Balancing food security and biodiversity in the ocean

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1

2 Balancing food security and biodiversity in the ocean Prof Heather Koldewey Head of Global Conservation #oceanoptimism

3 Thinking about biodiversity

4 Thinking about fish

5 Oceans: 70% of the Earth

6 Highly diverse

7 Oceans: 80% marine species undescribed Blobfish (Psychrolutes marcidus)

8 Global species richness of fish Based on 1,500 species

9 Living Blue Planet Index 2015 Marine populations (1,234 species) 49% decline Reef associated fish 34% decline Tunas, mackerels, bonito 74% decline

10 Global threats to marine species

11 IUCN Red List categories Critically Endangered Endangered org

12 Global fish trade is worth $92 billion p/a at first sale (but whole industry may be >$200 billion)

13 Commercial fisheries too many boats catching fewer fish

14 Super trawler

15 Artisanal or subsistence fisheries 80% global fish production Artisanal fisheries ~ 25% of the global marine catch Bali FAO

16 Wild caught to aquaculture

17 Unused and unmanaged catch (by-catch) 40% of the global catch Tendency to use more of the by-catch as previous target species become depleted Biomass fisheries

18 Fishing down the foodweb

19 Ecosystem shifts Removal of predators along with climatic changes has led to invasions by jellyfish.

20 Vulnerability of economies to climate change impacts on fisheries Reflects a combination of exposure to climate change, sensitivity of fisheries to climate change or dependence on fisheries and adaptability of the country / economy (Allison et al. 2009)

21 Biomass and catch (million tonnes) Fishing intensity The Ocean is at crisis point Biomass Fishing intensity Catch Biomass

22 Dramatic changes within our lifetime

23 Threats to food security

24 Commitments for sustainable management To maintain or restore stocks to maximum sustainable yield (MSY) either regionally or globally by Ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

25 Removal of harmful subsidies Eliminate harmful subsidies that contribute to overcapacity or IUU fishing. Valued at $16.2 billion in Reallocate to reduce fleet, more sustainable gear, ocean protection

26 Illegal, unregulated and unreported fisheries Voluntary International Plan of Action Illegal fishing $23 billion per year Unreported and unregulated catches a pervasive problem.

27 Biodiversity conservation Protect species Southern right whale (Eubalaena australis), Indian Ocean (southern coast of South Africa) Change fishing practices Wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans), South Atlantic Ocean (Bird Island, South Georgia)

28 2010 Convention on Biodiversity targets Increase marine protection to 10% by 2020

29 Why MPAs? Stop fishing completely Restrict damaging activities Protect biodiversity

30 MPAs are a form of ecosystem management No fish caught Inside MPA Fishing ends Habitat improves Number and density increases Outside MPA Spillover of adults Export of larvae

31 Ecologically MPAs work Biomass Density Body size Species density

32 Marine Reserves Coalition GREAT BRITISH OCEANS CREATING THE WORLD S LARGEST MARINE RESERVE SECURING OUR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL HERITAGE

33 Good progress 33

34 Global MPA coverage

35 Global MPA coverage: 3.7% Fully protected MPAs: 1.2% Exclusive Economic Zone coverage: 9.2%

36 Marine protection in UKOTs

37 Chagos Marine Reserve

38 Nick Graham, James Cook University

39 Fished Unfished Fished Unfished Fished Unfished Fished Unfished Fished Unfished Fished Unfished Fished Unfished Fished Unfished 3m 9m Biomass (kg/ha) Reef fish biomass by trophic level >80cm 70 to 80cm 60 to 70cm 50 to 60cm 40 to 50cm 30 to 40cm 20 to 30cm 10 to 20cm 3 to 10cm Kenya Mauritius Seychelles Madagascar Tanzania Mozambique Mayotte Maldives Chagos Graham & McClanahan 2013 BioScience

40 How do large MPAs work for mobile species?

41 Chagos connectivity

42 The challenge 100 million people

43 Reality of subsistence fishing

44 Community-based solutions

45 Marine protected areas

46 Community managed MPAs Community liaison and training Watchtowers and patrol boats MPA monitoring Community engagement

47 ZSL and Project Seahorse assisted MPAs Danajon Bank Bohol 10 km

48 MPA effectiveness ecological vs socioeconomic Even small reserves can increase abundance of most valuable species (for fisheries). Enforcement critical Diverse benefits e.g. social capital (measured as trust, social cohesion, community support, compliance) Samoilys et al., 2008 Hansen et al., 2011

49 Philippines 50% mangrove loss

50 Protect remaining mangrove forest

51 Expand mangrove area through replanting

52 Maintain mangrove biodiversity

53 Develop mangrove associated livelihoods

54 Add some science to change current bad practice Photo Collage by JH

55 Community training

56

57 Apr 2007 Apr 2008 Mar 2009 Apr 2012 Photo J.H. Primavera May 2010 May 2011

58 Oct 2009 Mar 2011 Jan 2011 Mar 2012

59 Mangrove ecopark

60 Increasing MPA area and resilience Lipata MPA 10 ha ha Sinandigan MPA 50 ha ha Aquino-Ondoy MPA 35 ha ha

61 November 8 th 2013, Typhoon Haiyan

62 Mangroves post-haiyan Marge de la Cruz

63 Ecological resilience 3 months later Marge de la Cruz

64 Mapping damage ~30% ~5%

65 Costs / benefits Opportunity costs of marine conservation Making conservation pro-poor Time Hill et al., 2012

66 Durable community institutions

67 Net-Works TM

68 Mangrove nurseries & seaweed farming

69 Fish meets fashion...

70 Lead by example No endangered fish Sept 2010 Jan different suppliers 434 product lines Non-food items Implement and test Trouble-shoot Launch May 2011

71 Step 3b: Reach new audiences

72 Media attention on fish!

73 Make it easy

74 What can you do today?

75

76

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