CANADIAN FOUNDATION ON COMPULSIVE GAMBLING (ONTARIO)

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1 Insight Canada Research 101 Yorkville Avenue Suite 301 Toronto, Canada M5R 1C1 Tel: (416) Fax: (416) CANADIAN FOUNDATION ON COMPULSIVE GAMBLING (ONTARIO) Prevalence of Problem & Pathological Gambling in Ontario Using the South Oaks Gambling Screen August, 1993

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS I Executive Summary 1 II Objectives & Methodology 4 III Participation in Gaming Activities 8 Lottery Tickets 10 Instant (Scratch) Lottery/Nevada Tickets 10 Card Games 12 Bingo 13 Blackjack & Other Casino Games 15 Racetrack 15 Sport Select Game 17 Video Lottery 18 Betting With A Bookmaker 19 Gambling Activity Outside of Ontario 21 IV Problems Resulting From Gambling 22 Bet More Than Intended 23 Win Back Lost Money 23 Desire to Stop Betting But Couldn t 24 Criticized For Gambling 24 Gambling Has Caused Problems 25 Personal Assessment of Gambling Problems 25 Behaviour Of Ontarians With Gambling Problems 26 Felt Bad About Betting Money 27 Money Arguments 27 Lied About Winning Money 28 Borrowed Money To Cover Gambling Debts 29 Hiding Betting Evidence 30 Defaulted on Debts 31 Lost Time From Work/School 31 Behaviour Of Ontarians With No Gambling Problems 32 Frequency of Betting 32 Average Amount of Single Day Betting 34 Overall Gambling Result 34 Largest Amount Won 35 Largest Amount Lost 35 Reasons For Betting 36 Gambling Behaviour 39 V Prevalence of Problem Gamblers 40 The South Oaks Gambling Screen Scores 40 Demographic Profile of Problem 40 And Pathological Gamblers

3 Insight Canada Research 1 I Executive Summary Insight Canada Research is pleased to present the Prevalence of Problem & Pathological Gambling in Ontario Using The South Oaks Gambling Screen, a survey conducted on behalf of the Canadian Foundation on Compulsive Gambling (Ontario). A total of 1,200 telephone interviews with Ontario residents between the ages of 18 and 74 were conducted between July 23 and August 1, Overall results are accurate to plus or minus 2.9%, nineteen times out of twenty. A response rate of 65% was obtained. Participation in Gaming Activities Two-thirds of Ontarians (67%) have bet money on gaming activities, such as bingo, lotteries, the outcome of sports events, and card games at some point in their lifetimes. Of this group, three-quarters (77%) have bet money on such games in the past twelve months. Projecting these figures to the Ontario population, more than one-half (52%) have gambled on gaming activities in the past twelve months. The most popular gaming activities among Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months are lottery tickets (9 1%) and instant (scratch) lotteries (71%). Of the 52% of Ontarians who have spent money on gaming activities in the past twelve months, 25% have wagered on card games such as poker, 19% have played bingo and 19% have played blackjack or other casino games. A further 15% have bet at a racetrack, 12% have played Sport Select, 4% have played video lottery, while 3% have bet through a bookmaker. Lottery players (80%) are more likely than instant scratch lottery players (26%) to have played in the past month. Although less than one in five played bingo and Sport Select in the past twelve months, one-half of each group have played this gaming activity in the past month. Players of blackjack or other casino games have spent the most in the past month ($403), followed by racetrack betting ($292), betting through a bookmaker ($140) and betting at card games ($121). Projecting these figures to the Ontario population, 47% of all Ontarians have bought lottery tickets, 37% have played instant (scratch) lotteries, 10% have played bingo, while 10% have played blackjack or other casino games in the past twelve months. Less than one in ten Ontarians have bet at a racetrack (8%), bought a Sport Select ticket (7%), played a video lottery game (2%) or bet through a bookmaker (1%).

4 Insight Canada Research 2 Gambling Activity Outside of Ontario Among Ontarians who have spent money on gaming activities in the past twelve months, 12% have gambled outside of Ontario. Ontarians who have left the province to gamble usually go to Las Vegas, Nevada, with almost one-half (45%) citing this location, followed by 13% who go to Atlantic City Minnesota (9%), Michigan (5%) and Bahamas (4%) are also gambling locations frequented by fewer than one in ten Ontarians who have gambled outside of Ontario. Cruise ships and other U.S. cities are mentioned by 7% and 8% of Ontarians respectively, who have gambled outside of Ontario. Ontarians who have gone outside of Ontario to gamble spent, on average, $ on gambling. Problems Resulting From Gambling A minority of Ontarians (17%) who have gambled in the past twelve months have encountered one or more problems resulting from their gaming activities. Betting more money than originally intended is the most common problem (11%) experienced by Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months. One in twenty (5%) Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months have gone back most of the time (3%) or every time (2%) to try and win back money that was lost from gambling. Less than one in twenty have wanted to stop betting but couldn t (3%), been criticized for gambling (2%), or encountered problems with family members, spouse, work or school as a result of their gambling (1%). Almost all Ontarians (98%) feel they have never had any problems with gambling, while 2% believe they have encountered such problems. Behaviour Of Ontarians With Gambling Problems Among Ontarians who have encountered gambling problems, 41% have experienced difficulty dealing with them. One-quarter (24%) of Ontarians who have encountered some problems due to their gaming activities have felt bad about the amount of money spent betting or about what happens when one bets money. The same number (24%) have had arguments with people over the handling of money. Of this group, two-fifths (40%) recount these money arguments to revolve around their betting activities. One in seven (14%) Ontarians with problems resulting from their gambling activities have lied about winning money. One in twenty (6%) have borrowed money to bet or cover gambling debts. Sources of this borrowed money include

5 Insight Canada Research 3 other relatives or in-laws (43%), spouse (29%), household money (14%), banks, loan companies or credit unions (14%), loan sharks (14%) or their own bank (14%). One in twenty Ontarians who have had problems due to gambling have hidden belting evidence from family and friends (5%), while 4% have defaulted on debts due to their continued betting behaviour and 3% have lost time from work or school due to belting activities. Behaviour Of Ontarians With No Gambling Problems Among the 52% of Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months, 80% have not had any gambling problems. During the past twelve months, fewer than 1% of Ontario gamblers who have not encountered any problems relating to their gaming activities bet nearly every day. One in seven (14%) bet several times a week, while more than one-third (35%) gambled several times a month. One in six (16%) engaged in gaming activities about once a month, while the remaining one-third (34%) gambled less than monthly. Three-quarters (74%) of Ontarians who have not encountered problems due to their gaming activities bet between $1 and $19, on average, in a single betting day. One in seven (15%) wager between $20 and $49, 3% spend between $50 and $99, 2% wager between $100 and $199, while 1% bet more than $200. Ontario gamblers with no gaming troubles tend to have lost more money than they have won. Seven in ten (70%) have lost more than they won in the past year. One in three (30%) have had better luck with 16% having won more than they lost and 14% who have broken even. One in ten (11%) Ontarians who have not had any problems as a result of their gaming activities have not won any money in the past twelve months. The largest amount won in a single betting day by 28% range from $1 to $19, 12% won between $20 and $39, 16% won between $50 and $99, 15% won between $100 and $199, 8% won between $200 and $499, 3% won between $500 and $999 and 5% have been recipients of $1000 or more. In a single betting day, 5% of Ontarians with no gambling problems have never lost any money. The remaining 95% have not been so lucky. Specifically, the largest amount lost in a single betting day by 56% range from $1 and $19, 19% lost between $20 and $49, 7% lost between $50 and $99, 6% lost between $100 and $199, 4% lost between $200 and $499, 1% lost between $500 and $999 and a further 1% lost more than $999.

6 Insight Canada Research 4 Reasons For Betting The two most common reasons for gambling given by Ontarians with no gambling problems are that it gives them the chance to win money (mentioned by 71%) and enjoyment (53%). Others like to bet because it gives them the opportunity to socialize or go out with friends (9%), it passes the time (7%), it is challenging (5%), it does not cost much (2%), the money goes to charity or to the community (2%), it is a habit (1%) and, they are curious (1%). Gambling Behaviour Excitement and enjoyment are major rationale for gambling among those without gambling problems. Two-thirds (65%) of this group agree with the statements -- "I enjoy the feeling of excitement I get when I bet and six in ten (62%) agree with I bet to have a good time. Two-fifths agree with the statements I bet because it s challenging to me (46%) and If I had all the money I needed, I wouldn t bet money (42%). Almost four in ten (37%) are more likely to bet if others around them are belting, while more than one-quarter (28%) feel that betting money is something they usually like to do alone. Less than one in ten (9%) believe that betting and playing games of chance are an important part of their life. Prevalence of Problem Gamblers According to the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) Score Sheet, 91.4% of Ontarians have no gambling problem. A further 7.7% are problem gamblers, while 0.9% are probable pathological gamblers. II Objectives & Methodology Objectives The imminent introduction of gambling casinos to Ontario and the lack of knowledge about the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling in the province, prompted The Canadian Foundation on Compulsive Gambling (Ontario) to initiate quantitative research on related attitudes and behaviour. The Foundation required an accurate measurement of Ontarians gambling behaviour, the incidence of problems arising from gambling activities and key social-demographic characteristics which closely link with problem gamblers.

7 Insight Canada Research 5 More specifically, in order to measure the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling among Ontarians, the following attitudes and behaviours were assessed: gaming preferences, gaming participation, and amounts wagered; average win/losses of single day betting; Ontarians gaming activities outside of the province; reasons for betting; and, profile of Ontarians who are problem gamblers -- and probable pathological gamblers. Methodology A total of 1,200 telephone interviews with Ontario residents between the ages of 18 and 74 were conducted between July 23 and August 1, Overall results are accurate to plus or minus 2.9%, nineteen times out of twenty Sample Selection A stratified, random-digit dialing sampling method was used. Within the boundaries of Ontario, six regions were defined: Metro, Metro-Belt, Southwestern, Eastern, Central and Northern. The distribution of the 1,200 interviews was based on the size of each region s population according to the 1991 Census of Canada. Telephone numbers were selected for each region and the last digits were randomized to ensure coverage of unlisted and newly-listed numbers. A map denoting these regions can be found in the appendix of this report. The following table illustrates the distribution of these interviews among the six regions of the province, and the regional margins of error. Regional Samples & Margins of Error Region Sample Size Margin of Error Metro Toronto 291 +/-5.9% Metro-Belt 198 +/-7.1% Southwestern 352 +/-5.3% Eastern 152 +/-8.1% Central 108 +/-9.6% Northern 99 +/-10.1% TOTAL 1,200 +/-2.9%

8 Insight Canada Research 6 The Questionnaire The questionnaire was designed by Laundergan et al, (1990), which used a modified version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen originally constructed by Lesieur and Blume (1987). The questionnaire was tailored to the Ontario public by The Canadian Foundation on Compulsive Gambling (Ontario). Insight Canada Research then reviewed the questionnaire to ensure that the questions were appropriate for an Ontario audience. Interviewing Interviews were conducted from Insight Canada Research s twenty-line tele-research centre in Toronto. Telephone interviewing was conducted using a computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) system. Our professional interviewers read survey questions directly from the computer screen and entered responses into the computer. A response rate of 65% was achieved. Both audio and on-screen monitoring were used to control interview quality Approximately 30% of all interviews were monitored and 100% were supervised by Insight Canada Research staff. Insight Canada Research maintains strict quality control procedures in accordance with guidelines established by the Canadian Association of Market Research Organizations (CAMRO) and the Professional Marketing Research Society (PMRS). As a CAMRO member, Insight Canada Research participates in regular audits of its research methodology. Percentage Totals Due to rounding, percentages in some tables may total slightly more or less than 100%. In questions where more than one answer was requested, percentages were calculated as a proportion of all respondents. Due to multiple responses, some questions will total over 100%. An interview schedule, detailed crosstabulations of results, and examples of responses to the open-ended question can be found in the appendix of this report. South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) The following table is a behaviour-based screening measure, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) Score Sheet, which was used in this study. Based on the DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling, the SOGS instrument has seven dimensions: family disruption, job disruption, lying about gambling wins and losses, default on debts, going to someone to relieve a desperate financial situation produced by gambling, borrowing from illegal sources, and committing an illegal act to finance gambling. Respondents scoring 1 to 4 out of a possible 20 points are defined to have some gambling problem, and those scoring 5 or more points are categorized as probable

9 Insight Canada Research 7 pathological gamblers. Otherwise, those who responded No to each criteria are categorized as having no gambling problem. South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) Score Sheet Question # Criteria Response* 33 Criticized For Gambling Yes/No 34 Problems Caused By Betting Yes/No 35 Tries to Win Back Lost Money Most/Every Time Yes/No 36 Bet More Money Than Intended Yes/No 37 Wanted to Stop Betting But Couldn t Yes/No 38 Lied About Winning Money Yes/No 39 Felt Bad About Betting Money Yes/No 40 Hidden Betting Evidence From People Yes/No 42 Money Argument Centered on Betting Yes/No Source Of Borrowed Money: Yes/No 44a Household Money Yes/No 44b Spouse Yes/No 44c Other Relatives or In-Laws Yes/No 44d Banks, Loan Companies or Credit Unions Yes/No 44e Credit Cards Yes/No 44f Loan Sharks Yes/No 44g Cashed in Stocks, Bonds, Other Securities Yes/No 44h Sold Personal or Family Property Yes/No 44i Borrowed on Bank (Bad Cheques) Yes/No 45 Lost Time From Work/School For Betting Yes/No 46 Did Not Pay Back Borrowed Money Yes/No * A response of Yes constitutes 1 point.

10 Insight Canada Research 8 Ill Participation in Gaming Activities Two-thirds of Ontarians (67%) have bet money on gaming activities, such as bingo, lotteries, the outcome of sports events, and card games at some point in their lifetimes. FIGURE 1: People bet money on many different things, including bingo games, lotteries, the outcome of sports events, and card games. Have you ever bet money on those kinds of games or on anything else? Ontario residents who are most likely to have wagered money on these gaming activities are men (72% compared to 62% of women) and those between the ages of 25 and 54 (7 1%, compared to 62% of all other ages combined). Among Ontarians who have gambled, three-quarters (77%) have bet money on such games in the past twelve months. FIGURE 2: In the past 12 months, have you bet money on those kinds of games or on anything else? Those who have gambled in the past twelve months tend to be between the ages of 25 and 34 (81%, compared to 76% of all other ages combined). Men (76%) and women (78%) are equally likely to have gambled in the past twelve months. Projecting these figures to the Ontario population: 52% have bet on gaming activities in the past twelve months;

11 Insight Canada Research 9 55% of men and 48% of women have gambled in the past twelve months; and, 58% of those between the ages of 25 and 34 have gambled in the past twelve months compared to 50% of all other ages combined. Although blackjack and other casino games are played less frequently than lotteries and card games such as poker, those who participate expend more money, on average, than participants in any other gaming activity Specifically, of the 19% of Ontarians who have played blackjack or other casino games in the past twelve months, 34% have played in the past month wagering an average of $403 on such activities. The most popular gaming activities among Ontarians who have gambled in the months are lottery tickets (91%) (scratch) lotteries (71%). Of the 52% of Ontarians who have spent money on gaming activities in the past twelve months, 25% have wagered on card games such as poker, 19% have played bingo and 19% have played blackjack or other casino games. A further 15% have bet at a racetrack, 12% have played Sport Select, 4% have played video lottery, while 3% have bet through a bookmaker. As Table 1 shows, players of blackjack or other casino games have spent the most in the past month ($403), followed by racetrack betting ($292), betting through a bookmaker ($140) and betting at card games ($121). Table 1: Gaming Activities and Average Amounts Wagered Gaming Activity Played Past Year* Played Past Month Amount Wavered** Lottery Ticket 91% 80% $39 Instant Lottery 71% 26% $59 Card Games 25% 43% $121 Bingo 19% 50% $85 Blackjack/Casino 19% 34% $403 Games Racetrack 15% 37% $292 Sport Select 13% 43% $28 Game Video Lottery 4% 38% $32 Bookmaker 3% 19% $140 * Among the 52% of Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months. ** Mean amount of money wagered at each activity by those playing in the past month.

12 Insight Canada Research 10 Projecting these figures to the Ontario population, 47% of all Ontarians have bought lottery tickets, 37% have played instant (scratch) lotteries, 13% have played card games, 10% have played bingo, while 10% have played blackjack or other casino games in the past twelve months. Less than one in ten Ontarians have bet at a racetrack (8%), bought a Sport Select ticket (7%), played a video lottery game (2%) or bet through a bookmaker (1%). Lottery Tickets Participation The most popular gaming activity among Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months is lottery tickets. More than nine in ten (91%) have purchased a lottery ticket during this period. Of this group, four in five (80%) have bought at least one ticket in the past month. Amount Wagered On average, lottery players have spent $38.54 in the past month on tickets. As shown in Figure 3: 11% spent $4 or less; 17% spent between $5 and $9; 21% wagered between $10 and $11; 8% bought between $12 and $19; 18% bet between $20 and $24; 15% spent between $25 and $40; and, 10% bought more than $40. Instant (Scratch) Lottery/Nevada Tickets Participation Instant (scratch) lottery tickets are the second most popular gaming activity Seven in ten (71%) Ontarians with gambling experience in the past twelve months have played instant (scratch) lotteries in the same time frame. In the past month, 26% of this group have purchased pull tabs. Amount Wagered On average, Ontario residents who have played pull tabs in the past month spent $ To be specific: 9% bought $2 or less; 3% wagered between $3 and $4; 23% bet between $5 and $6;

13 Insight Canada Research 11 21% wagered between $7 and $10; 22% spent between $11 and $20; 10% bought between $21 and $50; and, 9% bought more than $50. FIGURE 3: PARTICIPATION / WAGERS - LOTTERY TICKETS Participation - Past 12 Months

14 Insight Canada Research 12 FIGURE 4: PARTICIPATION / WAGERS - INSTANT LOTTERY Participation - Past 12 Months Card Games Participation Among Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months, one-quarter (25%) have played poker and other card games. Of this group, 43% have played in the past month. Men (33%, compared to 17% of women), those between 18 and 34 years of age (32%, compared to 22% of all other ages combined), and those with a university degree (32%, compared to 24% of those with less formal education) are most likely to have played poker or other card games in the past twelve months. Amount Wagered In the past twelve months, poker and other card game players, on average, wagered $ As Figure 5 shows: 12% wagered $2 or less; 15% bet between $3 and $9; 9% spent between $10 and $19; 19% wagered between $20 and $29; 16% spent between $30 and $50; 12% bet between $51 and $100; and, 12% wagered more than $100.

15 Insight Canada Research 13 Bingo Participation Among the 52% of Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months, one in five (19%) played bingo. This group is mostly comprised of women (29%, compared to 10% of men), those with household income less than $30,000 (28%, compared to 16% of those with higher household incomes) and those with less than a post-secondary education (26%, compared to 12% of those with post-secondary education). Of the 19% who played bingo in the past twelve months, one-half (50%) have played in the past month. Women (52%, compared to 47% of men), those with elementary school education only (71%, compared to 47% of those with higher education), those with household income less than $20,000 (7 1%, compared to 42% with higher household in comes), the retired/disabled (88%) and the unemployed (71%) are among those most likely to have played bingo in the past month. Amount Wagered The average amount spent playing bingo in the past month is $ As Figure 6 shows: 10% wagered $15 or less; 15% spent between $16 and $20; 17% bet between $21 and $50; 19% spent between $51 and $60; 15% wagered between $61 and $100; 17% bet between $101 and $200; and, 5% bet more than $200.

16 Insight Canada Research 14 FIGURE 5: PARTICIATION / WAGERS - CARD GAMES Participation - Past 12 Months FIGURE 6: PARTICIPATION / WAGERS BINGO Participation - Past 12 Months

17 Insight Canada Research 15 Blackjack & Other Casino Games Participation Blackjack and other casino games are equally as popular as bingo among Ontarians. One in five (19%) Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months have played casino games such as blackjack. Casino game players tend to have some university education (27%, compared to 16% among those with less than an university education). As well, their household earnings exceed $90,000 (37%, compared to 18% of those earning less than $90,000). Of the 19% who have played blackjack or other casino games in the past twelve months, 34% have played in the past month. Amount Wagered On average, casino game players have spent $ at casinos in the past month, the highest amount spent for any of the gaming activities tested. As Figure 7 illustrates: 13% spent $10 or less; 13% bet between $10 and $20; 13% spent between $21 and $40; 15% wagered between $41 and $55; 13% bet between $56 and $100; 15% spent between $101 and $500; and, 13% wagered more than $500. Racetrack Participation More than one in seven (15%) Ontarians with gambling experience in the past twelve months have bet at a racetrack in the same time period. Men (19%) are more likely than women (10%) to have spent money on this activity. Two-fifths (37%) of racetrack patrons spent money at a racetrack in the past month. Amount Wagered The average amount spent at the racetrack in the past month is $ As Figure 8 shows: 9% bet less than $16; 26% wagered between $16 and $25; 15% spent between $26 and $65; 26% bet between $66 and $100; and, 24% spent more than $100.

18 Insight Canada Research 16 FIGURE 7: PARTICIPATION / WAGERS - BLACK JACK Participation Past 12 Months

19 Insight Canada Research 17 FIGURE 8: PARTICIPATION / WAGERS - RACETRACK BETTING Participation - Past 12 Months Sport Select Game Participation One in eight (13%) Ontario residents who have gambled in the past twelve months have played the Sport Select game. Of this group, 43% have played the game in the past month. Ontarians who are most likely to have played the Sport Select game in the past twelve months are men (21%, compared to 4% of women) and those between the ages of 18 and 34 (24%, compared to 7% of all other ages combined). Amount Wagered On average, Ontarians who played Sport Select in the past month spent $27.94 on this game. As shown in Figure 9: 14% spent less than $3; 14% bet between $3 and $6; 20% wagered between $7 and $10; 23% bet between $11 and $25; 17% spent between $26 and $50; and, 11% wagered more than $50.

20 Insight Canada Research 18 Video Lottery Participation Among Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months, less than one in twenty (4%) played video lottery games. Of this group, 38% have played in the past month. Amount Wagered Video lottery players, on average, spent $32.00 in the past month on this game. Of those who played this game: 33% spent $5 or less; 33% wagered $10; and, 33% bet more than $50. FIGURE 9: PARTICIPATION / WAGERS - SPORT SELECT Participation - Past 12 Months

21 Insight Canada Research 19 FIGURE 10: PARTICIPATION / WAGERS VIDEO LOTTERY Participation - Past 12 Months Betting With A Bookmaker Participation Betting with a bookmaker (3%) on the outcome of a sporting event is as widespread as video lottery games (4%) among Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months. Of this group, 19% bet with a bookmaker in the past month. Amount Wagered Although betting with a bookmaker is the least popular gaming activity tested among Ontarians, the average amount spent on this form of gambling is the third highest, next to casino gambling and racetrack betting. On average, Ontarians who bet with a bookmaker on the outcome of a sporting event spent $ in the past month. As Figure 11 shows: 33% wagered $1; 33% bet $20; and, 33% wagered $400.

22 Insight Canada Research 20 FIGURE 11: PARTICIPATION / WAGERS - BOOKMAKER BETTING Participation - Past 12 Months

23 Insight Canada Research 21 Gambling Activity Outside of Ontario Among Ontarians who have spent money on gaming activities in the past twelve months, 12% have gambled outside of Ontario. As Table 2 shows, older Ontarians and those who have achieved higher levels of formal education are most likely to have gone outside of Ontario to gamble. Table 2: Age and Education Level of Ontarians Who Have Gambled Outside of Ontario Group Yes* TOTAL: 12% AGE: 18 To 24 4% 24 To 34 11% 35 To 44 10% 45 To 54 16% 55 To 64 18% 65 To 74 25% EDUCATION: Elementary School 9% High School 10% Community College 12% Some University 14% Completed University 18% * Figures denote percentage of Ontarians with gambling experience in the past twelve months who have gambled outside of Ontario in the same time period. Out-of-Province Gaming Locations Ontarians who have left the province to gamble usually go to Las Vegas, Nevada, with almost one-half (45%) citing this location, followed by 13% who go to Atlantic City. As Figure 12 shows, Minnesota (9%), Michigan (5%) and Bahamas (4%) are also gambling locations frequented by fewer than one in ten Ontarians who have gambled outside of Ontario. Cruise ships and other U.S. cities are mentioned by 7% and 8% of Ontarians respectively, who have gambled outside of Ontario. Money Spent Gambling Outside of Ontario Ontarians who have gone outside of Ontario to gamble spent, on average, $ on gambling. To be specific: 17% spent $50 or less;

24 Insight Canada Research 22 21% bet between $51 and $100; 16% wagered between $101 and $200; 12% spent between $201 and $450; 18% spent between $451 and $900; and. 12% wagered more than $900 on one of their trips. A further 4% are not sure how much they spent on gambling outside of Ontario. FIGURE 12: PARTICIPATION / WAGERS - OUTSIDE OF ONTARIO IV Problems Resulting From Gambling A minority of Ontarians (17%) who have gambled in the past twelve months have encountered one or more problems resulting from their gaming activities. Betting more money than originally intended is the most common problem (11%) experienced by Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months. One in twenty (5%) Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months have gone back most of the time (3%) or every time (2%) to try and win back money that was lost from gambling. Less than one in twenty have wanted to stop betting but couldn t (3%),

25 Insight Canada Research 23 been criticized for gambling (2%), or encountered problems with family members, spouse, work or school as a result of their gambling (1%). As Table 3 shows, men are more likely than women to have encountered these problems. Table 3: Problems Resulting From Gambling Activities Criteria Men Women Total Bet More Than Intended 15% 7% 11% Win Back Money Lost* 5% 3% 5% Wanted to Stop Betting But 4% 3% 3% Couldn t Criticized For Gambling 3% 1% 2% Gambling Has Caused Problems 2% 0% 1% * Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months who go back most of the time or every time to try and win back money lost to gambling. Bet More Than Intended Among Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months, 11% have bet more than they had planned. Ontarians who are most likely to have experienced this phenomenon are between the ages of 18 and 34 (18%, compared to those between the ages of 35 and 74 at 7%) and those whose highest level of education completed is high school (13%, compared to 9% of those with post-secondary education). FIGURE 13: Have you ever bet more than you intended to in the past 12 months? Win Back Lost Money One in twenty (5%) Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months have tried to win back the money lost in gaming activities most of the time (3%) or every time (2%).

26 Insight Canada Research 24 One-quarter (25%) have gone back some of the time and more than two-thirds (67%) have never gone back to regain their money. FIGURE 14: When you lose money gambling, how often do you go back another day to try and win back the money you lost? Would you say you do this never, some of the Time, most of the Time, or every Time you lose money? Desire to Stop Betting But Couldn t Less than one in twenty (3%) Ontarians with gambling experience in the past twelve months have felt the desire to stop betting but did not think they could. The remaining 96% had not experienced such a feeling in this period. (Figure 15) Those between the ages of 18 and 24 (12%) are more likely than those between the ages of 25 and 74 (2%) to have experienced this problem. FIGURE 15: In the past 12 months, have you ever felt that you would like to stop betting but didn t think you could? Criticized For Gambling Fewer than one in twenty (2%) have been criticized for their gambling behaviour or have been told they have a gambling problem.

27 Insight Canada Research 25 Those between the ages of 18 and 44 (3%) are more likely than those between the ages of 45 and 74 (0%) to have received criticism for their betting or have been told they have a gambling problem. FIGURE 16: In the past 12 months, has anyone ever criticized your betting or told you that you had a gambling problem, regardless of whether you thought it was true or not? Gambling Has Caused Problems A very small number of Ontario residents who have gambled in the past twelve months (1%) have experienced problems such as conflicts with family members, school, or work as a result of betting money. FIGURE 17: Betting money can cause problems for some people and not for others. This could include problems with family members or a spouse, or problems at work or school. Has your betting ever caused any problem for you during the past 12 months? Personal Assessment of Gambling Problems Almost all Ontarians (98%) feel they have never had any problems with gambling, while 2% believe they have encountered such a problem.

28 Insight Canada Research 26 FIGURE 18: Do you feel you have ever had a problem with gambling? Behaviour Of Ontarians With Gambling Problems Among Ontarians who have encountered gambling problems, 41% have experienced difficulty dealing with them. One-quarter (24%) of Ontarians who have encountered some problems due to their gaming activities have felt bad about the amount of money spent betting or about what happens when one bets money. The same number (24%) have had arguments with people over the handling of money. Of this group, two-fifths (40%) recount these money arguments to revolve around their betting activities. One in seven (14%) Ontarians with problems resulting from their gambling activities have lied about winning money. One in twenty (6%) have borrowed money to bet or cover gambling debts. Sources of this borrowed money include other relatives or in-laws (43%), spouse (29%), household money (14%), banks, loan companies or credit unions (14%), loan sharks (14%) or their own bank (14%). One in twenty Ontarians who have had problems due to gambling have hidden betting evidence from family and friends (5%), while 4% have defaulted on debts due to their continued betting behaviour and 3% have lost time from work or school due to betting activities. As Table 4 shows, men tend to have more difficulty than women in dealing with problems resulting from gaming activities. Table 4: Behaviour Resulting from Gambling Problems Criteria Male Female Total Felt Bad About Betting 25% 22% 24% Money Had Money Argument 24% 24% 24% With People: Money Argument 37% 45% 40% Centred on Betting Lied About Winning 16% 9% 14%

29 Insight Canada Research 27 Money Borrowed Money To Cover Gambling Debts Hidden Betting Evidence From People Defaulted on Debts Resulting From Gambling Lost Time From Work/School Due To Betting 8% 2% 6% 6% 2% 5% 5% 2% 4% 3% 4% 3% Felt Bad About Betting Money One-quarter (24%) of Ontarians who have encountered problems have felt bad about betting money or the implications of betting. Respondents between the ages of 18 and 24 (42%, compared to 20% of all other age groups combined) and those with two or more adults in the household (26%, compared to 14% of one adult households) are most likely to have had these feelings. FIGURE 19: And in the past 12 months, have you ever felt bad about the amount you bet, or about what happens when you bet money? Money Arguments One-quarter (24%) of Ontarians with gambling problems have had arguments with family or friends over the handling of money. Respondents between the ages of 18 and 34 (33%, compared to 14% of all other age groups combined) and those with spouses who are not currently working for pay (28%, compared to 19% of those with spouses who have a paying job) are most likely to have had arguments with family or friends over their management of money. (Figure 20)

30 Insight Canada Research 28 Among those who have had arguments resulting from the handling of money, two-fifths (40%) have had these money arguments revolve around their gambling behaviour. Although men (24%) and women (24%) are equally likely to mention having arguments over the handling of money, women (45%) are more likely than men (37%) to attribute these arguments to their gaming activities. FIGURE 20: ARGUMENTS OVER MONEY Arguments Over Handling Of Money Lied About Winning Money One in seven (14%) Ontarians with gambling worries have lied about winning money when they were not really winning. Men (16%) are more likely than women (9%) to lie about such circumstances.

31 Insight Canada Research 29 In terms of respondents who are most likely to lie, those with a community college education or less (19%) are more likely than those with some university (6%) to lie in this scenario. FIGURE 21: In the past 12 months when you were betting, have you ever said you were winning money when you weren t really winning? Borrowed Money To Cover Gambling Debts One in sixteen (6%) Ontarians with problems arising from their gaming activities have borrowed money to bet or to cover gambling debts. Among those who are most likely to have borrowed money to bet or cover gambling debts are those with a high school education or less (9%, compared to 2% of those with post-secondary education) as well as respondents between the ages of 18 and 44 (7%, compared to 0% of those older). As Figure 22 shows, in-laws or relatives other than the spouse (43%) are most often asked for money to support gambling activities. Other sources used include the spouse (29%), household money (14%), banks, loan companies or credit unions (14%), loan sharks (14%) or their own bank (14%).

32 Insight Canada Research 30 FIGURE 22: BORROWING MONEY FOR GAMBLING Gambling Money Borrowed Hiding Betting Evidence In the past 12 months, one in twenty (5%) Ontarians with gambling problems have hidden betting evidence such as I.O.U.s, lottery tickets, money they have won or bank withdrawal slips from important people in their lives. Respondents who have hidden betting evidence include those with a community college education or less (7%, compared to 0% of those with some university education) and

33 Insight Canada Research 31 those who have children under the age of 18 (9%, compared to 3% of those who do not have any children). FIGURE 23: In the past 12 months, have you ever hidden I.O.U.s, lottery tickets, money you ve won, or bank withdrawal slips, from your spouse, children, or other important people in your lift? Defaulted on Debts Resulting From Gambling Less than one in twenty (4%) Ontarians with gambling problems have defaulted on debts be cause of their betting or gambling habits. Among those who are most likely to neglect their debts are Ontarians between the ages of 18 and 44 (5%, compared to 0% of those older) and those with a high school education or less (8%, compared to 0% of those with post-secondary education). FIGURE 24: Have you ever borrowed money from someone and not paid them back because of your betting or gambling? Lost Time From Work/School Due To Betting Less than one in twenty (3%) Ontarians who have had gambling problems report having lost time from work or school due to their gambling activities. (Figure 25) Those who are most likely to have lost such time are those with an elementary school education (15%, compared to 2% of those with post-elementary education), those with

34 Insight Canada Research 32 spouses who do not work for pay (6%, compared to 0% of those who have spouses earning in the labour force). Ontarians with at least two adults in their household are also likely to have lost time from work or school due to betting (4%, compared to 0% of those with only one adult in each household). FIGURE 25: In the past 12 months, have you ever lost Time from work or school due to betting activities? Behaviour Of Ontarians With No Gambling Problems Among the 52% of Ontarians who have gambled in the past twelve months, 80% have not had any gambling problems. Frequency of Betting During the past twelve months, fewer than 1% of Ontario gamblers who have not encountered any problems relating to their gaming activities bet nearly every day. One in seven (14%) bet several times a week, while more than one-third (35%) gambled several times a month. As Figure 26 shows, one in six (16%) engaged in gaming activities about once a month, while the remaining one-third (34%) gambled less than monthly.

35 Insight Canada Research 33 FIGURE 26: During the past 12 months, how often did you typically bet or gamble? Would you say nearly every day, several times a week, several times a month, about once a month, or less often than monthly? As Table 5 illustrates, men, those between the ages of 45 and 74 and those with less than a post-secondary education gambled most frequently Table 5: Gaming Frequency Among Demographic Groups* Group Every Day to Several Times A Month Once a Month to Less Than Monthly Gender Male 54% 46% Female 45% 54% Age 18 to 24 37% 63% 25 to 34 43% 57% 35 to 44 50% 50% 45 to 54 59% 41% 55 to 64 60% 40% 65 or 74 62% 37% Education Elementary 59% 41% School High School 57% 42% Community 47% 53% College Some University 42% 55% Completed 37% 63% University * Among Ontarians with gambling experience in the past twelve months who have not encountered any gambling problems.

36 Insight Canada Research 34 Average Amount of Single Day Betting Three-quarters (74%) of Ontarians who have not encountered problems due to their gaming activities bet between $1 and $19, on average, in a single betting day. As shown in Figure 27, 15% wager between $20 and $49, 3% spend between $50 and $99, 2% wager between $100 and $199, while 1% bet more than $200. FIGURE 27: In the past 12 months, how much did you usually bet in a single betting day? Overall Gambling Result Ontario gamblers with no gaming troubles tend to have lost more money than they have won. As Figure 28 shows, seven in ten (70%) have lost more than they won in the past year. One in three (30%) have had better luck with 16% having won more than they lost and 14% who have broken even. FIGURE 28: Thinking about the total amount of money you have spent on bets, card games, bingo, lotteries and all other games of chance in the past year, would you say overall that you won more than you lost or lost more than you won?

37 Insight Canada Research 35 Those who are married (75%), those between the ages of 25 and 54 (75%) and those with household incomes between $40,000 and $79,999 (79%) are most likely to have lost more than they won due to their gaming activities. Largest Amount Won One in ten (11%) Ontarians who have not had any problems as a result of their gaming activities have not won any money in the past year. As Figure 29 shows, in a single betting day, the largest amount won by: 28% range from $1 to $19; 12% range from $20 to $39; 16% range from $50 to $99; 15% range from $100 to $199; 8% range from $200 to $499; 3% range from $500 to $999; and, 5% is $1000 or more. FIGURE 29: In the past year, what would you say is the largest amount of money you have won betting in a single day? Largest Amount Lost In a single betting day, 5% of Ontarians with no gambling problems have never lost any money. The remaining 95% have not been so lucky. Specifically, in a single betting day, the largest amount lost by: 56% range from $1 and $19; 19% range from $20 and $49; 7% range from $50 and $99; 6% range from $100 and $199; 4% range from $200 and $499; 1% range from $500 and $999; and, 1% is $999 or more.

38 Insight Canada Research 36 FIGURE 30: In the past year, what would you say is the largest amount of money you have lost betting in a single day? Reasons For Betting The two most common reasons for gambling given by Ontarians with no gambling problems are that it gives them the chance to win money (mentioned by 71%) and enjoyment (53%). To follow are examples of the reasons why Ontario gamblers say they like to bet which are detailed in Figure 31. It is a chance to win, to get extra money (71%): I want to make some money to help my family. Waiting for my ships to come in so that I can pay the bills. I have three children whom I would like to go to college. Game of chance, can t win without a ticket. Cheap opportunity to get rich. If it (winning) can happen to somebody else, why not me? I like to bet for the enjoyment and thrill of it (53%): It s fun to buy a ticket and scratching it. I bet on horses for the entertainment value. I enjoy it for the entertainment -- I have young kids and I don t get much entertainment. I like the anticipation of winning. The laws of probability are intriguing. Simply because I enjoy it -- I like watching what I m betting on. I like to bet because it gives me the opportunity to socialize or go out with friends (9%): Bingo is just a social evening out with friends. A chance to get together with the guys. It s my evening out -- one night out of the house. It is a chance to socialize with people who come from my country. Because my wife likes the company.

39 Insight Canada Research 37 Peer pressure. I like to bet to pass the time, to get away or because I was bored (7%): What else is there to do? I do it to pass the time on business trips. It s a way to get out of the house. To get away from my husband. Out of boredom. I like to bet for the challenge, the competition (5%): To prove you re right about something. Competition -- testing your skill. The challenge of beating the system. Playing some games is an ego boost. To prove the other guys are wrong. I like to bet because it does not cost much (2%): Two dollars can be spent on lottery or ice-cream -- ice-cream makes you fat. For only $1, there s nothing to lose. To get rid of the change in my pocket. Cheap investment for a dollar.

40 Insight Canada Research 38 FIGURE 31: REASONS FOR BETTING I like to bet because the money goes to charity or to the community (2%): It helps people -- they benefit from the money. It helps out children when you play lotteries. Lotteries help out the community. It helps Ontario contribute to the sports. It was for a non-profit organization.

41 Insight Canada Research 39 Other reasons Ontario gamblers like to bet are: habit (1%); and, curiosity (1%). Gambling Behaviour Excitement and enjoyment are major rationale for gambling among those without gambling problems. Two-thirds (65%) of this group agree with the statements -- I enjoy the feeling of excitement I get when I bet and six in ten (62%) agree with I bet to have a good time. As Table 6 shows, two-fifths agree with the statements I bet because it s challenging to me (46%) and If I had all the money I needed, I wouldn t bet money (42%). Almost four in ten (37%) are more likely to bet if others around them are betting, while more than one-quarter (28%) feel that betting money is something they usually like to do alone. Less than one in ten (9%) believe that betting and playing games of chance are an important part of their life. Table 6: Reasons for Gambling* Statement Agree Disagree Enjoy Feeling of Excitement from Gambling 65% 31% Bet to Have a Good Time 62% 37% Betting is Challenging 46% 52% Would Not Bet if I Had Enough Money 42% 55% More Likely to Bet if Others 37% 61% Are Betting Like to Bet Alone 28% 69% Gambling is an Important Part of My Social Life 9% 90% * Among the 80% of Ontario gamblers who have had no problems resulting from their gaming activities.

42 Insight Canada Research 40 V Prevalence of Problem Gamblers The South Oaks Gambling Screen According to the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) Score Sheet, 91.4% of Ontarians have no gambling problem. A further 7.7% are problem gamblers, while 0.9% are probable pathological gamblers. Demographic Profile of Problem and Pathological Gamblers As Tables 7 and 8 show, groups which are most likely to be problem gamblers are: men; between the ages of 18 and 34; living with someone, separated or never been married; Southern and Northern Europeans, Native American Indians and Canadian descent; Ontarians with household earnings exceeding $90,000 a year; blue collar workers, students and the unemployed; Ontarians with 3 or more adults in their residence; and, residents of Central Ontario. As shown in Tables 7 and 8, Ontarians who are most likely to be probable pathological gamblers are: men; Ontarians between the ages of 18 and 44 and 65 and 74; separated or never been married; Ontarians with a high school education or less; Canadian, French or Irish heritage; Ontarians with annual household earnings between $20,000 and $29,999, and between $50,000 and $79,999; the unemployed or students; and, residents of Central and Northern Ontario.

43 Insight Canada Research 41 Table 7: The South Oaks Gambling Screen Score Sheet Group Some Problem (n) Probable Pathological Gambler (n) TOTAL 7.7% (92) 0.9% (11) Gender Male 10% (60) 2% (12) Female 5% (30) 0% (0) Age 18 to 24 13% (21) 2% (3) 25 to 34 12% (33) 1% (3) 35 to 44 4% (10) 2% (5) 45 to 54 10% (15) 0% (0) 55 to 64 5% (8) 0% (0) 65 to 74 3% (4) 1% (0) Marital Status Married 6% (42) 0% (0) Living With Someone 15% (6) 0% (0) Separated 11% (4) 3% (1) Divorced 8% (4) 0% (0) Widowed 3% (2) 1% (1) Never Married 12% (34) 2% (0) Education Elementary School 7% (8) 2% (2) High School 8% (37) 2% (9) Community College 7% (16) 0% (0) Some University 9% (10) 0% (0) Completed University 8% (21) 0% (0) Occupation Professionals/Administrators/Executives 7% (22) 1% (3) Clerical/Sales/Technicians 5% (10) 1% (2) Crafts/Trades/Factory Work/Service/Labor 12% (27) 1% (2) A Homemaker 5% (6) 0% (0) Retired or Disabled 4% (8) 1% (2) A Student 16% (8) 2% (1) Not Currently Employed 13% (9) 3% (2) Ethnicity British 6% (28) 1% (6) French 11% (10) 2% (2) Irish 8% (9) 2% (2) Eastern European 8% (9) 1% (1) Western European 6% (6) 1% (1) Southern European 7% (6) 1% (1) Northern European 13% (5) 0% (0) African 13% (2) 0% (0) Arab/Middle East Origins 0% (0) 0% (0) Caribbean/Latin/Central American 8% (2) 0% (0) Asian/Oceanic 4% (1) 0% (0) Native American Indian 20% (2) 0% (0) South Asian Origins 16% (3) 0% (0) Canadian 25% (5) 5% (1)

44 Insight Canada Research 42 Household Income Under $20,000 7% (8) 1% (1) $20,000-29,999 9% (11) 3% (4) $30,000-39,999 8% (11) 0% (0) $40,000-49,999 7% (9) 0% (0) $50,000-59,999 8% (8) 2% (2) $60,000-69,999 7% (5) 3% (2) $70,000-79,999 10% (5) 2% (1) $80,000-89,999 7% (3) 0% (0) Over $90,000 17% (20) 1% (1) Region** Metro Toronto 9% (26) 1% (3) Metro Belt 6% (12) 1% (2) Southwestern Ontario 8% (28) 1% (4) Eastern Ontario 5% (8) 0% (0) Central Ontario 13% (14) 2% (2) Northern Ontario 5% (5) 2% (2) * Due to the small number of respondents in sub-groups, caution should be exercised when interpreting this, data. ** A map denoting these regions can be found in the appendix of this report.

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