Effective multi-agency collaboration improves spatial monitoring and planning in the Florida Keys

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1 Effective multi-agency collaboration improves spatial monitoring and planning in the Florida Keys Jim Bohnsack Southeast Fisheries Science Center NOAA Fisheries Service Miami, FL 1

2 The Managed Florida Keys Coral Reef Ecosystem FLORIDA Miami Florida Bay Gulf of Mexico Florida Straits

3 Tortugas Cruises Partnerships

4

5 Stratified Random Design Heterogeneous Spatial Distribution Stratification Variables: Cross-Shelf Habitat type Habitat relief and patchiness Depth Geographical Subregion Spatial Management Zone (e.g, no-take reserves, angling only)

6

7 Cross-Shelf Habitat Classification Transition Florida Bay Florida Reef Tract Hawk Channel Nearshore Inshore Patch Midchannel Reef Flat HAWK CHANNEL Offshore Patch Fore Reef Deep Reef

8 Cross-shelf habitat classification Florida Keys 500 km 2 mapped reef

9 Linking Reef Fish Spatial Abundance & Benthic Habitats Patchy hard-bottom Patch reefs Pinnacles Low Degree of Patchiness High Low-relief spur & groove Low-relief hard-bottom Rocky outcrops Medium-profile reef High-relief spur & groove Reef terrace Low Vertical Relief High

10 cosystem-based Monitoring Carysfort FKNMS boundary Molasses Alligator Sombrero Looe Key Sambos Ecological Reserve Sand Key

11 3000 Black grouper Protected areas 2500 Gray snapper Percent Change Yellowtail snapper St r ip ed parrotfish Stotplight parrotfish Exploited Not exploited Years protected

12 Black grouper Gray snapper Fished areas Percent Change Yellowtail snapper St r ip ed parrotfish Stotplight parrotfish Years protected

13 Yellowtail Snapper, Exploited, Protected and Fished Mean Density Fishery Regulations: Minimum length, 1986 max 10/day

14 Black Grouper, Exploited, Protected and Fished Mean Density Fishery Regulations minimum length: , Feb ,Dec , Jan ; /fisher/day

15 Reef Fisheries, Coral Reef Ecosystems & Hurricanes?

16 Red Grouper, Exploited, Protected and Unprotected 0.20 Mean Density Fishery Regulations minimum length: ; /fisher/day

17 Mutton Snapper, Exploited, Protected and Fished 0.20 Mean Density Fishery Regulations: minimum length , ; /fisher/day

18 Figure Three-dimensional maps of the Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem showing: (A) South Florida and the coral reef tract (red) from Key Biscayne to the Dry Tortugas; and (B) the bathymetry of the Tortugas region showing Dry Tortugas National Park, Tortugas Bank and Riley s Hump where the purple balls represent primary sampling units from the millenial RVC and reef habitat surveys. 2

19 Response of Tortugas MPAs to Protection BASELINE Pre-Implementation: Fished Fished Area Pre-exploited Phase 25.0% Exploited Phase Fished Fished Area RVC Survey 18.8% Relative Frequency Tortugas Ecological Reserve 36.2% Tortugas Ecological Reserve 64.0% Dry Dry Tortugas National Park Park Dry Tortugas National Park 8.0% 37.3% Length Fork Length (cm) (cm)

20 DRY TORTUGAS REGION 2001 TER Abundance = x 10 6 Black Grouper Abundance Relative Frequency 2004 Abundance = x Abundance = x Abundance = x 10 6 Fork Length (cm)

21 Optimal Design of Marine Reserves OBJECTIVE FUNCTION + + Min µ q q + µ s S r R reserve SPR over fishing Reef shape all species effort area ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) µ s ps + µ s ps + µ f f + µ f f + µ c c + µ c c + µ a a + µ a a + µ arar + arar Total Reserve area Regional reserve area CONSTRAINTS -- SUBJECT TO: (C1) Reserves non-overlapping (C2) Prespecified number of reserves (C3) Fixed proportion of SPR protected (C4) Maximum number of fishing vessels displaced by reserves (C5) Target area of coral reef area protected (C6) Target total area protected (C7) Distribution of reserves among regions of ecosystem (C8) Each reserve contiguous, compact, and desirably shaped Meester, Mehrotra, Ault and Baker Management Science 50:

22 Designing Marine Reserves for Fishery Management Integrated methodologies: Integer Goal Program for network design; simulations to assess shape and size effects. Meester, Mehrotra, Ault and Baker Management Science 50:

23 Florida Keys Reef Fish Community Baseline 10 Yellowfin 8 Black Gray Hogfish F/Fmsy Scamp Nassau Overfished Mutton White Cottonwick Lane Graysby Yellowtail Red Dog Schoolmaster Margate Bluestriped Red Hind MSY Target Sustainably Fished 0 Rock Hind Goliath French Tomtate B/Bmsy Grouper Snapper Grunt

24 Conclusions Multiagency partnerships are important Standardization and effective monitoring strategies are essential for spatial planning Results support marine reserve predictions Mean abundance and size were proportional to level of protection Initial population responses were rapid Extreme physical events influence spatial patterns

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