Application of the probabilisticfuzzy method of assessing the risk of a ship manoeuvre in a restricted area


 Amberlynn Lamb
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Application of the probabilisticfuzzy method of assessing the risk of a ship manoeuvre in a restricted area L. ~ucrna', Z. pietrzykowski2 Maritime University of Szczecin ul. Waly Chrobrego 1/ Szczecin, Poland Abstract The paper presents possible applications of a new method of assessing navigational risk of a ship manoeuvring in a fairway. The method, based on the probabilistic analysis of risk and elements of fuzzy logic, allows to evaluate the risk taking into account such factors as the danger to the safety and the intuition that the safety of a ship manoeuvre is threatened. 1. Introduction In order to evaluate navigational risk in restricted areas (fairways, harbour entrances, harbour basins, turning basins etc.) the most frequently used are methods of quantitative risk analysis based on probabilistic methods. One approach in such cases utilises data from simulated passages conducted by navigators. From the data one can estimate parameters of the density distribution function of the random variable of the distance from danger. The use of the density function enables to determine the probability that a ship will move out of the safe boundaries of the fairway, in which case a ship may run aground or strike a port structure. Such an event results in the system status being changed to navigation system failure, or the probability of grounding. One shortcoming of the probabilistic method is that it is impossible to assess a situation when safety is threatened, that is a situation when a ship is
2 manoeuvring close to the fairway boundary. This state, if no or inadequate measures are taken, can result in navigation system failure. 2. The probabilistic method of assessing the risk of ship manoeuvre in a restricted area The probabilistic method of evaluating the risk consists in determining the probability of a collision of a ship in motion, understood as ship's deviation outside a designated manoeuvring area. Depending on the area shape, a collision may mean hitting a wharf, port structure or grounding. The determination of collision probability was based on simulated studies consisting of a series of trials in which navigators handle a ship through a fairway. In the trials, the fairway in question was divided into sections defined by lines perpendicular to the fairway centre line. The trials of reliable size, guaranteeing a preset level of confidence, were followed by the estimation of parameters of distributions of the function of density of random variable probability: maximum distance of ship's points to the starboard side and port side from the fairway centre line, separately for particular sections. Two random variables are determined in each of the sections: maximum distances of ship's extreme points to the starboard and port side from the fairway centre line. When the phenomenon model (type of distribution) is determined, its parameters are estimated. In order to calculate the probability of grounding, the following relations are used: density function of the random variable X of the maximum distance of ship's extreme points to the starboard side from the fairway centre line in the ith section, density function of the random variable X of the maximum distance of ship's extreme points to the port side from the fairway centre line in the ith section, distance frqm the center of the waterway to the waterway border (half of the waterway width). Thus obtained vectors, with the order equal to the number of the section, represent a probability of a ship's deviation from the fairway (collision occurrence) for particular fairway sections (see Fig. 1).
3 Port side Starboard side Figure 1. Calculation of the navigation system failure. 3. The probabilistiefuzzy method The approach presented above does not account for dangerous situations, in which a ship comes too close to the fairway boundary, as such situations may lead to situations of navigation system failure. This refers to areas difficult for navigation in which, although not many collisions have occurred, dangerous situations are observed. The probability of a fuzzy event refers to a situation when there coexist uncertainties of fuzzy and probabilistic type. Such a case takes place when an attempt is made to determine a probability of a dangerous situation for a ship moving in a restricted area, i.e. a fairway. A dangerous situation is meant to be a system state which, if no or inadequate countermeasures are taken, may change to the state of navigation system failure. The term: dangerous situation is an example of a linguistic variable described by the membership function of the fuzzy set 'dangerous situation'. which roughly corresponds to the fuzzy set 'dangerous distance'. An event understood as an occurrence of such situation is an example of a fuzzy event. Hence the determination of a probability that a dangerous situation will occur comes down to the determination of a probability of a fuzzy event. A fuzzy event A in the space R" is called a fuzzy set A [2], 131: with the membership function i(i(x) measurable according to Borel. The probability of a fuzzy event A is then defined as the LebesquesStieljes integer:
4 For n=l and when the probability can be described by the density function g(x) PI: the probability of a fuzzy event A can be written as follows: where: m = JP, (x)g(x)d(x) X= pa(x)  function of membership to a fuzzy set, g(x)  function of density of random variable X. 4. Interpretation of the function for the determination of a probability of a dangerous situation The function used for calculation of the probability of a dangerous event, defined by the relation (6), is a product of two functions: 1. the density function of a random variable of ship's extreme points occurring in the fairway, 2. the membership function of a fuzzy set 'dangerous event'. The former contains information on a ship's position in the fairway in a given series of simulated passages. Its mean represents the expected value of the ship's position. This function allows to determine the width of ship's swept paths. Intervals of confidence are usually used for this purpose. The latter function is determined by an expert method and represents a level (degree) of danger in the fairway depending on the distance to a danger (fairway boundary), where the value "0" denotes a safe situation, and "l" denotes a navigational accident. The function for calculating the probability of a dangerous situation computed according to the relation (6) is determined in the (m +m) interval and may assume values ranging from 0 to 1. The function depends on: parameters of the density function of a random variable of the occurrence of ship's extreme points in the fairway, mainly on the mean i of the standard deviation; function of membership to a fuzzy set 'dangerous situation' assuming the values between 0 and 1; particularly on such parameters of the function as the point at which this function assumes a value larger than 0 and on the rate at which its value increases.
5 Analysing the relation (6) one may find out that when the membership function of the fuzzy set 'dangerous situation' reaches the value of 0, there is no danger. Whilst in the case when the function of membership equals 1, the function for determining the probability of a dangerous situation assumes the values of the function of the density of random variable of extreme points occurring in the fairway. In order to interpret the function for determining the probability that a dangerous situation occurs, for the sake of simplification the same function of membership to a fuzzy set 'dangerous situation' was taken (Fig. 2). \ 0 I I G X lml Figure 2. An example of the function of membership to the fuzzy set 'dangerous situation'. Three examples of the density functions of random variable of ship's extreme points occurring in the fairway were assumed; their standard deviation o=8m and the mean values were as follows: 1. m,=13m 2. m2= 25m 3. m3= 35m Their corresponding functions for determining the probability of a dangerous situation are shown in Figs. 3, 4 and 5. X lml Figure 3. A function for determining the probability of a dangerous situation for ol=8m and m,=13m.
6 0 06 m X Iml Figure 4. A function for determining the probability of a dangerous situation for ol=8m and ml=25m g,(n $X) g,(x) X Imi Figure 5. A function for determining the probability of a dangerous situation for ol=8m and m,=35m. l The probability that a dangerous situation occurs and the probability that a ship moves beyond the fairway boundaries are shown in Table 1. Table 1. The probability of a dangerous situation and that of a navigational accident for a standard deviation. Situation Probability of a dangerous situation l (ml=13m) (m2=25m) (m3=35m) Probability that a ship moves beyond the fairway boundaries (accident) ~ l " It will be noted that, as the mean shifts towards the danger (boundaries of the fairway), for the constant membership function, the probability of a dangerous situation clearly increases. The point in which the function for determining the probability of a dangerous situation reaches its maximum value is more difficult to be interpreted. It should be noticed, however, that this point shifts from the mean of ship's extreme points towards danger depending on the angle at which the membership function is
7 inclined. The point indicates that in a given location of the fairway there occurred the largest number of dangerous situations at the same level of danger. The influence of standard deviation of the density function of the random variable of ship's extreme points occurring in the fairway are presented for two examples of such functions having the same mean value m=13m and these two standard deviations: 1. 01=8m 2, 02=20m The resultant function for determining the probability of a dangerous situation is shown in Fig. 3 (the case is identical to the one analysed before) and Fig. 6. X Iml Figure 6. Function for determining the probability of a dangerous situation for ol=20m and m]=13m. The probability that a dangerous situation occurs and the probability that a ship crosses the fairway boundaries are shown in Table 2. Table 2. The probability of a dangerous situation and that of a navigational accident for a constant mean of the densitv function Probability of a Probability that a ship moves outside Situation dangerous situation the fairway boundaries (accident) l (ol=grn) l5 It can be noted that as the standard deviation increases, the probability of a dangerous situation rises visibly, whilst the point in which this function reaches its maximum shifts towards the danger. In summary, the function determining the probability of a dangerous situation in the fairway expresses that probability quantitatively. Its maximum indicates points in the fairway where the largest number of dangerous situations occurred for the same level of danger. 5. Research In order to present the proposed probabilisticfuzzy method of assessing a ship manoeuvre risk and to compare the method with the probabilistic method commonly used, simulated and expert research was conducted.
8 Simulation research The research was camed out on a fairway bend, 150 m wide at the bottom, with the curve radius of 600m (Fig. 7). The ship used for research was a loaded tanker with DWT capacity, length overall L=196m, beam B=28m and draft T=llm. The tanker was equipped with the righthand turn propeller and a conventional rudder I W 2BW 1WO 3200 MOO 3600 Figure 7. The area of the bend divided into sections. In the studies a shiphandling simulator working in real time was used for the experiments. Ships captains and pilots were invited to participate. The navigators were told to carry out a series of simulated passages, handling the ship through a part of the fairway. In the manoeuvres the rudder was mainly operated. The engine was only used in particular situations, and the ship was moving at full manoeuvring speed. After a series of simulated trials, whose reliable size guaranteed a preset confidence level, parameters of two density functions of the random variable were estimated: maximum distance of ship's points to the starboard and port side from the fairway centre line. The fairway was divided into sections with limits running perpendicular to its centre line. With the distance of 25 metres between sections their total number amounted to n=90. Two random variables were identified in each section. It was assumed that a normal distribution well describes the distribution of ship's points to the starboard and port side of the fairway centre line, which had been confirmed by relevant statistical tests [l]. Previously estimated parameters of the distributions (mean and variance) were used in order to determine the probability of grounding (navigation system failure). For the whole stretch of the fairway (all sections) the grounding probability vectors were defined for the starboard and port sides of the fairway. Expert research The expert research was aimed at determining the membership function of the set 'dangerous situation' for the starboard and port sides of the fairway in each of
9 he sections, paip(x) and pail(x), respectively. The basic criterion chosen for assessing a situation was the distance of the extreme port and starboard points of the stem from the fairway centre line. Experienced navigators who participated in the expert studies were those who had taken part in the simulated research. Data from the questionnaires utilising the method of psychological scaling [2] was used to specify degrees of membership, found as dangerous by the navigators, to the set 'dangerous situation'. The form of the membership function of the set 'dangerous situation' for both fairway sides, as it is known in the literature [5], was modified: p,,, (X) = 1  exp(((x .X, )/ ~ 1 ) ) for ~ X > X,, P,.,, (X) = 0 otherwise pa, (X) = 1  exp(((x  X, )l XI)') for X < x0 paii (X) = 0 otherwise (7) (8) then its parameters (xo i xl) were estimated. The determination of the density function of the random variable X and the membership function of the set 'dangerous situation' enabled calculating the vectors of the probability of a dangerous situation. 6. The results Three sections of the examined fairway were chosen: 1) section 30  a straight section just before entering the bend; 2) section 55  fairway bend; 3) section 75  a straight segment just after leaving the bend. Fig. 8 presents density functions of the random variable X for the port and starboard sides of the fairway. X Iml Figure 8. Density functions of the random variable X for the port and starboard sides of the fairway. On this basis the respective vectors of navigation system failure were determined:
10 Pail = [O.OOOO, ,0.0304]; P,,, = [O.OOOO, ,0.0039] The functions of membership to the set 'dangerous situation' for the chosen sections of the fairway are shown in Fig. 9. X [m1 Figure 9. Functions of membership to the set 'dangerous situation' for the chosen sections of the fairway. The corresponding functions used for the determination of the probability of a fuzzy event 'dangerous situation' are illustrated in Fig ~ 'r ,, 6 , 58, < ' 1  T5 U m L 43 ' ,,  / X Iml Figure 10. Functions for the determination of the probability of a fuzzy event 'dangerous situation'. They provided a basis to determine the vectors of probability of a dangerous situations; their respective values were as follows: PAII = [0.0037, , ]; PAIp = [0.0673, , It may be intuitively stated that the probability of a dangerous situation p(a) is higher than the probability that a collision P, occurs. The statement is derived when we take into account situations when navigational safety was threatened but no collision occurred (e.g. thanks to a proper response of the navigator). Analysing Fig. 9 presenting three examples of membership functions, we may notice that the experts found that the most dangerous situations took place in section 30. This may be due to the fact that the navigators' task was to pass through the bend in the fairway. This manoeuvre has to be started at a strictly specified point. Any delay or false start of the turning manoeuvre may make a safe manoeuvre impossible to be carried out.
11 On the starboard side of the fairway a dangerous situation occurs as early as when the 20 metre wide area from the fairway centre line is crossed, while on the port side going beyond the 25 metre zone creates a dangerous situation. The function reflecting the starboard side of the fairway shows a clearly slower rise as compared with the corresponding function for the port side. In this context the low value of the probability of determining a dangerous situation on the port side seems interesting if compared with the starboard side (Fig. 9). Inter alia, it results from the fact that, in spite of the port side being safer in the navigators' opinion, (turn is facilitated by the turning moment of the channel effect) ship's positions were more frequently found in the area on the starboard side of the fairway due to a natural tendency of a navigator to accelerate the manoeuvre and proceed along the shortest trajectory. Probabilities of a dangerous situation in further sections (55 and 75) are much higher which may be caused by large scattering of ship's positions in the fairway. The safety level in these sections is considered by navigators as higher, which is confirmed by the membership function (Fig. 9). It should be noted that, despite the navigator's classification of a given situation as dangerous, he is not capable of manoeuvring the ship so as to avoid the danger and, consequently, the probability of a dangerous situation will be high. 7. Summary The presented method has a practical implication as it allows for a quantitative determination of the probability of a dangerous situation. The paper presents an application of the method in determining occurrences of dangerous situations in which a manoeuvring ship may find itself in the fairway bend. Such assessment of the manoeuvre safety may further be used in the optirnisation of the fairway safe shapes or the assessment of the safety of conducting a given manoeuvre. The paper also presents a practical interpretation of the presented method and the dependence of the function for determining a dangerous situation on the parameters of the membership function of the fuzzy set 'dangerous situation' and on the density function of the random variable of ship's extreme points occurring in the fairway. References 1. Iribarren, J.R. Determining the horizontal Dimensions of Ship Manoeuvring Areas. PIANC Bulletin No 100. Bruxelles Kacprzyk J., Fuzzy sets in system analysis, PWN Warszawa 1986, (in Polish) 3. Driankov, D., Hellendorn, H., Reinfrank, M., An Introduction to Fuzzy Control, Springer Berlin, Rommelfanger, H., Fuzzy Decision Support Systems, Springer Berlin, 1994 (in German) 5. James, C., Modelling the Decision Process in Computer Simulation of Ship Navigation, Journal of Navigation Vol. 39, 1986
The risk assessment of ships manoeuvring on the waterways based on generalised simulation data
Safety and Security Engineering II 411 The risk assessment of ships manoeuvring on the waterways based on generalised simulation data L. Gucma Maritime University of Szczecin, Poland Abstract This paper
More informationThe Analysis of Possibilities How the Collision Between m/v 'Gdynia' and m/v 'Fu Shan Hai' Could Have Been Avoided
International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation Volume 2 Number 4 December 2008 The Analysis of Possibilities How the Collision Between m/v 'Gdynia' and m/v 'Fu Shan Hai' Could
More informationAnalysis of hazard to operator during design process of safe ship power plant
POLISH MARITIME RESEARCH 4(67) 2010 Vol 17; pp. 2630 10.2478/v1001201000321 Analysis of hazard to operator during design process of safe ship power plant T. Kowalewski, M. Sc. A. Podsiadło, Ph. D.
More informationAn Investigation into the Capsizing Accident of a Pusher Tug Boat
An Investigation into the Capsizing Accident of a Pusher Tug Boat Harukuni Taguchi, National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) taguchi@nmri.go.jp Tomihiro Haraguchi, National Maritime Research Institute
More informationApproximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route
http://www.transnav.eu the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation Volume 8 Number 3 September 014 DOI: 10.1716/1001.08.03.18 Approximate Method of Calculating Forces
More informationNew generation of Electronic Card Systems: The 4D Card
New generation of Electronic Card Systems: The 4D Card Capt. Alain Richard Project director Maritime Innovation arichard@imar.ca Context In the present context of globalization and competitiveness, it
More informationRule 18  Responsibilities between vessels
Except where Rules 9, 10 and 13 otherwise require: (a) A powerdriven vessel underway shall keep out of the way of: (i) a vessel not under command; (ii) a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;
More informationDUKC DYNAMIC UNDER KEEL CLEARANCE
DUKC DYNAMIC UNDER KEEL CLEARANCE Information Booklet Prepared in association with Marine Services Department 10/10/2005 Dynamic Under Keel Clearance (DUKC) integrates real time measurement of tides and
More informationDeveloping a Maritime Safety Index using Fuzzy Logics
http://www.transnav.eu the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation Volume 11 Number 3 September 2017 DOI: 10.12716/1001.11.03.12 Developing a Maritime Safety Index using
More informationThe analysis of the risk of an accident between a passenger ship and a tanker carrying hazardous substances in the Western Baltic
Gucma Lucjan Marcjan Krzysztof Przywarty Marcin Maritime University, Szczecin, Poland Journal of Polish Safety and Reliability Association Summer Safety and Reliability Seminars, Volume 5, Number 2, 2014
More informationASSESSMENT OF CORRECTNESS OF INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF SHIP S SYSTEM (AIS)
Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 17, No. 3 2010 ASSESSMENT OF CORRECTNESS OF INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF SHIP S SYSTEM (AIS) Henryk niegocki Gdynia Maritime University,
More informationAN INTELLIGENT SHIP HANDLING SIMULATOR WITH AUTOMATIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE FUNCTION OF TARGET SHIPS
AN INTELLIGENT SHIP HANDLING SIMULATOR WITH AUTOMATIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE FUNCTION OF TARGET SHIPS Kazuhiko Hasegawa (Osaka University, Japan) Junji Fukuto (National Maritime Research Institute, Japan)
More informationDetermining Occurrence in FMEA Using Hazard Function
Determining Occurrence in FMEA Using Hazard Function Hazem J. Smadi Abstract FMEA has been used for several years and proved its efficiency for system s risk analysis due to failures. Risk priority number
More informationIntegrated control system for ship motion in inland navigation
Integrated control system for ship motion in inland navigation J. Kulczyk, T. Bielihski Institute ofmachines Desing and Operation, Technical University of Wroclaw, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50370 Wroclaw,
More informationInternational regulations and guidelines for maritime spatial planning related to safe distances to multiple offshore structures (e.g.
International regulations and guidelines for maritime spatial planning related to safe distances to multiple offshore structures (e.g. wind farms) Introduction This is a summary of the most important international
More informationRESOLUTION MSC.137(76) (adopted on 4 December 2002) STANDARDS FOR SHIP MANOEUVRABILITY
MSC 76/23/Add.1 RESOLUTION MSC.137(76) THE MARITIME SAFETY COMMITTEE, RECALLING Article 28(b) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization concerning the functions of the Committee, RECALLING
More informationITTC Recommended Procedures and Guidelines
02  Page 1 of 17 Table of Contents.....2 1. PURPOSE OF PROCEDURE... 2 2. RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES FOR MANOEUVRING TRIAL... 2 2.1 Trial Conditions... 2 2.1.1 Environmental Restrictions... 2 2.1.2 Loading
More informationInvestigation of the TMS Waldhof accident interim report
Investigation of the TMS Waldhof accident interim report Communication from the Secretariat For your information, the Secretariat is forwarding in the annex the interim report (summary) by the commission
More informationScienceDirect. Rebounding strategies in basketball
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 72 ( 2014 ) 823 828 The 2014 conference of the International Sports Engineering Association Rebounding strategies in basketball
More informationAvailable online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 112 (2015 )
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 112 (2015 ) 540 545 7th AsiaPacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015 Movement variability of professional pool billiards
More informationControl Strategies for operation of pitch regulated turbines above cutout wind speeds
Control Strategies for operation of pitch regulated turbines above cutout wind speeds Helen Markou 1 Denmark and Torben J. Larsen, RisøDTU, P.O.box 49, DK4000 Roskilde, Abstract The importance of continuing
More informationWhat s Up in Navigation Displays?
What s Up in Navigation Displays? Captain PAUL CHAPMAN paul.chapman@compassadjuster.com.au 2009 What s up in Navigation Displays? Captain Paul Chapman Situation Awareness When following a passage plan,
More informationA STUDY OF SIMULATION MODEL FOR PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT WITH EVACUATION AND QUEUING
A STUDY OF SIMULATION MODEL FOR PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT WITH EVACUATION AND QUEUING Shigeyuki Okazaki a and Satoshi Matsushita a a Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
More information3D CDF MODELING OF SHIP S HEELING MOMENT DUE TO LIQUID SLOSHING IN TANKS A CASE STUDY
Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 17, No. 4 21 3D CDF ODELING OF SHIP S HEELING OENT DUE TO LIQUID SLOSHING IN TANKS A CASE STUDY Przemysaw Krata, Jacek Jachowski Gdynia aritime University,
More informationABP South Wales and River Usk Towage Guidelines
Date of issue: Jan 2012 ABP South Wales and River Usk wage January 2012 Page 1 of 17 Approved by: Deputy Harbour Master South Wales Issue 1.0 Date of issue: Jan 2012 AMENDMENTS Amendment issue number Page
More informationHome Team Advantage in English Premier League
Patrice Marek* and František Vávra** *European Centre of Excellence NTIS New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic: patrke@kma.zcu.cz
More informationIACS URS11 defines the dimensioning wave load for ship design, but what does it mean from a statistical point of view?
IACS URS11 defines the dimensioning wave load for ship design, but what does it mean from a statistical point of view? Seamocs meeting in Malta Gaute Storhaug, DNV Maritime 19th of March 2009 Overview
More informationDynamic Stability of Ships in Waves
Gourlay, T.P. & Lilienthal, T. 2002 Dynamic stability of ships in waves. Proc. Pacific 2002 International Maritime Conference, Sydney, Jan 2002. ABSTRACT Dynamic Stability of Ships in Waves Tim Gourlay
More informationWINDING HOLES towards a specification for the ideal turning place
WINDING HOLES towards a specification for the ideal turning place Introduction The term winding hole is normal in the narrow canal network, and on adjoining broad canals, for a space in which to turn a
More informationA STUDY ON FACTORS RELATED TO THE CAPSIZING ACCIDENT OF A FISHING VESSEL RYUHO MARU No.5
8 th International Conference on 49 A STUDY ON FACTORS RELATED TO THE CAPSIZING ACCIDENT OF A FISHING VESSEL RYUHO MARU No.5 Harukuni Taguchi, Shigesuke Ishida, Iwao Watanabe, Hiroshi Sawada, Masaru Tsujimoto,
More informationSafety assessments for Aerodromes (Chapter 3 of the PANSAerodromes, 1 st ed)
Safety assessments for Aerodromes (Chapter 3 of the PANSAerodromes, 1 st ed) ICAO MID Seminar on Aerodrome Operational Procedures (PANSAerodromes) Cairo, November 2017 Avner Shilo, Technical officer
More informationModelling and Simulation of Environmental Disturbances
Modelling and Simulation of Environmental Disturbances (Module 5) Dr Tristan Perez Centre for Complex Dynamic Systems and Control (CDSC) Prof. Thor I Fossen Department of Engineering Cybernetics 18/09/2007
More informationNAVIGATION IN CONFINED WATERS: INFLUENCE OF BANK CHARACTERISTICS ON SHIPBANK INTERACTION
NAVIGATION IN CONFINED WATERS: INFLUENCE OF BANK CHARACTERISTICS ON SHIPBANK INTERACTION Evert LATAIRE, Maritime Technology Division, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Marc VANTORRE, Maritime Technology
More informationEvaluation Method of Collision Risk by Using True Motion
http://www.transnav.eu the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation Volume 11 Number 1 March 2017 DOI: 10.12716/1001.11.01.06 Evaluation Method of Collision Risk by Using
More informationINTERNATIONAL HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY STANDARDS
INTERNATIONAL HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY STANDARDS by Gerald B. MILLS 1 I. Background The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) traces its origin to the establishment of the International Hydrographic
More informationWINDINDUCED LOADS OVER DOUBLE CANTILEVER BRIDGES UNDER CONSTRUCTION
WINDINDUCED LOADS OVER DOUBLE CANTILEVER BRIDGES UNDER CONSTRUCTION S. Pindado, J. Meseguer, J. M. Perales, A. SanzAndres and A. Martinez Key words: Wind loads, bridge construction, yawing moment. Abstract.
More informationInternational Journal of Technical Research and Applications eissn: , Volume 4, Issue 3 (MayJune, 2016), PP.
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF FEED CHECK VALVE AS CONTROL VALVE USING CFD SOFTWARE R.Nikhil M.Tech Student Industrial & Production Engineering National Institute of Engineering Mysuru, Karnataka, India 570008
More informationTraceable calibration of automatic weighing instruments in dynamic operation
Traceable calibration of automatic weighing instruments in dynamic operation Matej Grum* Metrology Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Grudnovo nabrežje 17, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Abstract. The article
More informationEngineering Flettner Rotors to Increase Propulsion
Engineering Flettner Rotors to Increase Propulsion Author: Chance D. Messer Mentor: Jeffery R. Wehr Date: April 11, 2016 Advanced STEM Research Laboratory, Odessa High School, 107 E 4 th Avenue, Odessa
More informationDP Ice Model Test of Arctic Drillship
Author s Name Name of the Paper Session DYNAMIC POSITIONING CONFERENCE October 1112, 211 ICE TESTING SESSION DP Ice Model Test of Arctic Drillship Torbjørn Hals Kongsberg Maritime, Kongsberg, Norway Fredrik
More informationCHAPTER 1. Knowledge. (a) 8 m/s (b) 10 m/s (c) 12 m/s (d) 14 m/s
CHAPTER 1 Review K/U Knowledge/Understanding T/I Thinking/Investigation C Communication A Application Knowledge For each question, select the best answer from the four alternatives. 1. Which is true for
More informationSPEECH. by Deputy DirectorGeneral of the Danube Commission s Secretariat. Mr. Pjotr Suvorov. (Linz, April 2013)
SPEECH by Deputy DirectorGeneral of the Danube Commission s Secretariat Mr. Pjotr Suvorov on the 5 th Meeting of the Steering Group for Priority Area 1a of the EUSDR (Linz, 1718 April 2013) At the 3
More informationDetermination of the Design Load for Structural Safety Assessment against Gas Explosion in Offshore Topside
Determination of the Design Load for Structural Safety Assessment against Gas Explosion in Offshore Topside Migyeong Kim a, Gyusung Kim a, *, Jongjin Jung a and Wooseung Sim a a Advanced Technology Institute,
More informationAnalysis of Operating Loads on an Aircraft s Vertical Stabilizer on the Basis of Recorded Data
A publication of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 33, 2013 Guest Editors: Enrico Zio, Piero Baraldi Copyright 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l., ISBN 9788895608242; ISSN 19749791 The Italian Association
More informationBEHAVIOR OF SHIP OFFICERS IN MANEUVERING TO PREVENT A COLLISION
Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 225230 (2006) 225 BEHAVIOR OF SHIP OFFICERS IN MANEUVERING TO PREVENT A COLLISION Bin Lin* Key words: navigational safety, ship collision,
More informationEvolutionary sets of safe ship trajectories with speed reduction manoeuvres within traffic separation schemes
POLISH MARITIME RESEARCH 1(81) 2014 Vol 21; pp. 2027 10.2478/pomr20140004 Evolutionary sets of safe ship trajectories with speed reduction manoeuvres within traffic separation schemes Rafał Szłapczyński,
More information5.1 Introduction. Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives 5.1 Introduction Statistical Process Control (SPC): SPC is a powerful collection of problemsolving tools useful in achieving process stability and improving capability through the
More informationRADAR PLOTTING Ranger Hope 2008
RADAR PLOTTING Ranger Hope 2008 THE BASIC PLOT Introduction Priority targets and the EBL Proper use of radar Plotting terms and abbreviations The radar display, SHU and NHU NHU plot step by step SHU plot
More informationA Study on Local Traffic Management to Improve Marine Traffic Safety in the Istanbul Strait
THE JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION (2012), 65, 99 112. doi:10.1017/s0373463311000555 The Royal Institute of Navigation A Study on Local Traffic Management to Improve Marine Traffic Safety in the Istanbul Strait
More informationTechnical Note. Determining the surface tension of liquids by measurements on pendant drops
Technical Note Pendant Drop Measurements Technical note: TN316e Industry section: all Author: FT, TW Date: 12/2010 Method: Drop Shape Analyzer DSA100 Keywords: Methods, surface tension, interfacial tension,
More informationINTERSECTION SAFETY RESEARCH IN CRACOW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
12 Marian TRACZ, Andrzej TARKO, Stanislaw GACA Cracow University of Technology INTERSECTION SAFETY RESEARCH IN CRACOW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 1. Trends in traffic safety in Poland Research activity in
More informationSafety Analysis: Event Classification
IAEA Training Course on Safety Assessment of NPPs to Assist Decision Making Safety Analysis: Event Classification Lecturer Lesson IV 1_2 Workshop Information IAEA Workshop City, Country XX  XX Month,
More informationChapter 11 Waves. Waves transport energy without transporting matter. The intensity is the average power per unit area. It is measured in W/m 2.
Energy can be transported by particles or waves: Chapter 11 Waves A wave is characterized as some sort of disturbance that travels away from a source. The key difference between particles and waves is
More informationAIR FLOW DISTORTION OVER MERCHANT SHIPS.
AIR FLOW DISTORTION OVER MERCHANT SHIPS. M. J. Yelland, B. I. Moat and P. K. Taylor April 2001 Extended Abstract Anemometers on voluntary observing ships (VOS) are usually sited above the bridge in a region
More informationIMO REVISION OF THE INTACT STABILITY CODE. Proposal of methodology of direct assessment for stability under dead ship condition. Submitted by Japan
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION E IMO SUBCOMMITTEE ON STABILITY AND LOAD LINES AND ON FISHING VESSELS SAFETY 49th session Agenda item 5 SLF 49/5/5 19 May 2006 Original: ENGLISH REVISION OF THE INTACT
More informationJournal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences
A Study on Methods to Calculate the Coefficient of Variance in Daily Traffic According to the Change in Hourly Traffic Volume JungAh Ha Research Specialist, Korea Institute of Construction Technology,
More informationPractice Test: Vectors and Projectile Motion
ame: Practice Test: Vectors and Projectile Motion Part A: Multiple Choice [15 points] 1. A projectile is launched at an angle of 30 0 above the horizontal. eglecting air resistance, what are the projectile
More informationS44 edition 5 The IHO s New Standard For Hydrographic Surveys Chris Howlett Head of Seabed Data Centre United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
S44 edition 5 The IHO s New Standard For Hydrographic Surveys Chris Howlett Head of Seabed Data Centre United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Chairman of IHO Working Group that created S44 edition 5 S44
More informationQueue analysis for the toll station of the Öresund fixed link. Pontus Matstoms *
Queue analysis for the toll station of the Öresund fixed link Pontus Matstoms * Abstract A new simulation model for queue and capacity analysis of a toll station is presented. The model and its software
More informationSAFE EGRESS FROM DEEP STATIONS Flawed Criteria in NFPA 130
SAFE EGRESS FROM DEEP STATIONS Flawed Criteria in NFPA 130 Herbert T. Landow Member, NYC TRF Abstract The design of railway stations includes the consideration of emergency evacuation requirements. These
More informationIMPLEMENTATION OF TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEME FOR PREVENTING ACCIDENTS ON THE SUNDA STRAIT
International Journal of Technology (2015) 6: 990997 ISSN 20869614 IJTech 2015 IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEME FOR PREVENTING ACCIDENTS ON THE SUNDA STRAIT Sunaryo 1*, Antoni Arif Priadi
More informationDepth Optimization of Designed New Ferry Berth
International Journal on Marine Navigation an Safety of Sea Transportation olume Number 4 December 2007 Depth Optimization of Designe New Ferry Berth S. Gucma & S. Jankowski Maritime University of Szczecin,
More informationDesign and Calculation of Double Buoys Mooring System in Estuary of Yalu River
Applied Mechanics and Materials Online: 20121213 ISSN: 16627482, Vols. 253255, pp 20712075 doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.253255.2071 2013 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland Design and Calculation
More informationRule 35  Sound signals in restricted visibility
Rule 35  Sound signals in restricted visibility In or near an area of restricted visibility, whether by day or night, the signals prescribed in this Rule shall be used as follows: (a) A powerdriven vessel
More informationHYDRODYNAMICS OF A SHIP WHILE ENTERING A LOCK
HYDRODYNAMICS OF A SHIP WHILE ENTERING A LOCK T A Vergote, Dredging International, Belgium K Eloot, Flanders Hydraulics Research, Belgium & Maritime Technology Division, EA15, Ghent University, Belgium,
More informationPendant Drop Measurements
KRÜSS pplication Note TN316d Page 1 Pendant Drop Measurements pplication note: TN316d Industry section: all uthor: Dr. Tobias Winkler Date: December 2010 Method: Drop Shape nalysis System DS100 Drop Shape
More informationDetermination of the wind pressure distribution on the facade of the triangularly shaped highrise building structure
Determination of the wind pressure distribution on the facade of the triangularly shaped highrise building structure Norbert Jendzelovsky 1,*, Roland Antal 1 and Lenka Konecna 1 1 STU in Bratislava, Faculty
More informationRobot motion by simultaneously wheel and leg propulsion
Robot motion by simultaneously wheel and leg propulsion Aarne Halme, Ilkka Leppänen, Miso Montonen, Sami Ylönen Automation Technology Laboratory Helsinki University of Technology PL 5400, 02015 HUT, Finland
More informationIEEE RAS Micro/Nano Robotics & Automation (MNRA) Technical Committee Mobile Microrobotics Challenge 2016
IEEE RAS Micro/Nano Robotics & Automation (MNRA) Technical Committee Mobile Microrobotics Challenge 2016 OFFICIAL RULES Version 2.0 December 15, 2015 1. THE EVENTS The IEEE Robotics & Automation Society
More informationRule 8  Action to avoid collision
a) Any action to avoid collision shall be taken in accordance with the Rules of this Part and shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, be positive, made in ample time and with due regard to the observance
More informationA Research on the Airflow Efficiency Analysis according to the Variation of the Geometry Tolerance of the Sirocco Fan Cutoff for Air Purifier
A Research on the Airflow Efficiency Analysis according to the Variation of the Geometry Tolerance of the Sirocco Fan Cutoff for Air Purifier Jeongi Lee*, Chouljun Choi*, Namsu Kwak*, Susang Park*
More informationFailure Detection in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
Failure Detection in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Alec Orrick, Make McDermott, Department of Mechanical Engineering David M. Barnett, Eric L. Nelson, Glen N. Williams, Department of Computer Science
More informationModelling of Extreme Waves Related to Stability Research
Modelling of Extreme Waves Related to Stability Research Janou Hennig 1 and Frans van Walree 1 1. Maritime Research Institute Netherlands,(MARIN), Wageningen, the Netherlands Abstract: The paper deals
More informationEVALUATING CRITERIA FOR DP VESSELS
Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 20, No. 2013 EVALUATING CRITERIA FOR DP VESSELS Jerzy Herdzik Gdynia Maritime University, Marine Power Plant Department Morska Street 8187, 81225 Gdynia,
More informationCFD SIMULATION STUDY OF AIR FLOW AROUND THE AIRFOIL USING THE MAGNUS EFFECT
Magnus effect, simulation, air flow Patryk SOKOŁOWSKI *, Jacek CZARNIGOWSKI **, Paweł MAGRYTA *** CFD SIMULATION STUDY OF AIR FLOW AROUND THE AIRFOIL USING THE MAGNUS EFFECT Abstract The article presents
More informationITTC Recommended Procedures Testing and Extrapolation Methods Manoeuvrability FreeSailing Model Test Procedure
Testing and Extrapolation Methods FreeSailing Model Test Procedure Page 1 of 10 22 CONTENTS 1. PURPOSE OF PROCEDURE 2. DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE 2.1 Preparation 2.1.1 Ship model characteristics 2.1.2 Model
More informationCyclistreported habits of helmet usage and differences in riding postures by using helmets
Cyclistreported habits of helmet usage and differences in riding postures by using helmets Jänsch, M., Otte, D. 1 Accident Research Unit, Hannover Medical School Abstract Within the COST Action TU1101
More informationAcceleration: Galileo s Inclined Plane
Teacher s Notes Main Topic Subtopic Learning Level Technology Level Activity Type Motion Acceleration High Low Student Description: Use a water clock to measure a ball s acceleration as it rolls down an
More informationSound scattering by hydrodynamic wakes of sea animals
ICES Journal of Marine Science, 53: 377 381. 1996 Sound scattering by hydrodynamic wakes of sea animals Dmitry A. Selivanovsky and Alexander B. Ezersky Selivanovsky, D. A. and Ezersky, A. B. 1996. Sound
More informationWrongWay Movements on Divided Highways
WrongWay Movements on Divided Highways Peter N. Scifres Graduate Instructor in Research and Roy C. L outzenheiser Research Engineer Joint Highway Research Project Purdue University IN T R O D U C T IO
More information6.7 Aircraft Protection
Schedules to Decision 377 6.7 Aircraft Protection 6.7.1 Introduction This introduction is to assist the lay reader to understand how this subchapter works and what it applies to. It is not an aid to interpretation
More informationInnovative Fast Time Simulation Tools for Briefing / Debriefing in Advanced Ship Handling Simulator Training and Ship Operation
Innovative Fast Time Simulation Tools for Briefing / Debriefing in Advanced Ship Handling Simulator Training and Ship Operation Knud Benedict a, Sandro Fischer a, Michael Gluch a, Matthias Kirchhoff a,
More informationASSESSMENT OF CORRECTNESS OF INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF SHIP S SYSTEM (AIS)
ASSESSMENT OF CORRECTNESS OF INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF SHIP S SYSTEM (AIS) Henryk Śniegocki Akademia Morska w Gdyni, Katedra Nawigacji Aleja Jana Pawła II 3, 81345 Gdynia,
More informationj~/ ... FIGURE 331 Problem 9.
9. () An airplane is traveling 735 kmlh in a direction 41S west of north (Fig. 331). (a) Find the components of the velocity vector in the northerly and westerly directions. (b) How far north and how
More informationA Novel Gearshifting Strategy Used on Smart Bicycles
2012 International Conference on Industrial and Intelligent Information (ICIII 2012) IPCSIT vol.31 (2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore A Novel Gearshifting Strategy Used on Smart Bicycles TsungYin
More informationTICES TO MARINERS 1 TO 46 ANNUAL EDITION 2018 SECTION A AIDS TO NAVIGATION AND MARINE SAFETY
A5 NAVIGATION SAFETY 10 Routeing of Ships 1 GENERAL 1.1 Rule 10 of the Collision Regulations applies to all ships navigating in or near a routeing system. 1.2 The information on ships' routeing in this
More informationThis direction contains the requirements for the compulsory pilotage areas within the Auckland region. This
Harbourmaster s Direction 215 Pilotage Foreword This direction contains the requirements for the compulsory pilotage areas within the Auckland region. This direction updates and supersedes previous Harbourmaster
More informationCOURSE OBJECTIVES CHAPTER 9
COURSE OBJECTIVES CHAPTER 9 9. SHIP MANEUVERABILITY 1. Be qualitatively familiar with the 3 broad requirements for ship maneuverability: a. Controls fixed straightline stability b. Response c. Slow speed
More informationINCLINOMETER DEVICE FOR SHIP STABILITY EVALUATION
Proceedings of COBEM 2009 Copyright 2009 by ABCM 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering November 1520, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil INCLINOMETER DEVICE FOR SHIP STABILITY EVALUATION Helena
More informationNumerical modeling of refraction and diffraction
Numerical modeling of refraction and diffraction L. Balas, A. inan Civil Engineering Department, Gazi University, Turkey Abstract A numerical model which simulates the propagation of waves over a complex
More information43 Rate of Change and Slope. Warm Up. 1. Find the x and yintercepts of 2x 5y = 20. Describe the correlation shown by the scatter plot. 2.
Warm Up 1. Find the x and yintercepts of 2x 5y = 20. Describe the correlation shown by the scatter plot. 2. Objectives Find rates of change and slopes. Relate a constant rate of change to the slope of
More informationAIAA Brush Seal Performance Evaluation. P. F. Crudgington Cross Manufacturing Co. Ltd. Devizes, ENGLAND
AIAA 983172 Brush Seal Performance Evaluation P. F. Crudgington Cross Manufacturing Co. Ltd. Devizes, ENGLAND BRUSH SEAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AIAA983172 P. F. Crudgington Cross Manufacturing Co. Ltd
More informationDYNAMIC POSITIONING CONFERENCE. October 1314, Arctic. DP In Ice Conditions
Return to Session Directory DYNAMIC POSITIONING CONFERENCE October 1314, 29 Arctic DP In Ice Conditions Nils Albert Jenssen Kongsberg Maritime, Kongsberg Norway Suman Muddesitti Shell International Exploration
More informationFIRING ON THE GROUND TARGETS USING AIR UNGUIDED MISSILES
FIRING ON THE GROUND TARGETS USING AIR UNGUIDED MISSILES Miroslav JANOŠEK Abstract: In this article I will discuss air supporting ground forces in combat activity. The main topic is firing with airtoground
More informationTOPIC 10: BASIC PROBABILITY AND THE HOT HAND
TOPIC 0: BASIC PROBABILITY AND THE HOT HAND The Hot Hand Debate Let s start with a basic question, much debated in sports circles: Does the Hot Hand really exist? A number of studies on this topic can
More informationOBSERVATION OF GAP ACCEPTANCE DURING INTERSECTION APPROACH
OBSERVATION OF GAP ACCEPTANCE DURING INTERSECTION APPROACH Delphine Cody, Christopher Nowakowski, Bénédicte Bougler California PATH program  Institute of Transportation Studies University of California,
More informationRESOLUTION MEPC.122(52) Adopted on 15 October 2004 EXPLANATORY NOTES ON MATTERS RELATED TO THE ACCIDENTAL OIL OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE UNDER REGULATION 23
MEPC 52/24/Add.1 THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION COMMITTEE, RECALLING Article 38(a) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization concerning the functions of the Marine Environment Protection
More informationCFD Simulation of the Flow Through Reciprocating Compressor SelfActing Valves
Purdue University Purdue epubs International Compressor Engineering Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 1994 CFD Simulation of the Flow Through Reciprocating Compressor SelfActing Valves P. Cyklis
More informationNational Maritime Center
National Maritime Center Providing Credentials to Mariners Able Seaman Unlimited, Limited, Special, Special OSV, Sail, Fishing Industry (Sample Examination) Page 1 of 17 Choose the best answer to the following
More informationWAVE LOAD ACTING ON HORIZONTAL PLATE DUE TO BORE
Proceedings of the 6 th International Conference on the Application of Physical Modelling in Coastal and Port Engineering and Science (Coastlab16) Ottawa, Canada, May 1013, 2016 Copyright : Creative Commons
More information