU import regulations on bivalves, currently only 13 third countries are authorized to export their bivalves to the EU markets ( circa.europa.eu/irc/sanco/vets/info/data/lists/lbm.html). From Asia, only Japan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand and Viet Nam are currently qualified to export their bivalves to the European Community. This contrasts with other general seafood products, where approximately 100 third countries and territories have been approved to export their products to the EU. Almost all major seafood producers in Asia have been approved by the EU authorities. Similarly, for export of live, fresh and frozen bivalves to the United States market, exporting countries need to establish a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA).
9 In general, exporting countries must meet the standard stated in the National Shellfish Sanitation Programme. So far only Canada, Chile, New Zealand and the Republic of Korea have signed the MoU with USFDA, providing them with access to the USA market. Singapore, one of the main bivalve marketsinthe south-east Asia region, also applies stringent import inspection procedures on bivalve products which are considered to be of high health risk. Imports of bivalves must be accompanied by a health certificate from the competent authority in the country of origin and samples are collected from every consignment for laboratory tests. 2.4 CONCLUSIONS There is a growing demand for bivalves, not only in historically developed countries, but also in developing regions such as south-east and far-east Asia. The main concerns with the bivalve industry relate to the pre-harvest stages where monitoring of biotoxins, pollution and management of production areas remain problematical, with many producing countries failing to meet the strict requirements imposed by consuming nations. Assistance is needed in improving the pre- and post-harvest practices to produce satisfactory product quality and safety. Thus, the prospects for growing the bivalve industry in developing countries will depend on their ability to build reliable monitoring and inspection programmes and implement sustainable farming practices. 2.5 REFERENCES Bivalves: Global production and trade trends 19 China Seafood Imports and Exports Statistics 2004, 2005 and Edited by the China Society of Fisheries-China, PR. Department of Statistics Malaysia. Fisheries Statistical Yearbook Taiwan, Kinmen and Matsu Area Fisheries Agency, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, June 2007, Taiwan, China. Globefish-FAO: Bivalves-Commodity Update, October Published by Globefish (FAO), Rome, Italy, Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong SAR. Japan Fish Traders Association (JFTA) Statistics of Japanese Fishery Products Imports, 2006, Japan, Korean Customs Service, The Republic of Korea. Singapore s Imports/Exports of Fishery Products compiled by Agrifood and Veterinary Authority (AVA Singapore 2007) (personal communication).