# Sept 23, 2014 LAB MANUAL

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1 Sept 23, 2014 LAB MANUAL STANDARD PRACTICES CALCULATIONS and FORMS Throughout this manual there are test calculation procedures. These calculations are provided so that a technician has a reference to use. Many tests have, or in the future will have, computer programs written that, upon entry of test values, will perform all the calculations and generate a report. This is acceptable, so long as the computer generated values are the same as manually calculated values. It is strongly recommended that all persons performing tests are familiar with the manual procedures. Where this manual refers to specific form numbers, this is to allow a reference only and is not intended to preclude the use of computergenerated forms. All test results either illustrated or borne out of this manual have been or will be reported using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E-29(2013) PRACTICE for RETAINING SIGNIFICANT DIGITS in CALCULATION and REPORTING of TEST RESULTS WHEN USING ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS or COMPUTERS This practice is intended to provide a uniform method for calculating and reporting test results when using electronic calculators or computers. Section describes the methodology, Section lists example calculations, and Section lists the required number of significant digits for various test values. Referenced Document ASTM E 29 Standard Practice for Using Significant digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications CALCULATION of TEST RESULTS WHERE NO INTERMEDIATE QUANTITIES are DETERMINED In a calculation where no intermediate test values are determined, such as Bulk Specific Gravity of a bituminous mixture, perform the calculation, round and report the result to the required number of significant digits. (See Example 1 below.) When a test result from a calculation is further used in an equation to determine an additional quantity or value the result used in the subsequent equation shall be the result that has been rounded to the Mn/DOT required number of significant digits. (See Example 2.)

2 Jan 3, 2005 LAB MANUAL Example 1. Bulk Sp G = Dry Weight Volume Bulk Sp G = = Example 2. Percent Air Voids = 100 X Max. Sp G Bulk Sp G Max. Sp G Percent Air Voids = 100 X Max. Sp G Max. Sp G CALCULATION of TEST RESULTS WHERE INTERMEDIATE QUANTITIES are DETERMINED In a calculation that requires intermediate steps or determination of intermediate quantities to arrive at a test result, do not round the intermediate quantities. Intermediate steps or quantities would consist of any addition, subtraction, multiplication, and/or division required to arrive at a final result. (See Example 3.) Example 3. Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA) = Bulk Sp G X Aggregate Content Bulk Sp G of Total Agg. VMA = X VMA = = EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS for VARIOUS MATERIALS AGGREGATES % Absorption 100[SSD weight/(ssd weight dry weight)] Use weights reported to the 0.1 in the equation. Resultant % Absorption is rounded to the hundredth. Bulk specific gravity for aggregate (Gsb) Weight dry/(ssd weight submersed weight) Use weights reported to the 0.1 in the equation. The resultant specific gravity is rounded to the.

3 Jan 3, 2005 LAB MANUAL ASPHALT Composite Bulk Specific Gravity (Gsb) 1/[P 1 /Gsb 1 + P 2 /Gsb 2 + P 3 /Gsb 3 ] The individual specific gravities are rounded to the, then they are inserted into the equation, and the resultant composite specific gravity is rounded to the. Apparent Specific Gravity (Gse) Dry Weight/(Dry Weight submersed weight) Use weights reported to the 0.1 in the equation. The resultant specific gravity is rounded to the. % Absorption - Round individual absorptions to the nearest hundredth, then calculate the average, and then round resultant average to the nearest hundredth. Bulk Specific Gravity - Round the individual specific gravities to the nearest, then calculate the average, and then round the resultant average to the nearest. Apparent Specific Gravity - Round the individual specific gravities to the nearest, then calculate the average, and then round the resultant average to the nearest. Maximum Specific Gravity (Gmm) Dry Weight of Sample/(Dry Weight of Sample Submersed Weight of Sample) Use weights reported to the 0.1 in the equation. Round resultant specific gravity to the. Maximum Specific Gravity Round the individual specific gravities to the nearest, then calculate the average, and then round the resultant average to the nearest. Bulk Specific Gravity (Gmb) Dry Weight of Sample/(SSD Weight of Sample Submersed Weight of Sample) Use weights reported to the 0.1 in the equation. Round the result to the nearest.

4 Jan 3, 2005 LAB MANUAL Bulk Specific Gravity Round the individual specific gravities to the nearest, then calculate the average, and then round the resultant average to the nearest. Voids 100*(1-(Bulk Specific Gravity/Maximum Specific Gravity)) The bulk and maximum specific gravities will be rounded to the and then the values are inserted into the equation. The resultant air voids is then rounded to the nearest tenth. VMA 100-[Gmb*(100-Pb)/Gsb)] The Gmb and the Gsb will be rounded to the, prior to their introduction into this equation. The Pb will be rounded to the tenth prior to its introduction into this equation. The resultant VMA will be rounded to the nearest tenth. VFA 100[VMA Voids] VMA The resultant VFA will be rounded to the nearest tenth TEST SUMMARY SHEET Gradations Gradations are entered on the test summary sheet, rounded to the whole number. The #200 sieve is an exception to this rule as it is recorded on the test summary sheet, after rounding to the nearest tenth. Gradation Moving s Moving = (P 1 + P 2 + P 3 + P 4 )/4 The individual gradation percentages are rounded to the whole number, introduced into the formula, and then the resultant average is rounded to the whole number. The #200 sieve uses the same procedure except the individuals and the averages are rounded to the nearest tenth. Ignition Oven Calibration Factor Calculate individual percent aggregate mass loss as follows: C fm = (C X 1 - F ) - E C X (1-F)

5 Jan 3, 2005 LAB MANUAL The individual percent aggregate mass loss is rounded to the nearest hundredth. The reported average calibration factor = (Cfm1 + Cfm1 + Cfm3)/3 and the resultant average is rounded to the nearest hundredth. Asphalt Contents (Pb) Asphalt content is calculated using the applicable Laboratory Manual method (i.e. Ignition Oven, centrifuge etc.) and rounded to the nearest tenth. Asphalt Contents Moving Moving = (Pb 1 + Pb 2 + Pb 3 + Pb 4)/4 The individual Asphalt Contents are rounded to the tenth, introduced into the formula, and then the resultant average is rounded to the tenth. Maximum Specific Gravities Maximum specific gravity is calculated as above, and entered on the test summary sheet, after it has been rounded to the. Maximum Specific Gravity Moving Moving = (Gmm 1 + Gmm 2 + Gmm 3 + Gmm 4)/4 The individual Maximum Specific Gravities are rounded to the, introduced into the formula, and then the resultant average is rounded to the. Bulk Specific Gravity Bulk Specific Gravity is calculated as above, and entered on the test summary sheet, after it has been rounded to the. Air Voids Air Voids are calculated as above, and entered on the test summary sheet, after it has been rounded to the tenth. The isolated Air Voids uses the single, corresponding maximum specific gravity and the single corresponding bulk specific gravity. The Individual Air void uses the moving average of the maximum specific gravity and the single corresponding bulk specific gravity. The moving average of the maximum specific gravity is rounded to the before it is introduced into the air void equation. Air Voids moving average Moving average AV = (AV 1 + AV 2 + AV 3 + AV 4 )/4 The individual air voids are rounded to the tenth, introduced into the formula, and then the resultant average is rounded to the tenth.

6 Jan 3, 2005 LAB MANUAL VMA The VMA is calculated as above, and entered on the test summary sheet, after it has been rounded to the tenth. VMA Moving Moving = (VMA 1 + VMA 2 + VMA 3 + VMA 4)/4 The individual VMA s are rounded to the tenth, introduced into the formula, and then the resultant average is rounded to the tenth Required Number of Significant Digits for Various Tests Table 1 AGGREGATES Table 2 - ASPHALT TESTS TEST REPORT TO: TEST REPORT TO: Absorption hundredth Maximum Specific Gravity Bulk Specific Gravity Maximum Specific Gravity Composite Bulk Bulk Specific Specific Gravity Apparent Specific Gravity % Absorption Bulk Specific Gravity Apparent Specific Gravity Gradations hundredth Whole Number except #200 sieve report to tenth. Gravity Bulk Specific Gravity Voids VMA VFA tenth tenth tenth

7 Jan 3, 2005 LAB MANUAL Table 3 BITUMINOUS SUMMARY SHEET Table 4 Significant Digit Definitions TEST REPORT TO: Tenth 0.1 Gradation See Above Hundredth 0.01 Gradation Moving s Whole Number except #200 sieve report to Thousandth Ignition Oven Calibrationindividual result. Ignition Oven Calibration Reported average. tenth. Hundredth % Hundredth % Asphalt Contents Tenth % Asphalt Contents Tenth % Moving Maximum Specific Gravity Maximum Specific Gravity Moving Bulk Specific Gravity Air Voids tenth % Air Voids Moving tenth % VMA tenth VMA Moving tenth POLICY FOR HANDLING CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS REGARDING TEST RESULTS A. Review the information contained in the report for accuracy. B. Review the equipment calibration/verification records. C. Review the test procedures. D. Refer to the Engineer for resolution.

8 Apr 17, 2000 LAB MANUAL RECEIVING AND IDENTIFYING SAMPLES RECEIVING All samples received in the laboratory will be identified as to material type, indexed in a receiving book or on a computer and assigned a laboratory sample number. A. Sample Identification System. 1. Each type of material is assigned a two letter identification symbol (See B below). 2. Each sample's Laboratory Identification Number will begin with the lab identification, followed by a letter identification symbol and the last two digits of the current year, followed by the unique number. For example, the first CONCRETE AGGREGATE (CA) sample received in the Central Laboratory in the year 1999 would have a laboratory identification number CO-CA In the districts the CO would be replaced with 01 for District 1, 02 for District, 03 for District 3 and so on. Lab numbers are generated by a computer system B. Material Identification Symbols: Code AC AE BK BA BC BM CE CA CX CL CB CC CP CM CY DD DF EL EJ Material Type Asphalt Asphalt Emulsion Brick Bituminous Aggregate Bituminous Cores Bituminous Mixture Cement Concrete Aggregate Chemical Additive for Concrete Calcium Chloride Cut-Back Asphalt Curing Compound Pavement Cores Culvert & Misc. Cores Concrete Cylinders Drill Dust Diesel Fuel Oil Electrical Expansion Joint

9 Apr 17, 2000 LAB MANUAL 1001.B.1 Code BP FT FE FA FS GA GI GR GS JF LT MI GT DT MA MC MC TH MU PO PS PA RO RS SA SC SE SF SS TR TM WO WE WM WS Material Type Bearing Pads Fasteners Fencing (including fence posts) Fly Ash Foundation Soils Gasoline Gray Iron Castings Guard Rail Gravel Surfacing Joint Filler Linear Traverse Miscellaneous Geotextiles Drain Tile Metal Analysis Miscellaneous Chemicals Epoxy Powder Thermometers Masonry Units Metal Sign Posts Prospect Sample Paint Road Oil Reinforcing Steel Rock Salt Seal Coat Seed Soil Fertility Subsoil Tar Trial Mix Waste Oil Weld Test Bars Wire Mesh Wire Strand for Prestressed Concrete

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