Course: Equine Science. Unit Title: Horse Breeding Techniques TEKS: 130.5(C)(3)(C) Instructor: Ms. Hutchinson. Objectives:

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1 Course: Equine Science Unit Title: Horse Breeding Techniques TEKS: 130.5(C)(3)(C) Instructor: Ms. Hutchinson Objectives: After completing this unit of instruction, students will be able to: A. Explain why we do ultrasounds on horses; B. Explain the methods of teasing a mare; C. Explain the signs to see if a mare is in heat; D. Discuss the types of natural breeding in horses; E. List advantages to pasture breeding; F. Identify methods of restraining a mare for hand mating; G. Describe what the job of the handler is during hand breeding; H. Explain what artificial insemination is; I. Defend why we collect horse semen; J. Compare and contrast what a diluter and an extender is; and K. Write a paper that would give valuable information to a person looking into artificial insemination.

2 Interest Approach: Breeding horses is not as simple as it may sound. It is an advanced art that requires extensive knowledge of the reproductive systems of the male and female. While breeding preferences do exist, a successful breeding program utilizes an array of skills and technologies. Why do different techniques of horses exist and why is breeding so important in the horse industry? Artificial Insemination Video: Curriculum & Instruction: Curriculum Overview: General methods of mating horses include: Naturally, by pasture mating Naturally, by hand mating Artificial Insemination PPT Slide 4 Instruction A. Explain why we do ultrasounds on horses; Heat Detection: Heat - another term used for estrus & is period of breeding activity More exact you can be about the mare being receptive & time of ovulation = fewer times the stallion will need to breed the mare Palpation - examining by touch or feel Ultrasound - vibrations used to view internal tissue masses Can be used to detect ovulation Identify changes in the reproductive tract Aid in establishing mating times B. Explain the methods of teasing a mare; Teasing exposing mare to active stallion Look for specific reactions Mares can be teased by bringing them to a stallion one at a time, or allowing several mares to be near teasing stallion at once PPT Slide 5-13 Define the term heat. Define palpation. What is the result of being exact about when the mare is receptive and the time of ovulation? What methods can mares be teased? What is the point of doing an ultrasound? (3 points)

3 Some type of barrier or restraint should separate mare from teasing stallion so that injuries or premature mating will not occur If horses are being teased in enclosed pens without walls or partitions, it is necessary for each horse to have a handler How can multiple mares be teased at one point? C. Explain the signs to see if a mare is in heat; Signs the mare is in heat: Flexing pelvis Raising the tail Frequent urination Spreading of hind legs Winking of vulva Standing to be mounted Allowing stallion to nip and chew on flanks and neck Winking - sign of estrus, indicated by opening & closing of the vulva What are the 7 signs of a mare in heat?

4 D. Discuss the types of natural breeding in horses; Natural Breeding E. List advantages to pasture breeding; Pasture Breeding Advantages: Reduces labor Convenient for horse owner Catches mares shy about breeding Results in high settling percentage Settling percentage - percentage of bred mares that conceive Pasture Breeding Disadvantages: Lowering number of mares stallion can serve Can make exact breeding dates difficult to determine Some risk to stallion F. Identify methods of restraining a mare for hand mating; Breeding by Hand Mating Most expensive horses Retrain mare to prevent injury to stallion Allow stallion to pursue breeding process under control of handlers Mare should be restrained in breeding stock or breeding hobbles PPT Slide What are 3 advantages of pasture breeding? PPT Slide Which horses are mainly hand mated? How can you restrain a mare for hand breeding? Prevents mare from seriously kicking stallion & causing physical harm Additional restraint methods include: Raising one of mare s front feet Applying twitch to nose Breeding sanitation consists of: Wash genital areas with mild soap solution Binding tail of mare with gauze or cloth to prevent interference from hairs What is the purpose of breeding stocks or hobbles? How do you practice breeding sanitation?

5 Handler should direct stallion to approach from directly behind mare G. Describe what the job of the handler is during hand breeding; Handler should help guide stallion s penis into vulva Do not allow stallion to be rough or strike during breeding process! Stallion will flag tail before dismounting after ejaculation Some stallions will dismount before they ejaculate If in doubt, handler should put pressure on urethra to surface semen at end of penis to be sure stallion inseminated mare Urethra - canal through which urine & semen are discharged in male After stallion dismounts, handler should wash & disinfect genitals of stallion & mare One good way to get high settling percentage is to hand mate mares near end of breeding season Turn stallion with mares to identify & pasture breed shy mares & those that did not conceive H. Explain what artificial insemination is; Artificial Insemination (AI): Some advantages in breeding program Venereal disease control is possible if semen is diluted with antibiotics Decreases number of disease-producing organisms entering mare Venereal disease - disease transmitted by breeding Chance of injury to horses & personnel also lower Especially if stallion s semen is collected with aid of a phantom Phantom - object used for stallion to mount for obtaining semen, rather than using a mare What is the job of the handler during hand breeding horses? What sign does the stallion give before he dismounts after ejaculation? What is the purpose of the urethra? What should the handler do after the stallion dismounts? What is high settling percentage? PPT Slide What are the advantages to A.I.? What is a phantom? What is a venereal disease?

6 Overuse of stallion less likely because each collection is usually enough to breed several mares Permits evaluation of semen for quality periodically I. Defend why we collect horse semen; Semen Collection: When mare bred by AI, semen must first be collected from stallion Requires veterinarian or experienced horseperson Semen is collected in artificial vagina as stallion mounts live mare or breeding phantom PPT Slide Why do we collect semen? What does the stallion mount when collecting? Semen must be processed by filtering & evaluated for: Volume Concentration of spermatozoa Presence of microorganisms What do we evaluate semen for? J. Compare and contrast what a diluter and an extender is; and Diluters or extenders may be useful for antibiotic & antibacterial treatment Diluters - any of several types of fluids used to dilute & increase volume of semen Extenders - any diluters with additives to extend lifespan of sperm cells Mare prepared by wrapping tail & washing genital area Inseminator inserts specially designed catheter into vagina Deposits semen into uterus Catheter - slender tube inserted into body cavity for drawing off or administering fluids AI or breeding should take place just before mare ovulates Sperm remains capable of fertilizing egg for at least 72 hours in mare s reproductive tract Egg may be fertilized up to 24 hours after ovulation Good idea to breed mare every other day while in heat If mare is palpated to determine exactly when she ovulates, then she should be bred once just before What is a diluter? What is an extender? What must you do with the mare s tail before A.I.? How many hours after ovulation can the eggs be fertilized? How long is sperm capable of fertilizing an egg?

7 ovulation If mare ovulates before breeding, it reduces chances of conception occurring Accurate records must be maintained of all breeding & horse reproductive activities Records help producers maintain efficiency & improve breeding rates Summary: Three general methods of mating horses: Naturally, by pasture mating Naturally, by hand mating Artificial insemination More exact horseperson can be about receptivity of mare & time of ovulation, the fewer times stallion will need to breed mare Mare in heat will be receptive to stallion & exhibit certain signs or actions Pasture mating: Reduces labor Convenient for horse owner Catches mares that are shy about breeding Results in high settling percentage Most expensive horses are hand mated Person restrains mare to prevent injury to stallion while allowing stallion to pursue breeding process under control of handlers Artificial insemination requires veterinarian or experienced horseperson Reduces transmission of venereal disease & injury to horses or personnel Accurate records must be maintained of all breeding & horse reproductive activities Helps producers maintain efficiency & improve breeding rates PPT Slide K. Write a paper that would give valuable information to a person looking into artificial insemination. Artificial Insemination Paper: Students are to write a paper about A.I. They need to do some research to find out what A.I. exactly is, and write two paragraphs about A.I. They are to then find 5 different career opportunities that have to do with the Equine Reproductive industry, the price of doing A.I., and prices of frozen semen from 5 different stallions. The students will then find 5 different websites that have useful A.I. information on them and site them in MLA format. Students are to format their paper with A.I. paper instructions

8 Times New Roman font size 12 with their name, class period, and date in the header. Students will be given a zero for copy and pasting information from websites. Post-it Information: Students are to take a large post-it note and split the post-it in half. One half the students will write Natural Breeding and the other half the students will write Artificial Insemination. This activity is very similar to brain splash, but the students are not walking around the room. Students are to then write down all the information they know about natural breeding and A.I. The students should include items like hand breeding and pasturing breeding, teasing, what is used to the collect the semen, etc. Individual Practice: Students will complete a horse breeding techniques worksheet from IMS. Large Post-its and Markers Horse Breeding Techniques WS Make Your Test Questions: Have students write questions that they can easily get the information from in their notes. Each student is to write a question on one side of an index card and then the answer on the other side of the index card. Students are to write two questions each. Students will also put their name on the questions they have created so the students can be graded individually on the activity. Once students have finished writing their questions, I will go through the questions one by one while the students answer the questions. I will type these questions up to use in the test and the test review. I will explain to the students that I will still add questions of my own into the test. Review & Instruction: Objectives will be reviewed before examinations. Exams will be developed based on objectives as taught in class. Instructional Support: A. References a. IMS Online Curriculum B. Teaching Aids & Equipment: a. Horse Breeding Techniques PPT

9 b. Horse Breeding Techniques Student PPT c. IMS Horse Breeding Techniques Worksheet d. Artificial Insemination - paper instructions e. Horse Breeding Techniques Test Review (alter each time this lesson is taught) f. Horse Breeding Techniques Test (alter each time this lesson is taught) C. Facilities: a. Agriculture classroom

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