# Figure 1. What is the difference between distance and displacement?

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1 Q1.A train travels from town A to town B. Figure 1 shows the route taken by the train. Figure 1 has been drawn to scale. Figure 1 (a) The distance the train travels between A and B is not the same as the displacement of the train. What is the difference between distance and displacement? (b) Use Figure 1 to determine the displacement of the train in travelling from A to B. Show how you obtain your answer. Displacement =... km Direction =... (c) There are places on the journey where the train accelerates without changing Page 2

2 speed. Explain how this can happen. (d) Figure 2 shows how the velocity of the train changes with time as the train travels along a straight section of the journey. Figure 2 Estimate the distance travelled by the train along the section of the journey shown in Figure 2. Page 3

3 To gain full marks you must show how you worked out your answer. Distance =... m (3) (Total 8 marks) Page 4

4 Q2.Figure 1 shows a golfer using a runway for testing how far a golf ball travels on grass. One end of the runway is placed on the grass surface. The other end of the runway is lifted up and a golf ball is put at the top. The golf ball goes down the runway and along the grass surface. Figure 1 (a) A test was done three times with the same golf ball. The results are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 (i) Make measurements on Figure 2 to complete Table 1. Table 1 Test Distance measured in centimetres Page 5

5 (ii) Calculate the mean distance, in centimetres, between the ball and the edge of the runway in Figure 2. Mean distance =... cm (iii) Figure 2 is drawn to scale. Scale: 1 cm = 20 cm on the grass. Calculate the mean distance, in centimetres, the golf ball travels on the grass surface. Mean distance on the grass surface =... cm (iv) The distance the ball travels along the grass surface is used to estimate the speed of the grass surface. The words used to describe the speed of a grass surface are given in Table 2. Table 2 Speed of grass surface Mean distance the golf ball travels in centimetres Fast 250 Medium fast 220 Medium 190 Medium Slow 160 Slow 130 Use Table 2 and your answer in part (iii) to describe the speed of the grass surface. Page 6

6 (b) The shorter the grass, the greater the distance the golf ball will travel. A student uses the runway on the grass in her local park to measure the distance the golf ball travels. (i) Suggest two variables the student should control. (ii) She carried out the test five times. Her measurements, in centimetres, are shown below What can she conclude about the length of the grass in the park? (c) Another student suggests that the speed of a grass surface depends on factors other than grass length. She wants to test the hypothesis that speed depends on relative humidity. Relative humidity is the percentage of water in the air compared to the maximum amount of water the air can hold. Relative humidity can have values between 1% and 100%. The student obtains the data in Table 3 from the Internet. Table 3 Relative humidity expressed as a percentage Mean distance the golf ball travels in centimetres Page 7

7 (i) Describe the pattern shown in Table 3. (ii) The student writes the following hypothesis: The mean distance the golf ball travels is inversely proportional to relative humidity. Use calculations to test this hypothesis and state your conclusion. (3) (iii) The data in Table 3 does not allow a conclusion to be made with confidence. Give a reason why. (d) In a test, a golf ball hits a flag pole on the golf course and travels back towards the edge of the runway as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 Page 8

8 The distance the ball travels and the displacement of the ball are not the same. What is the difference between distance and displacement? (Total 15 marks) Page 9

9 Q3. The graph shows the speed of a runner during an indoor 60 metres race. (a) Calculate the acceleration of the runner during the first four seconds. (Show your working.) (3) (b) How far does the runner travel during the first four seconds? (Show your working.) (3) (c) At the finish, a thick wall of rubber foam slows the runner down at a rate of 25 m/s 2. The runner has a mass of 75kg. Calculate the average force of the rubber foam on the runner. (Show your working.) Page 10

10 Answer... newtons (N) (Total 8 marks) Page 11

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