Shark-Finning: An International Affair

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Shark-Finning: An International Affair"

Transcription

1 Shark-Finning: An International Affair Michelle Cho December 14, 2002 Coastal Policy Class Professor Steffen Schmidt Michelle Cho, Any quotations from theis paper must be attributed to the author.

2 1 Shark-Finning: An International Affair Michelle Cho INTRODUCTION: Because sharks have a terrible reputation for being bloodthirsty, terrifying animals, akin to the frightening creature on the cover of the video Jaws, there has been little done to offer them protection in the past. Indeed, the U.S. Navy has long been futilely searching for ways of effectively eliminating sharks as a potential threat to their own, and the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) even encouraged fishermen to hunt them instead of scallops, and swordfish, calling them an underutilized resource (1). They reportedly even gave fishermen names and fax numbers of Chinese fin dealers (1). Sharks are mostly caught as bycatch, on longlines, or in gillnets meant for some other food fish. They were seen as a relatively worthless fish compared to food fish such as tuna, or swordfish, until the 1980 s when the price of shark fins started to increase, mainly because of the demand in East Asia for shark fin soup. The value of shark fins comprises about half of the shark s value in total (2). Because the cost of keeping the shark meat fresh on fishing boats is very high, the practice of shark-finning, which entails cutting off the fins while the sharks are still alive, and dumping the remaining carcass overboard (3), increased in the late 1980 s and early 1990 s. Many of the sharks that are finned are still alive, and because they cannot swim without their fins, they sink to the bottom to die a prolonged death. An estimated million sharks die per year from this practice, which is the equivalent of $240 million (2). Even with the limited information we have about many shark species, it is clear that this rate of fishing goes beyond most (if not all) targeted species ability to sustain their populations. This is alarming news for several reasons. Sharks have been around for about 4.5 million years. They are the apex predators of the marine environment, and by removing them, we risk unforeseeable changes. An example of such a change lies in Tasmania, where the sharks were dangerously overfished. As a result, the octopi population exploded and all but wiped out the lobster population (1). It would definitely pose a threat to the balance 1

3 2 of the marine environment if shark populations are diminished. Shark-finning is a large cause for diminished populations. Because it is such a wasteful practice, and is considered cruel by many, finning has become a very controversial issue. The largest difficulty in controlling finning lies within the extremely lucrative market for shark fins. Current prices have already risen to $100/ kg of fins. There exists a huge international trade in shark fins, involving 87 shark fishing nations. A problem within this market is that a lot of the trade goes on in the black market. For these reasons, it is difficult to obtain exact figures and values. Keeping this in mind, we can look at recorded statistics as conservative numbers. The U.S has the most reliable monitoring methods and records. According to the National Marine Fisheries Service, the number of sharks that were finned jumped from 1992 to In 1992, out of 94,897 total sharks that were caught, 2,363 were finned. The next year, out of 154,608 sharks that were caught, 15,473 were finned (4). This is a jump from 2.49% finned, to 10.01% finned in one year. Every year after that, the finning percentage increased: 1994 = 13.41%; 1995 = 32.42%; 1996 = 42.69%; 1997 = 56.56%; and in 1998 = 60.13% (see Table1). Table 1 (4): This is a steady increase in the percentage of sharks that are killed each year just for their fins, which is considered a wasteful and inhumane practice by many. It is clear that sharks must be managed internationally, with cohesive and cooperative conservation and management plans. 2

4 3 SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND: Sharks vary from species to species, but generally share a few characteristics that make them especially vulnerable to overfishing. They are all slow to mature, most species falling somewhere between 12 and 15 years at maturity, and produce few young. Parents leave their young as eggs, or when they are born, which further reduces the rate of survival after birth. Some species only produce 2-3 pups per litter every other year. This is considerably less than bony fishes, some of which produce millions of eggs per year. This slow rate of maturity and production of few young makes it difficult for shark populations to rebuild after they have been depleted, and could possibly take decades, in many cases. This is why they are so susceptible to overfishing. It is thought that many species are already close to extinction. Because information on sharks is extremely difficult to gather, and taxonomy of sharks is relatively difficult to determine, the data that we rely on is limited. Ways to monitor shark populations and shark species have been developing in the U.S. with modern technology. Recent developments include genetic testing, and satellite tagging. Genetic testing allows for an accurate record of which species are being caught, and so are in the most danger. Satellite tagging allows us to track the extremely wide distribution of some species by following their migratory routes. Also, observer programs are key in collecting information. NMFS has been developing a trained observer program to collect information on species being targeted by specific gear from different fishing fleets. Random telephone and dockside surveys are also given to fishermen to give NMFS an idea of state and regional recreational catches. For commercial catches, NMFS must rely on fishermen logbooks. HISTORY ON SHARK FINNING AND CULTURE: In addition to being extremely vulnerable to overfishing, the medical benefits, mythical beliefs, and research potential of shark parts create an extremely popular worldwide market. In the last 15 years, the demand for sharks has grown dramatically. Shark fin soup has always been a popular dish in Asia, especially in China, as it is mythically believed to have aphrodisiacal powers, and powers of healing. In Europe and the Middle East, as well as in other western countries, shark cartilage has become trendy in society 3

5 4 for health reasons believed to cure or prevent cancer, and to promote longevity. Some other benefits include shark cornea, which can be transplanted into human eyes; shark cartilage, which is used to create artificial skin for burn victims; and shark-liver oil, which is used in hemorrhoid medications (1). All of these beliefs and benefits have depleted shark populations immensely, some believe to a point beyond recovery. A further stress was added to the shark industry in 1987, when the liberalization of the People s Republic of China lifted restrictions on eating shark fin soup. Suddenly, everyone in China could eat shark fin soup, and any restaurant could serve it. At the same time, the Pacific Rim area experienced an increase in wealth. Because shark fin soup has culturally been a status symbol, and a symbol of affluence, the demand skyrocketed. Now, shark fin soup is served at most weddings, Chinese new year celebrations, birthdays, many business dinners, and is a status symbol of wealth and affluence (5). INTERNATIONAL TRADE INFORMATION: Because of this increased wealth and demand in Asia, the international shark market quickly became an extremely lucrative one. However, difficulties in obtaining data on the international trade market abound. There are many ways for foreign fleets to keep unreported data a secret, and therefore keep their reported catch within quotas, so that they may regain permits each year. For example, South Africa gives 85 licenses annually to Japanese longliners, and 24 licenses to Taiwanese longliners, allowing them to fish in South Africa s EEZ. Each fishing vessel is required to give annual catch statistics, however, it is inferred that they do not give accurate stats, and just provide numbers to renew their annual licenses, but South African officials do not have the ability to enforce their regulations and quotas. India, which lands 16% of global shark catches, the largest percentage by one country alone, issues annual shark fishing permits to Taiwan and Japan. There is unofficial evidence that catch numbers are deliberately manipulated to avoid customs taxes and duties. Taiwan ranks fifth in international trading of shark fins. The Taiwanese international fleet transships and lands fins from other fleets. Taiwanese vessels can land the fins while other countries have to pay a 42% import duty, encouraging other countries to unload their catch onto Taiwanese vessels while on the 4

6 5 high seas. Spain and the Canary Islands are the main suppliers of shark fins to Taiwan using this method. Taiwan also has many vessels that operate under a flag of convenience (FOC) of a different country, causing further difficulties in collecting accurate numbers. These ships are registered in the country under whose flag they operate, and they can then fish without a permit in that country s EEZ, waters regularly off-limits to Taiwanese fishermen (5). Because the international market is a multimillion dollar one, the black market is a large reason that insufficient trade information is available. Many attempts to obtain information from China, Singapore, and Hong Kong were futile. Keeping this in mind, we can consider the following reported information very conservative. Hong Kong alone has an estimated consumption rate of 3 million kg of shark per year (2). An estimated million sharks die per year from fishing/finning, the equivalent of about $240 million, the value of the world trade of shark products. Shark fins are traded frozen, dried, and fresh, usually whole, and the larger the fin, the higher the price. Leading exporters include Hong Kong, Japan, China, Mexico, and the U.S. In 1989, East Asia imported $133 million worth of dried shark, Hong Kong imported $5.8 million, the EEC imported $ million, and the U.S. imported $5.8 million in Hong Kong customs authorities report that 6,954 tons of shark fins were cleared for reexport in 1999, mostly destined for Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Korea, and China, the latter alone importing 3,000 tons of fins from Hong Kong (2). 27% of fins imported into Hong Kong come from Europe. Europe exported a total of 2 million tons of fins in An English paper also stated the going price for a single dorsal fin from a whale shark or basking shark at $14,500 (6). Again, these are only the reported figures. The black market only adds to these figures. It is clear that a large obstacle to effective shark conservation and management is the extremely lucrative international trade market. INTERNATIONAL PLANS: From the above information, mainly the high value of the international trade market, coupled with the wide range of distribution of species, the importance of international cooperation in the conservation and management of sharks is apparent. Currently, there 5

7 6 are no international management plans in effect. However, the United Nations appointed its Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to draft a suggested management plan as a guideline for member countries to follow. In 1994, CITES met and adopted the Resolution on the Biological and Trade Status of Sharks in which they requested that the FAO and other international fisheries management organizations collect biological and trade data on shark species. In 1997, the FAO organized, with extra-budgetary funds from Japan and the U.S., a plan to develop guidelines for a management plan to be submitted at their next meeting. The result was an International Plan of Action for Conservation and Management of Sharks (IPOA-Sharks), which was drafted in 1998 and adopted in This plan of action is to be strictly used as a guideline and does not have any formal legal status. Member nations are urged to draft their own management and conservation plans using the guidelines IPOA-Sharks provides. The objective is to ensure conservation and management of sharks and their long-term sustainable use. To meet this objective, three guiding principles are as follows: Participation: States that contribute to fishing mortality on a species or stock should participate in its management. Sustaining stocks: Management and conservation strategies should aim to keep total fishing mortality for each stock within sustainable levels by applying the precautionary approach. Nutritional and socio-economic considerations: Management and conservation objectives and strategies should recognize that in some low-income food-deficit regions and/or countries, shark catches are a traditional and important source of food, employment and/or income. Such catches should be managed on a sustainable basis to provide a continued source of food, employment and income to local communities. The IPOA-Sharks is voluntary.each State and RFMO should regularly carry out a regular assessment of the status of its shark stocks subjected to fishing so as to determine whether or not there is a need to develop a Shark Plan. Once at least every four years, States and RFMOs that implement a Shark Plan should assess its implementation for the purpose of identifying costeffective strategies for increasing its effectiveness. Each State and each RFMO should strive to have its first Shark Plan prepared for the COFI Session scheduled for February (7) Sustainable management of shark fisheries is one of the 4 points this plan aims to address. The objectives that apply to the issue of shark finning are to: Minimize unutilized incidental catches of sharks. 6

8 7 Minimize waste and discards from shark catches in accordance with the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (for example, requiring the retention of sharks from which the fins are removed). Encourage full use of dead sharks. (7) To date, Argentina, Brazil, France, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, the Maldives, Mexico, New Zealand, Pakistan, Portugal, Spain, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and the U.S. all catch more than 9,000 tons of sharks, annually. However, only Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the U.S. have specific fishery management plans for certain shark fisheries, and only a limited number of countries have confronted the issue of shark-finning in their fisheries. Canada imposed a shark-finning ban in The real problem afterwards, as usual was enforcement. It was not until a few years later (1997) that Canada could put together a comprehensive management plan that held people accountable to the law. Brazil imposed a shark-finning ban but, like Canada, had and still has many problems enforcing the ban. It is thought that Brazil will need international financial funding to enforce their shark-finning ban. Costa Rica and Oman also have imposed complete bans on finning. As of February 2002, the U.S has a complete finning ban, and Spain followed suit a few months later, in June of this year, becoming the first European country to do so (8). On August 6, 2002, the European Commission proposed to prohibit shark finning in all European Union waters, and for all European vessels when they fish beyond European waters. The finning ban would apply to all elasmobranchs (sharks, rays, and skates) (6). Australia has banned finning by their federal tuna fleets, and New Zealand has a similar ban for their tuna fleets (9). This is only the tip of the iceberg, however. Global production of dried shark fins was 10 times in 1994 than what it was in It was over 6,000 tons in 1997 according to the FAO (10). Because so many participating shark fishing countries do not have existing regulations and restrictions on shark-finning or fishing, the countries that do have them are afraid they will suffer in the international trade market for shark fins. This has been a big concern in the Western and Central Pacific region of the U.S. THE U.S. 7

9 8 In the U.S., fisheries are managed by the Department of Commerce, who in turn delegates responsibility to NMFS. Sharks are managed under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, or the Sustainable Fisheries Act, as amended in The Magnuson-Stevens Act provides guidelines for any fisheries management plans and establishes national standards and regulations under which all fisheries management should fall. Among other things, this act aims to prevent overfishing of any fish stocks, and to establish plans based on the best scientific data available. The amended version of the act also establishes a plan to minimize bycatch, and when this is not possible, to minimize mortality of such bycatch (11). Shark management is directly affected by this act. Under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, overfished shark stocks are required to be rebuilt and healthy shark stocks need to be maintained. In the mid 1980 s, the Atlantic was discovered as an untapped shark resource, as slowly, Asian nations began to realize the worth of this ocean, simply for the reason that culturally, North Americans have never had shark incorporated into their diet. As this happened, the increased demand for shark fin soup, and the increased wealth in China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan, in particular raised the value of shark fins. Between 1985 and 1994, dogfish landings increased in the Atlantic by 250%, and other shark landings increased by 300%. This rapid increase in shark landings led to the implementation of a controversial shark management plan in the Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea in This plan includes a finning ban for 39 of the known 74 species occurring in the Atlantic. Of these 39, 22 are large coastal sharks: sandbar, blacktip, dusky, spinner, silky, bull, big nose, narrow tooth, Galapagos, Caribbean reef, tiger, sand tiger, big eye sand tiger, lemon, night, nurse, great hammerhead, smooth hammerhead, scalloped hammerhead, whale, basking, and white sharks. 7 are small coastal sharks: Atlantic sharp nose, Caribbean sharp nose, bonnet head, black nose, small tail, fine tooth, and Atlantic angel sharks. The remaining 10 fall into the pelagic category: short fin mako, long fin mako, thresher, big eye thresher, oceanic white tip, porbeagle, blue, seven gill, six gill, and big eye six gill sharks (12). An additional 34 species for data collection, including mostly small, deep water sharks that have a tendency to get caught in swordfish and tuna nets were marked for data collection. 8

10 9 In 1999, the Atlantic shark FMP was replaced and the finning ban was expanded to include 33 of the 34 monitored species, with the 34 th species, the spiny dogfish, being included in the finning ban in January 2000 (13). Sharks have a history of getting caught in tuna and swordfish nets, and also on longlines. These sharks were considered bycatch in the late 80 s, and were presumably released, in accordance with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which states, Conservation and management measures shall, to the extent practicable, (A) minimize bycatch and (B) to the extent bycatch cannot be avoided, minimize the mortality of such bycatch. (11) Currently, research is being done on a type of fishing gear that will not be as detrimental to sharks. For the present, according to the NMFS in the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea, large coastal sharks are overfished. This group of sharks includes the sandbar, blacktip, bull, tiger, and hammerhead sharks. Small coastal sharks are fully fished, and these include the Atlantic sharpnose, finetooth, and bonnethead sharks, and the population of pelagic sharks is unknown. Pelagic sharks include blue, shortfin mako, longfin mako, porbeagle, and thresher sharks. 19 species of sharks, including the whale shark, basking shark, and white shark may not be retained by fishermen at all. Commercial fishermen must obtain permits to retain sharks and once the semi-annual quotas are met, there are not more permits available to fish sharks. Recreational fishermen are regulated by a minimum size that they are allowed to keep, and a bag limit. NMFS has also designated certain areas as essential fish habitats, where shark fishing is prohibited (12). In 1997, NMFS put three Atlantic species of shark on the list of candidates for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). This list of candidates calls for voluntary protection of the species listed. It is a way for NMFS to let the public know that these species will soon need the protection given to species listed as endangered or threatened. It also helps managers draw up conservation plans that will not have to be radically changed in the future, if or when these species appear on the Endangered Species list, to 9

11 10 be federally protected under the Endangered Species Act. The Endangered Species Act provides protection to endangered and threatened species. To be listed as one of these species, one of the following five factors must be true: Present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; Disease or predation; Inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; and Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. (14) The three species are: the dusky shark, night shark, and sand tiger shark. Dusky shark population in the northwestern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico is probably currently at 15-20% of its abundance in the mid-1970 s. The dusky shark falls under the management plans for Atlantic highly migratory species (Atlantic HMS FMP). The sand tiger shark is currently managed under the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Act and the Atlantic HMS FMP. The night shark is a deepwater species, and so very little information is known about it. The main threat to night sharks is longline mortality. It is managed under the Magnuson-Stevens Act (15). In the Pacific, there is even less information known about shark populations. Recent assessments show the common thresher and Pacific angel shark populations are in recovery, and the blue shark population is healthy. Currently, a Pacific Highly Migratory FMP is under development, which will cover migratory sharks. Sharks in the North Pacific (salmon, sleeper, and dogfish sharks) are covered under the Groundfish FMP, and the Western Pacific, which includes Hawaii, American Samoa, and Guam, covers blue, mako, and thresher sharks under the Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries FMP (12). In the U.S., the issue of shark-finning has been a controversial and sensitive issue. Since 1989, the passing of a shark-finning ban has been under discussion, and on December 21, 2000, the Shark Finning Prohibition Act (SFPA) was signed into law. The act amended the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act to prohibit any person under U.S. jurisdiction from engaging in shark-finning, possessing shark fins on a fishing vessel without the corresponding carcass, and landing fins without corresponding 10

12 11 carcasses. H.S. 3535, the amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Act that prohibits sharkfinning, defines finning as the taking of a shark, removing the fin or fins (whether or not including the tail) of a shark, and returning the remainder of the shark to the sea. (7). The bill then states, Shark fins comprise approximately 5 percent of the weight of a shark, and disposing of the carcass of a finned shark does not utilize, or wastes, about 95 percent (by weight) of each shark. The final rule, which finally came out in February, 2002 also prohibits any foreign fishing vessel from shark-finning in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), from landing fins without carcasses in any U.S. port, and from transshipping shark fins in the U.S. EEZ. If the total wet weight of the shark fins is more than 5% of the total carcass weight found aboard the vessel, the final rule also establishes a rebuttable presumption that the fins were taken in violation of this act (16). The passing of the SFPA was the result of many years of work. In 1989, NMFS first drafted a FMP for sharks in the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. This was met with an outcry from the fishermen, many of whom claimed to have been convinced to turn to shark fishing by NMFS just a few years before (1). It was not until 1993 that the shark FMP was implemented with a finning ban in federal waters. In 1999, a resolution was passed in Congress for a shark finning law. In 2000, a bill passed through Congress, and finally in 2002, the law was extended to all U.S. waters. This follows the general trend of the creation of law. Management plans are drafted first, and not passed until years later, when Congress finally steps in and passes a law. With an estimated million sharks dying annually from this wasteful practice, and with the increase of finning each year, 13 years of debate seems completely unaffordable. Many people are of the opinion that there is no such thing as a sustainable shark fishery, mainly because of their slow rate of maturity and reproduction, as well as the reasons stated above. In 1991, the number of sharks recorded as being killed by U.S. vessels was 2,289. By 1998, that figure had shot up to 60,857, and more than 200 tons of fins were taken by Asian fishing vessels in waters near Hawaii, and then transshipped through Hawaii (17). Hawaiian fishermen called for a ban on finning, as Hawaii as a state was not gaining 11

13 12 economically from this practice, since individual fishermen were pocketing the cash bonus they received for the fins. A spokesperson for the Hawaiian Fishermen s Foundation states, Hawaii.has been dubbed Fin Central.since tons of shark fins are landed and transshipped through Hawaii annually and has created a black market with no economic value to the state. (18) Hawaii has traditionally been known as a leader in conservation and fishery management plans, with the fishermen of Hawaii priding themselves on being known as the Ocean State, the Eco-tourism State, and the Seafood State by the Department of Business and Economic Development, as well as the Hawaii Visitor s Bureau (18). However, the shark-finning issue has been a source of discontent for many Hawaiian fishermen, because Hawaii was the last state to adopt the shark-finning ban. For this reason, many native Hawaiians believed they were receiving negative attention, and that their tourism industry would potentially suffer. An interesting point is that the fishermen were in disagreement with their regional fisheries council, the Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Council (WesPac), and put pressure on their council to adopt a stricter plan for the management of sharks in their waters. Hawaiian waters fall under the control of the WesPac, one of the 8 regional fish councils as appointed by the Magnuson-Stevens Act. WesPac also controls the waters surrounding American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. These waters comprise 48% of the U.S. EEZ (19). WesPac did not see the need for a ban on sharkfinning, stating that finning is neither cruel nor wasteful, nor a threat to shark conservation. (17) In the Pacific, the majority of sharks that are caught are blue sharks. Because the blue shark has high urea content, the meat spoils easily, and does not sell well, either. This is the main reason that the chair of WesPac, James Cook, does not see finning in the Pacific as a waste (19). On April 13, 2000, there was a hearing to amend the Magnuson-Stevens Act to eliminate shark-finning before the subcommittee on fisheries conservation, wildlife and oceans of Committee on Resources at the House of Representatives 106 th congress, second session. 12

14 13 Member speakers were: Randy Cunningham, congressional representative from California; Eni Faleomavaega, congressional representative from American Samoa; Frank Pallone; and Jim Saxton, congressional representatives from New Jersey. Testifying witnesses were: William Aila, harbor master of Wai anae Small Boat Harbor; James Cook, chair of Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council; Fred O Regan, President of the International Fund for Animal Welfare; and Andrew Rosenberg, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. The Western and Central Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council (WesPac) was the only party in opposition of the act. An interesting point is that the fishermen were in support of the finning ban, and stricter regulations, while their regional fisheries council actually opposed the ban. This poses a sharp contrast to the Atlantic in 1989, when NMFS first drafted a finning ban. The fishermen in that case, strongly opposed the ban. In this hearing, the discourse between the harbor master from Hawaii, Mr. Aila, and Mr. Cook, the chair of WesPac was apparent. Mr. Aila had served on WesPac s Fisheries Pelagic Advisory panel for over 11 years. Mr. Cook and Mr. Aila disagreed on many issues, including whether or not many Hawaiians ate shark fin soup. Mr. Cook claimed that yes, since Hawaii had a large Asian-American population, that Hawaii was a large consumer of shark fins. When Mr. Aila was confronted with the same question, he answered that there is a small ethnic population that consumes shark fin soup, but that the majority of the population does not. Mr. Aila, in his testimony, directly accuses WesPac of ignoring one of the criteria the council is supposed to follow, under the Magnuson-Stevens Act. He states, The Magnuson-Stevens Act sets out three primary criteria for Regional Management Fisheries Councils to base its fisheries-management plans or FMPs on. The WesPac has chosen, in my opinion to ignore at least one criteria and belittle the other two. In its proposed shark FMP, WesPac would authorize the finning of 50,000 blue sharks per year wasting over 95 percent of that resource. He then points out that WesPac relied on Japanese logbook data to create their FMP and that the Japanese fleet only consists of 30% of the 13

15 14 fishing effort in the Pacific. In his opinion, 30% is not the best scientific data available (11). Another part of the Magnuson-Stevens Act that WesPac is in discordance with is the bycatch amendment. Cook claims, current observer coverage indicates that 98% of the sharks finned by the Hawaii longline fleet are done so after they are dead. (19) This would no longer define the sharks as bycatch, but as incidental catch, and actually not be considered a wasteful practice to many. But NMFS records also show that 86% of sharks caught by the Hawaii longline fleet are caught unintentionally and landed alive. Cook then explains that the sharks are treated like the rest of the catch. They are landed alive, killed by a spike to the brain or a severance of the spinal cord, then finned, and then their carcass is tossed overboard. Once they are landed as bycatch, they are killed, and then finned, becoming incidental catch. It seems like Cook is trying to get away with wasteful practice on a technicality. As incidental catch, sharks would not be covered by the Magnuson-Stevens Act bycatch amendment. The Western Pacific region has made an effort to abide by the Magnuson-Stevens Act, but has tried to bend the law to their own benefit, disregarding the call for management decisions based on the best scientific data available, without taking into account economic strains. The Magnuson-Stevens Act states that Conservation and management measures shall, to the extent practicable, (A) minimize bycatch and (B) to the extent bycatch cannot be avoided, minimize the mortality of such bycatch. (11) By harvesting the fins of sharks, WesPac has turned sharks into incidental catch instead of bycatch. Because the Magnuson-Stevens Act does not call for the minimization of incidental catch, WesPac is not technically in violation of this act. Also, WesPac asks for a definition of waste, and calls the sharkfinning prohibition act wasteful, in that it would waste the lucrative resource of shark fins that are in the U.S. Western and Central Pacific waters. This takes into account economic factors, when the Magnuson-Stevens Act states clearly that Conservation and management measures shall, where practicable, consider efficiency in the utilization of fishery resources; except that no such measure shall have economic allocation as its sole purpose. (11) Shark-finning may be considered an efficient practice, especially when applied to blue sharks, since their meat is high in urea content and spoils easily. Also, 14

16 15 there is not a very high market for blue shark meat. For these reasons, it would be impractical to keep the space-consuming meat of the shark fresh. On the other hand, this shark meat is incidental catch. The fishermen that are catching these sharks are not targeting sharks in the first place. For this reason, they do not have the space to keep the shark meat fresh, and are finning the sharks only for economic purposes. What stands out the most, is WesPac s seemingly blatant disregard for what the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery and Management Act tries to enforce. It calls for the 8 regional councils to base management decisions based on the best scientific data available, and not on economic information. The WesPac shark management proposal states, Conservationists likely believe that the proposed annual quotas for sharks are insufficient. In addition, they do not believe that this measure addresses the waste and cruelty issues. In contrast, the Council argues that the best scientific evidence does not suggest that the particular stock being fished, north Pacific blue sharks, is being over-exploited and does not see finning as wasteful (at least in economic terms) since no market currently exists for blue shark meat. The proposed 50,000 annual quota for blue sharks is in some degree a compromise. It essentially caps the practice at a level 15% below the 1999 total. (4) Further investigation of Cook shows that this is not the first time he has challenged fisheries management plans. He has even challenged his own. He is the largest distributor of longline gear, bait and ice in Hawaii, and in 1994, he pleaded guilty of taking lobsters in violation of WesPac s own lobster regulations on minimum size and egg-bearing lobsters. He was fined $30,000, and soon after, he led WesPac to remove all lobster taking regulations. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The question remains, as it does with any law, will the SFPA be enforced? In other countries, like Canada and Brazil, enforcement has been an issue since their bans were passed. As mentioned before, it is believed that Brazil will not be able to enforce their finning ban without international finances. For a country like the U.S., where finances 15

17 16 are less of an issue, the enforcement question is still a valid one. The shark fin market is extremely lucrative and until the market loses demand and value, enforcement will remain an issue. As believed by the chair of WesPac, the U.S. is losing money by not being able to participate with as few regulations as many other international fishing fleets are able. For this reason, international trade regulations need to be equally as strict, if not more so than fishing regulations. Only a decrease in demand, or an increase in trade regulations will lower the incentive for the practice of shark-finning. This past August, only 6 months after the SFPA was extended to WesPac waters, the U.S. Coast Guard confiscated a U.S. Flag vessel with 12 tons of shark fins without corresponding carcasses on board (20). 12 tons of shark fins in the Pacific corresponds to roughly 20,300 sharks, assuming fins to be 1-5% of body weight, using an average weight of kg/blue shark (21). This is one boatload of shark fins. This is a clear indication that enforcement of the SFPA needs as much dedication and attention as the passing of the law itself needed. Internationally, it is clear that controlling the trade of shark fins is the key in fighting the practice of shark-finning. The lack of data and cooperation shows that this will not be an easy or quick task. It is also clear that sharks may not have the time it will take for any action to be taken. If the reported figures show million sharks killed per year, and many stocks depleted, it is unclear as to how shark populations can be sustained. It is the opinion of many people that there is no such thing as a sustainable shark fishery because of their unique life characteristics. However, increased awareness, and the dedication of international organizations such as TRAFFIC, and the FAO to pass further restrictions can eventually put a halt to this wasteful and unnecessary practice, and we can give sharks time to rebuild their populations. Sharks are in dire need of management and conservation plans that will hopefully soon be created in all shark fishing nations. One can only hope that it is not already too late. 16

18 17 TABLES: Table 1 (6): The amount of sharks caught, finned, and retained in the U.S., years Table 2 (6): Breakdown of species finned in

19 18 Table 3 (6): Amount of blue sharks caught, finned and retained in the U.S., years Table 4 (6): Commercial landings in the U.S., 1998 and

20 19 REFERENCES: (1) Coniff, Richard. From Jaws to laws Smithsonian, v. 24, no. 2. (2) Fleming, Elizabeth; Philippe Papageorgiou. Shark Fisheries and Trade in Europe (1997). TRAFFIC Europe. (2) Rose, Debra. Shark Fisheries and Trade in the Americas, vol. 1, North America (March 1998). TRAFFIC North America. (4) C.R. Dahl. The Management of Shark Catches in the U.S.-Flag Islands of the Pacific, Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council. (5) (6) Kirby, Alex. Global Shark-Finning Ban urged, BBC News Online. News.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/ stm (7) International Plan of Action-Sharks, Food and Agricultural Organization, United Nations. (8) (9) (10) Darby, Andrew, Environmental News Service. Australia bans shark finning. Oct. 9, (11) The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, or the Sustainable Fisheries Act, as amended, June 28, (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) Endreson, Bob. Hawaii Fishermen s Foundation. (19) Congressional Hearing April 15, Thomas.loc.gov (20) USCG.mil/pacarea/pcp/newsreleases/2002/aug/0204sd.htm (21) animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/prionace/p_glauca$narrative.html (22) Tighe, Michael, Associated Press Writer. Federal Officials Look to Curb Catch of Asian Delicacy. Standard Times. 19

21 20 (23) Endreson, Bob. The Fish Watch. Hawaii Fishing News. December

Atlantic Shark Fishery: Gulf of Mexico. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Management Division

Atlantic Shark Fishery: Gulf of Mexico. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Management Division Atlantic Shark Fishery: Gulf of Mexico National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Management Division Brief Outline Fishery Management Basics General Shark Management Species

More information

Modify Federal Regulations for Swordfish Trip Limits the Deep-set Tuna Longline Fishery. Decision Support Document November 2010

Modify Federal Regulations for Swordfish Trip Limits the Deep-set Tuna Longline Fishery. Decision Support Document November 2010 Agenda Item J.2.a Attachment 2 November 2010 Modify Federal Regulations for Trip Limits the Deep-set Tuna Longline Fishery (Action Pursuant to Modification of Routine Management Measures under the Framework

More information

RESEARCH SERIES MAY 2007

RESEARCH SERIES MAY 2007 RESEARCH SERIES MAY 2007 Restrictions designed to accommodate a variety of processing practices hamper effective regulation of shark finning. This can be resolved by requiring fishers to land sharks with

More information

SHARK CHECK SHEETS RECEIVED IN ACCORDANCE WITH REC (As of 16 October 2017, Madrid time)

SHARK CHECK SHEETS RECEIVED IN ACCORDANCE WITH REC (As of 16 October 2017, Madrid time) 017 COM Doc. No. COC-303-Appendix 3 / 017 13/11/017 16:4 (4:4 ) Original: English, French, Spanish Part 1 SHARK CHECK SHEETS RECEIVED IN ACCORDANCE WITH REC. 16-13 (As of 16 October 017, Madrid time) Flag

More information

Delaware Division of Fish & Wildlife. Year 2005 Tidal Water Recreational Fishing Limits

Delaware Division of Fish & Wildlife. Year 2005 Tidal Water Recreational Fishing Limits Delaware Division of Fish & Wildlife Year 2005 Tidal Water Recreational Fishing Limits No license is required for hook and line recreational fishing in tidal waters. It is illegal to fish for any species

More information

Overview of Marine National Monuments in the US Pacific Islands 1

Overview of Marine National Monuments in the US Pacific Islands 1 Attachment 2 Overview of Marine National Monuments in the US Pacific Islands 1 (i) The requirements and original objectives of the Act, including the Act s requirement that reservations of land not exceed

More information

Yellowfin Tuna, Indian Ocean, Troll/ pole and line

Yellowfin Tuna, Indian Ocean, Troll/ pole and line Yellowfin Tuna, Indian Ocean, Troll/ pole and line Yellowfin Tuna, Indian Ocean, Troll/ pole and line Content last updated 7th Mar 2017 Stock: Indian Ocean Management: Indian Ocean Tuna Commission Overview

More information

WORKING TOGETHER TO CONSERVE SHARKS AND RAYS SHARKS: RESTORING THE BALANCE A JOINT INITIATIVE OF WWF AND TRAFFIC TO CONSERVE SHARKS AND RAYS

WORKING TOGETHER TO CONSERVE SHARKS AND RAYS SHARKS: RESTORING THE BALANCE A JOINT INITIATIVE OF WWF AND TRAFFIC TO CONSERVE SHARKS AND RAYS WORKING TOGETHER TO CONSERVE SHARKS AND RAYS SHARKS: RESTORING THE BALANCE A JOINT INITIATIVE OF WWF AND TRAFFIC TO CONSERVE SHARKS AND RAYS SHARKS Mythologized, feared, revered. These ancient predators

More information

U.S. Fisheries - Sustainable Seafood Laurel Bryant

U.S. Fisheries - Sustainable Seafood Laurel Bryant U.S. Fisheries - Sustainable Seafood Laurel Bryant Chief, External Affairs NOAA Fisheries Communications Office Sustainable Seafood-3 Things Dynamic and every evolving NOAA - founding partner, global leader

More information

Wild caught sustainable seafood

Wild caught sustainable seafood Wild caught sustainable seafood Published November 2012 Responsible sourcing We are committed to the quality, integrity and long-term sustainability of the seafood we sell. Founded in 1880, initially trading

More information

Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission

Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission Fishery Management Report No. 46 of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission Working towards healthy, self-sustaining populations for all Atlantic coast fish species or successful restoration well

More information

Keeping Gulf Red Snapper on the Road to Recovery

Keeping Gulf Red Snapper on the Road to Recovery A brief from July 2016 Keeping Gulf Red Snapper on the Road to Recovery Overview In 2007, the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council implemented a rebuilding plan for red snapper that included scientifically

More information

Wild caught sustainable seafood

Wild caught sustainable seafood Wild caught sustainable seafood Version March 2017 Responsible sourcing We are committed to the quality, integrity and long-term sustainability of the seafood we sell. Founded in 1880, initially trading

More information

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South This document is scheduled to be published in the Federal Register on 07/13/2016 and available online at http://federalregister.gov/a/2016-16510, and on FDsys.gov Billing Code: 3510-22-P DEPARTMENT OF

More information

What are the threats to the oceans? Consequences. Four examples. Tuna

What are the threats to the oceans? Consequences. Four examples. Tuna Conservation of the marine environment Dr. Katrina Mangin Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology mangin@email.arizona.edu What are the threats to the oceans? Over-fishing & over-harvesting Climate

More information

NFR-22. National Report: Update on tuna fisheries of Taiwan in the Pacific Region. SCTB15 Working Paper

NFR-22. National Report: Update on tuna fisheries of Taiwan in the Pacific Region. SCTB15 Working Paper CTB1 Working Paper FR-22 ational Report: Update on tuna fisheries of Taiwan in the Pacific Region hu-hui Wang 1, hyh-bin Wang 1, and Chin-Lau Kuo 2 1 Overseas Fisheries Development Council of the Republic

More information

World supply and demand of tilapia

World supply and demand of tilapia World supply and demand of tilapia by Helga Josupeit FAO Rome, October 2010 World tilapia production World tilapia production has been booming during the last decade, with output doubling from 830000 tonnes

More information

Background Knowledge: Overfishing & Aquaculture

Background Knowledge: Overfishing & Aquaculture Background Knowledge: Overfishing & Aquaculture Billions of people on earth depend on fish. For some, it is a popular source of healthy food due to its essential fatty acids and nutrients, while others

More information

CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE UPDATE ON LANDINGS OF TUNA, SWORDFISH AND OTHER PELAGICS

CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE UPDATE ON LANDINGS OF TUNA, SWORDFISH AND OTHER PELAGICS Agenda Item H.2.c Supplemental CDFW Report 1 November 217 CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE UPDATE ON LANDINGS OF TUNA, SWORDFISH AND OTHER PELAGICS CDFW Summary of HMS Landings Data Improvement

More information

Recommendations to the 11th Regular Session of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission 1 5 December 2014, Apia, Samoa

Recommendations to the 11th Regular Session of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission 1 5 December 2014, Apia, Samoa A brief from Nov 2014 Richard Hermann Recommendations to the 11th Regular Session of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission 1 5 December 2014, Apia, Samoa The Western and Central Pacific

More information

Regional Plan of Action (RPOA) to Promote Responsible Fishing Practices including Combating IUU Fishing in the Region 1. Contents

Regional Plan of Action (RPOA) to Promote Responsible Fishing Practices including Combating IUU Fishing in the Region 1. Contents Regional Plan of Action (RPOA) to Promote Responsible Fishing Practices including Combating IUU Fishing in the Region 1 Contents Current resource and management situation in the region...3 Implementation

More information

ALBERTA WILDERNESS ASSOCIATION. Hunting, Trapping, and Fishing

ALBERTA WILDERNESS ASSOCIATION. Hunting, Trapping, and Fishing Hunting, Trapping, and Fishing AWA s mission is to defend Wild Alberta through awareness and action. That is, our goal is to defend and preserve big wilderness. Hunting, trapping, and fishing are not central

More information

Sustainable Fisheries and the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Introduction

Sustainable Fisheries and the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Introduction Sustainable Fisheries and the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea UNITAR/DOALOS Briefing 17 October 2007 Liza Gall and Michael Shewchuk Introduction General character of the UN Convention on the Law

More information

The International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-Like Species in the North Pacific Ocean (ISC)

The International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-Like Species in the North Pacific Ocean (ISC) The International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-Like Species in the North Pacific Ocean (ISC) Gerard DiNardo Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Honolulu, HI USA Tuna RFMOs (Regional Fisheries

More information

GLOBEFISH RESEARCH PROGRAMME

GLOBEFISH RESEARCH PROGRAMME GLOBEFISH RESEARCH PROGRAMME The Ornamental Fish Trade Volume 102 The Ornamental Fish Trade Production and Commerce of Ornamental Fish: technical-managerial and legislative aspects by Pierluigi Monticini

More information

By-Catch and Discard Management: The Key to Achieving Responsible and Sustainable Fisheries in Europe

By-Catch and Discard Management: The Key to Achieving Responsible and Sustainable Fisheries in Europe By-Catch and Discard Management: The Key to Achieving Responsible and Sustainable Fisheries in Europe The Importance of Addressing By-Catch and Discard Management In Europe around 1,3 million tonnes of

More information

SHARKS. P1607 By Tony Corey

SHARKS. P1607 By Tony Corey SHARKS P1607 By Tony Corey The word "shark" might evoke images of the massive, spike-toothed maw of the great white shark immortalized in Jaws. The great white as the archetypal shark emphasizes the dramatic

More information

Overfishing Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

Overfishing Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Overfishing Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Brett Ducker FOR3202 April 9, 2016 A recently released report by the World Wildlife Fund found that more than 85% of the worlds fisheries are being illegally overfished

More information

SCTB15 Working Paper NFR 7. Fiji tuna and billfish fisheries. Jone Amoe. Fisheries Division, Ministry of Fisheries and Forests Fiji

SCTB15 Working Paper NFR 7. Fiji tuna and billfish fisheries. Jone Amoe. Fisheries Division, Ministry of Fisheries and Forests Fiji SCTB15 Working Paper NFR 7 Fiji tuna and billfish fisheries Jone Amoe Fisheries Division, Ministry of Fisheries and Forests Fiji July 2002 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1 INTRODUCTION 2 2 TUNA AND BILLFISH

More information

Artisanal and Small Scale Fisheries Experiences in Central America

Artisanal and Small Scale Fisheries Experiences in Central America The Fourth Global Fisheries Enforcement Training Workshop Artisanal and Small Scale Fisheries Experiences in Central America Costa Rica, February 17-21, 2014 CENTRAL AMERICAN COUNTRIES Belize Dominican

More information

Suraji Presented on CITES Non-Detriment Findings (NDFs) Workshop Jakarta, July 26, 2016

Suraji Presented on CITES Non-Detriment Findings (NDFs) Workshop Jakarta, July 26, 2016 Directorate of Conservation and Marine Biodiversity Directorate General of Marine Spatial Management Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Republic of Indonesia Suraji Presented on CITES Non-Detriment

More information

The Growth and Socioeconomic Value of the Whale Watch Industry Worldwide. Mick McIntyre, Asia Pacific Director

The Growth and Socioeconomic Value of the Whale Watch Industry Worldwide. Mick McIntyre, Asia Pacific Director The Growth and Socioeconomic Value of the Whale Watch Industry Worldwide Mick McIntyre, Asia Pacific Director Mick McIntyre 2001 It was many years before I realized why I never saw any whales in Tasmania.

More information

Angling Trust Save Our Sea Bass Bass Position Statement 2018

Angling Trust Save Our Sea Bass Bass Position Statement 2018 Angling Trust Save Our Sea Bass Bass Position Statement 2018 Background Up until the 1980s, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) which are present in the central and southern North Sea, Irish Sea, English Channel,

More information

2 Bivalves: Global production and trade trends

2 Bivalves: Global production and trade trends 2 Bivalves: Global production and trade trends S. Pawiro The international trade in bivalves (shellfish) is very much regionalized. Few countries are able to penetrate distant markets outside their regions,

More information

Overview: Fishery Management Council Process

Overview: Fishery Management Council Process Overview: Fishery Management Council Process MREP Management Workshop Tampa, Florida September 30, 2014 Ben Hartig, Chairman South Atlantic Fishery Management Council Road Map for Presentation: Council

More information

ASIA AND PACIFIC COMMISSION ON AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS

ASIA AND PACIFIC COMMISSION ON AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS APCAS/16/6.3.3 ASIA AND PACIFIC COMMISSION ON AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS TWENTY-SIXTH SESSION Thimphu, Bhutan, 15-19 February 2016 Agenda Item 6.3 Fish Stats: Data Collection Mechanisms in Fisheries Sector

More information

Combating IUU: China and the European Market

Combating IUU: China and the European Market Combating IUU: China and the European Market Tatjana Gerling Smart Fishing Global Initiative WWF International Light tower Tatjana Gerling/WWF International 22 nd September 2014 The European Parliament

More information

Global Marine Mammal Bycatch in Hook and Line Fisheries

Global Marine Mammal Bycatch in Hook and Line Fisheries Global Marine Mammal Bycatch in Hook and Line Fisheries Kate McClellan, New England Aquarium Tim Werner, New England Aquarium Nina Young, NOAA Office of International Affairs BYCATCH Non-intentional, inadvertent,

More information

Reef Fish Amendment 32 Gag and Red Grouper

Reef Fish Amendment 32 Gag and Red Grouper AMENDMENT GUIDE 11/2/11 Reef Fish Amendment 32 Gag and Red Grouper Provisions in the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act require regional fishery management councils to develop annual

More information

Seafood Sustainability Beyond the NGO s. John Sackton Publisher SeafoodNews.com Vigo, Oct 3, 2016

Seafood Sustainability Beyond the NGO s. John Sackton Publisher SeafoodNews.com Vigo, Oct 3, 2016 Seafood Sustainability Beyond the NGO s John Sackton Publisher SeafoodNews.com Vigo, Oct 3, 2016 1 NGO Campaigns Have Never Been Only About Sustainability Four Campaigns Based on False Premises: Give Swordfish

More information

Genetically modified salmon is fit for the table

Genetically modified salmon is fit for the table Genetically modified salmon is fit for the table GENETIC ENGINEERING September 22, 2010 By Yonathan Zohar, Special to CNN The debate over genetically engineered salmon should be put in the proper context:

More information

Position of WWF Mongolia Program Office on current situation of Argali hunting and conservation in Mongolia

Position of WWF Mongolia Program Office on current situation of Argali hunting and conservation in Mongolia Position of WWF Mongolia Program Office on current situation of Argali hunting and conservation in Mongolia Since wildlife is a part of state property in Mongolia, only the relevant authorized governmental

More information

Darwin s Fishes: Why should we care about Marine Biodiversity?

Darwin s Fishes: Why should we care about Marine Biodiversity? Darwin s Fishes: Why should we care about Marine Biodiversity? Mary Glackin Deputy Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Darwin Symposium National

More information

BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA, PEOPLE S MINISTRY FOR AGRICULTURE AND LANDS. OFFICE OF THE MINISTER. DM/N CARACAS, MAY

BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA, PEOPLE S MINISTRY FOR AGRICULTURE AND LANDS. OFFICE OF THE MINISTER. DM/N CARACAS, MAY I, Carmelo Alejandro Velasquez Rodriguez, the undersigned, a Certified Translator of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in the English language, according to Resolution published on Official Gazette

More information

A8-0377/

A8-0377/ 9.1.2018 A8-0377/ 001-026 AMDMTS 001-026 by the Committee on Fisheries Report Linnéa Engström A8-0377/2017 Management, conservation and control measures applicable in the Convention Area of the South Pacific

More information

Shark hunting T E S S A F I N L E Y

Shark hunting T E S S A F I N L E Y Shark hunting T E S S A F I N L E Y SOURCES OF IMPACT FINNING FINNING -- kills roughly 100 million sharks annually the sharks bodies are fished, fins cut off, and then thrown back into the ocean without

More information

The Science of Rebuilding Fisheries: State of Play and Current issues

The Science of Rebuilding Fisheries: State of Play and Current issues The Science of Rebuilding Fisheries: State of Play and Current issues Steve Murawski Director of Scientific Programs and Chief Science Advisor U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service OECD Workshop: Economics

More information

Super-trawlers: Destructive or Sustainable? Public Hearing in the European Parliament 9 October 2017

Super-trawlers: Destructive or Sustainable? Public Hearing in the European Parliament 9 October 2017 Super-trawlers: Destructive or Sustainable? Public Hearing in the European Parliament 9 October 2017 Brian O Riordan Deputy Director, Low Impact Fishers of Europe Super-trawlers: a perverse product of

More information

Exposing California s Dirty Secret. The Truth about Drift Gillnets off our Coast

Exposing California s Dirty Secret. The Truth about Drift Gillnets off our Coast Exposing California s Dirty Secret The Truth about Drift Gillnets off our Coast Photo Credit: NOAA APRIL 204 OCEANA APRIL 204 2 IN BRIEF Mile-long drift gillnets create deadly traps for ocean wildlife.

More information

Section 3: The Future of Biodiversity

Section 3: The Future of Biodiversity Section 3: The Future of Biodiversity Preview Bellringer Objectives Saving Species One at a Time Captive-Breeding Programs Preserving Genetic Material Zoos, Aquariums, Parks, and Gardens Preserving Habitats

More information

Inshore wrasse pot fishery What are the issues?

Inshore wrasse pot fishery What are the issues? Our Position - Summary Devon Wildlife Trust is calling for the immediate ban on live capture of all wrasse species in the South West from within Marine Protected Areas. Wrasse are being captured live from

More information

AOGA Educational Seminar

AOGA Educational Seminar AOGA Educational Seminar Endangered Species Act Permitting Legal Challenges Trends Jeff Leppo Stoel Rives LLP December 11, 2012 Anchorage, AK jwleppo@stoel.com 1 ESA Overview "My lawyer finally got me

More information

National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks

National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks March 2007 www.overfishing.gc.ca Published by: Communications Branch Fisheries and Oceans Canada Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0E6 DFO/2007 Her

More information

Sustainable Fishing Practices

Sustainable Fishing Practices 2014/ISOM/SYM/019 Session: 7 Sustainable Fishing Practices Submitted by: Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) Symposium on APEC 2015 Priorities Manila, Philippines 8 December 2014 Marine Stewardship Council

More information

Rapporteur: Seppo KALLIO

Rapporteur: Seppo KALLIO 6.3.2012 Official Journal of the European Union C 68/47 Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing

More information

The Protection of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems in the Northwest Atlantic: NAFO Processes and Regulations

The Protection of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems in the Northwest Atlantic: NAFO Processes and Regulations The Protection of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems in the Northwest Atlantic: NAFO Processes and Regulations Dr. Ricardo Federizon Senior Fisheries Commission Coordinator Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization

More information

Gulf States Seaward Boundary Changes Implications for Gulf Fisheries Management

Gulf States Seaward Boundary Changes Implications for Gulf Fisheries Management Gulf States Seaward Boundary Changes Implications for Gulf Fisheries Management Fisheries Management Gulf Council Concerns Steve Bortone Executive Director Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council steve.bortone@gulfcouncil.org

More information

South Pacific Fisheries Politics by Dr. George Kent Department of Political Science University of Hawaii at Manoa

South Pacific Fisheries Politics by Dr. George Kent Department of Political Science University of Hawaii at Manoa South Pacific Fisheries Politics by Dr. George Kent Department of Political Science University of Hawaii at Manoa All South Pacific territories except Tonga have been colonies of major powers, and they

More information

ASMFC Stock Assessment Overview: Red Drum

ASMFC Stock Assessment Overview: Red Drum Purpose The purpose of this document is to improve the understanding and transparency of the Commission s stock assessment process and results. It is the first of several that will be developed throughout

More information

5. Golf Industry Trends and Developments in the US 6. The US Macro Economy Factors and Impact over Golf Industry

5. Golf Industry Trends and Developments in the US 6. The US Macro Economy Factors and Impact over Golf Industry TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Golf Industry Performance Worldwide 1.1. Overview 1.2. Global Golf Equipment Demand and Economy 2. The US Golf Industry Overview 2.1. Industry Segmentation 3. Industry Performance

More information

What the threats to the oceans?

What the threats to the oceans? Conservation of the marine environment Dr. Katrina Mangin Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology mangin@email.arizona.edu Lion steak Eagle Pie What the threats to the oceans? Overfishing Coastal

More information

Agenda Item G.1.a Supplemental CDFW Report 2 September 2015

Agenda Item G.1.a Supplemental CDFW Report 2 September 2015 Agenda Item G.1.a Supplemental CDFW Report 2 September 2015 CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE REPORT ON PACIFIC BLUEFIN MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES FOR RECREATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

More information

REC.CM-GFCM/40/2016/4

REC.CM-GFCM/40/2016/4 REC.CM-GFCM/40/2016/4 establishing a multiannual management plan for the fisheries exploiting European hake and deep-water rose shrimp in the Strait of Sicily (GSA 12 to 16) The General Fisheries Commission

More information

Groundfish Harvest Specifications and Management Measures. Tillamook August 6 Newport August 7 Brookings August 12 North Bend August 13

Groundfish Harvest Specifications and Management Measures. Tillamook August 6 Newport August 7 Brookings August 12 North Bend August 13 2015-16 Groundfish Harvest Specifications and Management Measures Tillamook August 6 Newport August 7 Brookings August 12 North Bend August 13 1 (SSC) Scientific and Statistical Committee Groundfish Management

More information

ANGLER S GUIDE TO FLORIDA SHARKS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO

ANGLER S GUIDE TO FLORIDA SHARKS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO GUY HARVEY ULTIMATE SHARK CHALLENGE MOTE MARINE LABORATORY CENTER FOR SHARK RESEARCH ANGLER S GUIDE TO FLORIDA SHARKS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Shark Anatomy First dorsal fin Snout Second dorsal fin Caudal

More information

Supports the designation of TRPs as a priority for proper management of all stocks under WCPFC authority;

Supports the designation of TRPs as a priority for proper management of all stocks under WCPFC authority; Gregg Yan/ WWF The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) would like to once again thank the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) Scientific Committee (SC) for the opportunity to attend the

More information

Major Issues and Trends Facing the Port and Marine Transportation Industry

Major Issues and Trends Facing the Port and Marine Transportation Industry Major Issues and Trends Facing the Port and Marine Transportation Industry Presented to: AAPA Marine Terminal Management Training Program April 24, 2006 Charleston Riverview Hotel Charleston, SC - USA

More information

The race to fish and the threat to sustainability of stocks, environment and coastal communities

The race to fish and the threat to sustainability of stocks, environment and coastal communities INTERNATIONAL LEADERSHIP SEMINAR TOWARDS ACHIEVING SDG 14 25-26 April 2017, Hong Kong Azmath Jaleel Cardiff University The race to fish and the threat to sustainability of stocks, environment and coastal

More information

US Dept. of Commerce NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Law Enforcement

US Dept. of Commerce NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Law Enforcement US Dept. of Commerce NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Law Enforcement Galveston, TX Field Office SA Charles Tyer SA Richard Cook SA Matt Clark ASAC Mark Kinsey NOAA Office of Law Enforcement

More information

A Discussion on Conservation Strategies for Endangered Charismatic Megafauna

A Discussion on Conservation Strategies for Endangered Charismatic Megafauna 1 Lions, Tigers, and Bears, Oh My! A Discussion on Conservation Strategies for Endangered Charismatic Megafauna 2 3 4 5 6 Megafauna Large animal species with widespread popular appeal whose protection

More information

Atlantic Canada lobster industry: structure & markets

Atlantic Canada lobster industry: structure & markets Atlantic Canada lobster industry: structure & markets Lobster summit October 2007 Gardner Pinfold 1 The lobster industry - vital to communities in Canada & U.S. Canada Landings 40-50,000 t $550-650 million

More information

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC)

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) Mason Smith Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Division of Marine Fisheries Management Version 1 FWC Mission To manage fish and wildlife

More information

WORLD. Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees

WORLD. Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees 2012 WORLD Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees WORLD Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees The World Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees identifies mobility trends among candidates applying

More information

INTRODUCTION. Costeas-Geitonas School Model United Nations Committee: Environment Sub-Commission 1

INTRODUCTION. Costeas-Geitonas School Model United Nations Committee: Environment Sub-Commission 1 Committee: Environment Sub-Commission 1 Issue: Overfishing as a threat to the Mediterranean Sea Student Officer: Dioni Ellinikaki Position: Deputy President INTRODUCTION The Mediterranean Sea hosts more

More information

Council CNL(14)45 The management approach to salmon fisheries in Norway (Tabled by Norway)

Council CNL(14)45 The management approach to salmon fisheries in Norway (Tabled by Norway) Agenda Item 6.2 Agenda Item 6.2 For Information Council CNL(14)45 The management approach to salmon fisheries in Norway (Tabled by Norway) 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007

More information

COMMISSIO STAFF WORKI G PAPER. Executive Summary of the Impact Assessment. Accompanying the document

COMMISSIO STAFF WORKI G PAPER. Executive Summary of the Impact Assessment. Accompanying the document EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 12.8.2011 SEC(2011) 986 final COMMISSIO STAFF WORKI G PAPER Executive Summary of the Impact Assessment Accompanying the document Proposal for a Regulation of the European

More information

Red Snapper Allocation

Red Snapper Allocation Tab B, No. 6 06/04/13 Red Snapper Allocation Draft Options Paper for Amendment 28 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico June 2013 This is a publication of the

More information

Update on the status of New Zealand s marine fisheries.

Update on the status of New Zealand s marine fisheries. Update on the status of New Zealand s marine fisheries. Dr Pamela Mace Principal Advisor Fisheries Science New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries August 215 www.mpi.govt.nz Overview Perceptions The

More information

COMMISSION FOR THE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF HIGHLY MIGRATORY FISH STOCKS IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN

COMMISSION FOR THE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF HIGHLY MIGRATORY FISH STOCKS IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN COMMISSION FOR THE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF HIGHLY MIGRATORY FISH STOCKS IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN FIRST MEETING OF THE TECHNICAL AND COMPLIANCE COMMITTEE [5-9 December 2005] and SECOND

More information

Communicating the Science of Sustainable Seafood

Communicating the Science of Sustainable Seafood Communicating the Science of Sustainable Seafood Framing the Message about Seafood, DE Sea Grant Laurel Bryant, External Affairs Director, NOAA Fisheries July 18, 2012 Turning the corner Sustainability

More information

Review of Egypt s National Laws, Regulations, and Adequacy of Enforcement

Review of Egypt s National Laws, Regulations, and Adequacy of Enforcement Review of Egypt s National Laws, Regulations, and Adequacy of Enforcement Aim of the Legal Review Comprehensive summary of the currently existent laws and regulations that address bird hunting and trapping

More information

Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 11.7.2014 COM(2014) 457 final 2014/0213 (COD) Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL amending Regulation (EU) No 1343/2011 of the European

More information

The impact of environmental factors on fish food security in West Africa

The impact of environmental factors on fish food security in West Africa The impact of environmental factors on fish food security in West Africa Project Scoping Meeting on Securing the Foundations for Fish Food Security in a Changing Ocean in West and Central Africa Abidjan,

More information

European fishing fleet capacity management

European fishing fleet capacity management European fishing fleet capacity management Seas at Risk Conference Brussels, 21 October 2009 Sophie des Clers Photo Zineb Sedira CFP reform - Vision for 2020 Europe s fishing industry has become far more

More information

North and South Atlantic Handline, Harpoons

North and South Atlantic Handline, Harpoons Swordfish Xiphias gladius Monterey Bay Aquarium North and South Atlantic Handline, Harpoons Fisheries Standard Version F2 April 3, 2017 Seafood Watch Consulting Researcher Disclaimer Seafood Watch strives

More information

Florida s Spiny Lobster Fishery

Florida s Spiny Lobster Fishery Florida s Spiny Lobster Fishery 2011 Seafood Webinar Series Presenters Dr. Lisa Krimsky, Miami-Dade Sea Grant Extension Agent Bryan Fluech, Collier County Sea Grant Extension Agent Using Elluminate Hand

More information

NOMINAL CPUE FOR THE CANADIAN SWORDFISH LONGLINE FISHERY

NOMINAL CPUE FOR THE CANADIAN SWORDFISH LONGLINE FISHERY SCRS/2008/178 NOMINAL CPUE FOR THE CANADIAN SWORDFISH LONGLINE FISHERY 1988-2007 S. Smith and J. D. Neilson SUMMARY An update is presented of the nominal catch rate series and fishery distributions for

More information

Requested Changes for the Bluefin Tuna Catch and Release Fishery

Requested Changes for the Bluefin Tuna Catch and Release Fishery 1 To Whom it may concern, The Tuna Charter groups that actively participate in this fishery and the groups seeking involvement in this niche fishery recognize the need for ongoing dialogue and consultation

More information

California Department of Fish and Wildlife Report to the International Pacific Halibut Commission on 2017 California Fisheries

California Department of Fish and Wildlife Report to the International Pacific Halibut Commission on 2017 California Fisheries IPHC-2018-AM094-AR08 Received: 22 December 2017 California Department of Fish and Wildlife Report to the International Pacific Halibut Commission on 2017 California Fisheries California Department of Fish

More information

Assessment Summary Report Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper SEDAR 7

Assessment Summary Report Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper SEDAR 7 Assessment Summary Report Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper SEDAR 7 Stock Distribution: Red snapper are found throughout the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and from the U.S. Atlantic Coast to northern South

More information

Endangered Species Act and FERC Hydroelectric Projects. Jeff Murphy & Julie Crocker NHA New England Meeting November 16, 2010

Endangered Species Act and FERC Hydroelectric Projects. Jeff Murphy & Julie Crocker NHA New England Meeting November 16, 2010 Endangered Species Act and FERC Hydroelectric Projects Jeff Murphy & Julie Crocker NHA New England Meeting November 16, 2010 Shortnose Sturgeon Federally listed as endangered in 1967 Listed under the sole

More information

and found that there exist a significant overlap between the billfish resources and the exploitation activities targeting tunas and mahi mahi.

and found that there exist a significant overlap between the billfish resources and the exploitation activities targeting tunas and mahi mahi. Executive Summary Report 2016 Billfish Research in the Eastern Pacific Ocean Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science University of Miami January 2017 During 2016, the Eastern Pacific Ocean

More information

New Zealand s Fisheries Quota Management System

New Zealand s Fisheries Quota Management System 2015/HLPD-FSBE/003 Session: 1 New Zealand s Fisheries Quota Management System Purpose: Information Submitted by: ABAC New Zealand High Level Policy Dialogue on Food Security and Blue Economy Iloilo, Philippines

More information

2017 NORTHERN COD STEWARDSHIP FISHERY MANAGEMENT PLAN PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO

2017 NORTHERN COD STEWARDSHIP FISHERY MANAGEMENT PLAN PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO 2017 NORTHERN COD STEWARDSHIP FISHERY MANAGEMENT PLAN PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO FISHERIES & OCEANS CANADA April - 2017 BACKGROUND The Newfoundland and Labrador Groundfish Industry Development Council was formed

More information

Winter 2015/ Halibut & Blackcod Market Bulletin

Winter 2015/ Halibut & Blackcod Market Bulletin Winter 215/216 - Halibut & Blackcod Market Bulletin The Seafood Market Information Service is funded by a portion of the seafood marketing assessment paid by Alaska seafood producers. McDowell Group provides

More information

Frank Meere. Sustainable Fisheries Management

Frank Meere. Sustainable Fisheries Management Polices to combat IUU Fishing in the Asia-Pacific Region Frank Meere Sustainable Fisheries Management Background Global IUU problem UNGA, FAO, HSTF, EC and US High priority of APEC - Bali Plan of Action

More information

SUSTAINABLE SEAFOOD MATCHING

SUSTAINABLE SEAFOOD MATCHING RAINY DAY KITS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION This Lesson Created in Partnership with: SUSTAINABLE SEAFOOD MATCHING Overview Students play a matching game to learn about different fish species and whether

More information