Army Lists. The Franks. Contents

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1

2 Army Lists The Franks Contents

3 Creating an army with the Mortem et Gloriam Army Lists

4 Historical Introduction

5

6

7 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 419 AD to 621 AD Sub-Generals 0-3 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-1 Any Instinctive Camp Unfortified or Mobile; Poor or Name Type Training and Quality Tolosan Visigoth Protection Shooting Skill Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max - Devastating 4 4,6 Buccellarii Superior - Melee Expert - Chargers 12 Unskilled 0 4,6 Gardingi Short Spear - Melee Expert Javelin 32 - Devastating 18 6,8,9 Spearmen - Combat Shy Tribal Close - Chargers 60 Roman auxilaries (before 461 Experienced 8 6,8 Short Spear Shield Cover Combat Shy AD) Drilled Flexible Darts 16 Roman auxilaries (from 461 Unskilled 8 6,8 Short Spear Shield Cover Combat Shy AD) Formed Close Javelin 16 Archers - - Combat Shy Bow 27 Slingers - - Combat Shy Sling 9 Allies Burgundi allies (until 465 AD) Suevi allies (from 466 to 584 AD) Ostrogoth allies - Italian Ostrogothic (from 493 to 526 AD) Provencal contignent - Provencal (from 496 to 507 AD) Byzantine allies - Early Byzantine (from 550 to 554 AD) Notes Visigothic allied contingents need not include otherwise compulsory foot. UG Size

8 Historical Notes Change to Roman auxilaries. Changes to allies. Tolosan Visigoth This list covers the Visigoths in south-west Gaul, through its extension into Spain, from 469 to 478 AD and its loss of the Gallic provinces to the Franks in 507. Buccellarii were the nobles well-armoured followers. Gardingi comprised minor royal officials, lesser gentry and followers in more tritional Gothic equipment, but now relying more on skirmishing with javelins than on a fierce charge.the initial settlement gave the Visigoths control of the former Roman garrison. These degenerated into city militia. Changes from last version

9 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 485 AD to 561 AD Sub-Generals 0-3 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Camp Unfortified; Poor or Name Type Training and Early Merovingian Frank Quality Protection Shooting Skill Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max Noble cavalry - 4 4,6 Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert - 12 Cavalry - 4 4,6 Short Spear - Melee Expert - 12 Breton cavalry Experienced 0 4,6 Short Spear - Combat Shy Formed Flexible Javelin 6 Warriors - Devastating 18 6,8,9 Short Spear Combat Shy Tribal Close - Chargers 80 City levy - 0 6,8,9 Poor Long Spear - Combat Shy Tribal Close - 80 Light cavalry Experienced Cantabrian, 0 4,6 - - Javelin Combat Shy 6 Archers - - Combat Shy Bow 27 Javelinmen Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 9 Allies Burgundian allies (in 507 AD or from 534 AD) Aquitanian contingent - Gallia Aquitania (from 507 AD) Provencal contingent (from 536 AD) UG Size

10 Historical Notes Early Merovingian Frank The name Merovingian derives from that of Merovech, of whom nothing is known except that he was the father of Childeric I, who ruled a tribe of Salian Franks from his capital at Tournai. Childeric was succeeded by his son Clovis I in 481 or 482. Clovis I extended his rule over all the Salian Franks, conquered or annexed the territories of the Ripuarian Franks and the Alemanni, and united nearly all of Gaul except for Burgundy and what is now Provence. At Clovis I s death in 511, his realm was divided among his four sons, Theuderic I, Chlodomir, Childebert I, and Chlotar I. Despite the frequently bloody competition between the brothers, they managed among them to extend Frankish rule over Thuringia in approximately 531 and Burgundy in 534 and to gain sway over, if not possession of, Septimania on the Mediterranean coast, Bavaria, and the lands of the Saxons to the north. By 558 Chlotar I was the last surviving son of Clovis I, and until his death in 561 the Frankish realm was once again united. Changes from last version Change to allies. Reclassified warriors. Added Breton cavalry.

11 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 496 AD to 613 AD Sub-Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals Camp Unfortified; Poor or Name Noble cavalry Cavalry Burgundian tribal infantry Burgundian or Gallo-Roman archers Javelinmen Type Training and Tribal Close Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert ,6 Short Spear - Melee Expert Devastating 18 6,8,9 - Combat Shy - Chargers Combat Shy Bow 18 Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 9 Allies Provencal allies Austrasian allies (from 535 AD) Historical Notes The Burgundians were one of the Germanic peoples who filled the power vacuum left by the collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire. In 411 AD, they crossed the Rhine and established a kingdom at Worms. Amidst repeated clashes between the Romans and Huns, the Burgundian kingdom eventually occupied what is today the borderlands between Switzerland, France, and Italy. In 534, the Franks defeated Godomar, the last Burgundian king and took over the country of Burgundy, absorbing the territory into their growing empire. Under the Merovingians, the Kingdom of Burgundy continued to exist. The kingdom re-emerged as a separate state in the 11th century. The list includes Burgundian armies until 613 and Burgundian contingents of Merovingian armies from 614 to 639. Changes from last version Revised allies. Changed minimum and maximums. Quality Burgundian Protection Shooting Skill Melee UG Size

12 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 535 AD to 639 AD Sub-Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Camp Unfortified; Poor or Name Type Training and Changes from last version Increased maximums. Infantry now short spear. Quality Provencal Protection Shooting Skill Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max Frankish noble cavalry Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert - 12 Gallo-Roman noble cavalry Short Spear - Melee Expert ,8,9 Gallo-Roman infantry Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy Tribal Close - 72 City/Champagne levy - 9 6,8,9 Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy infantry Tribal Close - 36 Burgundian or Gallo-Roman - - Combat Shy archers Bow 18 Basque javelinmen Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 18 Historical Notes The rule of the Visigoths in Provence was short-lived; their King, Alaric II, was defeated by Clovis I, in 507 AD. The Burgundians, allied with the Franks, tried to take all of Provence for themselves. They were stopped by another barbarian power, the Ostrogoths, led by Theodoric, who entered Provence, lifted the Burgundian siege of Arles, and took Marseille and Avignon in 508. Theodoric was both a barbarian king and an ally of the Byzantine Roman Empire. The rule of the Ostrogoths lasted little more than thirty years, and in 536, the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian ceded all of Provence to the Merovingian kings. The Merovingians were the first northern European rulers to govern Provence. After 561, Provence was split between two Merovingian kings; Sigebert, the King of Austrasia, ruled Marseille, Aix and Avignon, while Gontran, the King of Burgundy, ruled the eastern part of Provence. The second half of the 6th century was a terrible time for Provence; the region suffered continual conflicts between the two kings, attacks by Lombard and Saxon raiders, and epidemics of plague and other diseases. Irrigation works built by the Romans fell into ruins and the fields which the Romans had drained in the Rhone Valley turned back into marshes. Roman buildings and aqueducts were not maintained. Populations left the cities and moved to fortified villages on the hilltops. This list includes Provencal contingents in Visigothic and Burgundian armies from 496 as well as Provencal contingents in Merovingian armies from 535 to 639 AD. UG Size

13 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 539 AD to 744 AD Sub-Generals 0-1 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-3 Any Instinctive Camp Unfortified; Poor or Name Type Training and Quality Swabian Duchies Protection Shooting Skill Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max Swabian caballarii Superior Short Spear - Combat Shy - 12 Swabian nobles Superior Short Spear Combat Shy Dismount Swabian caballari - 6,8 Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert or nobles - Any - Melee Expert, 0 4,6 Mercenary Thuringians Short Spear - - Dismountable 6-9 6,8,9 Levy "free men" Poor Short Spear - Combat Shy Formed Close ,9,10 Lantwer Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Historical Notes In 496 AD, the Suebi (Swabians) were conquered by Frankish leader Clovis and incorporated into his dominions. Mentioned as still pagan allies of the Christian Franks, the Alemanni were gradually Christianized during the 7th century. The Pactus Alamannorum is a record of their customary law during this period. Until the 8th century, Frankish suzerainty over Swabia was mostly nominal. But after an uprising by Theudebald, Duke of Alamannia, Carloman executed the Alamannic nobility and installed Frankish dukes. During the later and weaker years of the Carolingian Empire the Alemannic counts became almost independent, and a struggle for supremacy took place between them and the Bishopric of Constance. The chief family in Alamannia was that of the counts of Raetia Curiensis, who were sometimes called margraves, and one of whom, Burchard II, established the Duchy of Swabia, which was recognized by Henry the Fowler in 919 and became a stem duchy of the Holy Roman Empire This list covers the period of Swabian Dukes under Frankish suzerainty. Changes from last version Increased maximums. Lantwer reclassified. UG Size

14 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 562 AD to 639 AD Sub-Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Camp Unfortified; Poor or Name Type Training and Frankish noble cavalry Thuringian noble cavalry Tribal Loose Alamannic noble cavalry Tribal Loose Thuringian infantry Tribal Close Frankish or Alamannic infantry Tribal Close Archers Basque javelinmen Allies Provencal contingent Aquitanian contingent - Gallia Aquitania Burgundian contingent Neustrian contingent Quality Austrasia Protection Shooting Skill Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max UG Size Superior Superior Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert - 8 Short Spear - Combat Shy - 6 Short Spear Combat Shy Devastating 18 6,8,9 - Combat Shy - Chargers 64 - Devastating 18 6,8,9 Short Spear Combat Shy - Chargers Combat Shy Bow 9 Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 9

15 Historical Notes Austrasia This list covers the Merovingian heartland split into Austrasia and Neustria after 561, Austrasia being the direct heir of the former central authority. Most external wars were waged by Austrasian armies, notably in Italy and against the Avars. The last Merovingian king being Dagobert,eldest son of Chlothar II. Chlothar had reigned alone over all the Franks since 613. In 623, Chlothar was forced to make Dagobert king of Austrasia by the nobility of that region, who wanted a king of their own. When Chlothar granted Austrasia to Dagobert, he initially excluded Alsace, the Vosges, and the Ardennes, but shortly thereafter the Austrasian nobility forced him to concede these regions to Dagobert. The rule of a Frank from the Austrasian heartland tied Alsace more closely to the Austrasian court. Dagobert created a new duchy (the later Duchy of Alsace) in southwest Austrasia to guard the region from Burgundian or Alamannic encroachments and ambitions. Changes from last version Reclassified noble cavalry. Revised allied contingents.

16 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 562 AD to 639 AD Sub-Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Camp Unfortified; Poor or Name Frankish noble cavalry Gallo-Roman noble cavalry Gallo-Roman infantry Tribal Close Frankish or Alamannic infantry Tribal Close Saxon infantry Tribal Close Archers Basque javelinmen Allies Burgundian contingent Austrasian contingent Tolosan Visigothic rebel allies (from 589 AD) Historical Notes Type Training and Quality Changes from last version Gallo-Roman infantry now short spear. Revised allied contingents. Protection Neustria Shooting Skill Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert - 8 Short Spear - Melee Expert ,8,9 Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy Devastating 0 6,8,9 Short Spear Combat Shy - Chargers 27 - Devastating 0 6,8,9 - Combat Shy - Chargers Combat Shy Bow 9 Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 9 Neustria, or Neustrasia, was the western part of the kingdom of the Franks that was created in 511 upon the division of the Merovingian kingdom of Clovis I to his four sons following his death. Merovingian Neustria stretched from the Loire to the Meuse. Neustria was predominantly Gallo-Roman in population, and the form of Latin spoken there, affected by Celtic and Germanic influences, came to be called Langue d oil, the ancestor of modern French. This list covers Neustrian armies within the Merovingian Frankish kingdom. UG Size

17 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 580 AD to 1072 AD Sub-Generals 0-3 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard, Coastal Internal Allied Generals Camp Unfortified; Poor or Name Breton nobles Breton cavalry Levied foot Breton light cavalry s Disguised Saxons (in 590 AD) Allies Viking allies (from 843 to 888 AD) Carolingian allies (from 843 to 888 AD) Historical Notes Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max Superior Poor Experienced 8 4,6 Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 24 Experienced 8 4,6 Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin ,9,10 Short Spear - Combat Shy - 48 Experienced Cantabrian, 6 4,6 - - Javelin Combat Shy 42 - Combat Shy - Javelin 48 - Devastating 0 6,8,9 - Combat Shy - Chargers 18 The Breton kingdom emerged in the 6th century. The large contingent of Celtic Britons amongst the population may have included the descendents of auxlaries from Britain stationed in Amorica in the late 4th century and inhabitants fleeing the later Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain. During the 9th century the Bretons resisted incorporation into the Frankish Carolingian Empire. The first unified Duchy of Brittany was founded by Nominoe. With regular assistance from the Vikings the Bretons successfully resisted the Franks. Changes from last version None. Type Training and Formed Flexible Formed Flexible Tribal Loose Tribal Close Quality Protection Breton Shooting Skill Melee UG Size

18 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 613 AD to 717 AD Sub-Generals 0-3 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Camp Unfortified; Poor or Name Noble cavalry Thuringian noble cavalry Tribal Loose Swabian or Bavarian noble cavalry Tribal Loose Cavalry Warriors Tribal Close Light cavalry Archers Javelinmen Allies Breton allies Tolosan Visigothic rebel allies (until 621 AD) Notes Type Training and Quality Protection Cavalry dismount as Tribal Close,, Devastating Chargers of the same quality. Later Merovingian Frank Shooting Skill Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max UG Size Superior Superior Superior - Devastating Melee Expert, 4 4,6 - - Chargers Dismountable 12 Short Spear - Combat Shy - 6 Short Spear Combat Shy Devastating Melee Expert, 4 4,6 - - Chargers Dismountable ,8,9 Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy - 80 Experienced Cantabrian, 0 4,6 - - Javelin Combat Shy Combat Shy Bow 27 Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 9

19 Historical Notes Later Merovingian Frank Overall Frankish unity was again achieved in 613 AD, when Chlotar II, son of Chilperic I and king of Neustria, inherited the Austrasia and Burgundy. On the death of Chlotar s son Dagobert I in 639, the realm was divided yet again, but by that time the kings of the two regions, Neustria and Burgundy on the one hand and Austrasia on the other, had been forced to yield much of their power to household officials known as mayors of the palace. The later Merovingian kings were little more than puppets and were enthroned and deposed at will by powerful mayors of the palace. The last Merovingian, Childeric III, was deposed in 750 by Pippin III the Short. Changes from last version Warriors now short spear. Added Thuringian and Swabian cavalry.

20 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 622 AD to 720 AD Sub-Generals 0-3 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-1 Any Instinctive Camp Unfortified or Mobile; Poor or Name Buccellarii Gardingi Spearmen Roman auxilaries Archers Slingers Basque cavalry Basque infantry Basque slingers Notes Type Training and Tribal Close Drilled Flexible Quality Later Visigoth Protection Shooting Skill Visigothic allied contingents need not include otherwise compulsory foot. Minimum * applies only if any Basques are used. Only the Army commander can command Basques. Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max Superior - Devastating 4 4,6 - Melee Expert - Chargers 12 Unskilled 0 4,6 Short Spear - Melee Expert Javelin 32 - Shieldwall, 18 6,8,9 Short Spear Integral Combat Shy - Shooters 60 Poor Unskilled 8 6,8 Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin Combat Shy Bow Combat Shy Sling 9 Experienced Cantabrian, 0 4,6 - - Javelin Combat Shy 12 Experienced 9* 6,9 Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin Combat Shy Sling 9 Historical Notes This list continues the Tolosan Visigoths. to the Islamic conquest; and then the vassal kings Aquila (711 to 713 AD) and Ardo (713 to 720). After 621 foot were increasingly recruited from conscripted slaves. The Royal army was finally crushed by the Berbers in 711. UG Size

21 Later Visigoth Changes from last version Reclassified Roman auxilaries.

22 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 628 AD to 632 AD Sub-Generals 1-3 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals Camp Unfortified; Poor or Name Frankish noble cavalry Gallo-Roman noble cavalry Bretons and Alans City levy cavalry Sarmatian or Taifali cavalry Frankish or Alamannic infantry Gallo-Roman infantry Breton or Basque cavalry Frankish archers Basque javelinmen Type Training and Formed Flexible Drilled Loose Tribal Close Tribal Close Quality Gallia Aquitania Protection Shooting Skill Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max UG Size Superior Poor Short Spear - Melee Expert ,6 Short Spear - Melee Expert - 12 Experienced 0 4,6 Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 6 Short Spear - Melee Expert Charging 0 4,6 - Melee Expert - Lancer 6 - Devastating 0 6,8,9 Short Spear Combat Shy - Chargers ,8,9 Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy - 64 Experienced Cantabrian, 0 4,6 - - Javelin Combat Shy Combat Shy Bow 9 Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 9

23 Historical Notes Gallia Aquitania Gallia Aquitania fell under Visigothic rule in the 5th century AD. It was conquered by the Franks under Clovis I in 507, as a result of the Battle of Vouillé. During the 6th and early 7th century, it was under direct rule of Frankish kings, divided between the realms of Childebert II and Guntram in the Treaty of Andelot of 587. Under Chlothar II, Aquitaine was again integral part of Francia, but after Chlothar's death in 628, his heir Dagobert I granted a subkingdom in southern Aquitaine to his younger brother Charibert II. This subkingdom, consisting of Gascony and the southern fringe of Aquitaine proper, is conventionally known as "Aquitaine" and forms the historical basis for the later duchy. Charibert campaigned successfully against the Basques, but after his death in 632, they revolted again, in 635 subdued by an army sent by Dagobert (who was at the same time forced to deal with a rebellion in Brittany). This list provides Aquitanian contingents in Merovingian Frankish armies from 507 to 639 AD. It also includes the separate sub-kingdom of Aquitania from 628 to 632 AD. Changes from last version Revised dates for main army. Gallo-Roman infantry now short spear.

24 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 718 AD to 741 AD Sub-Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 1-3 Any Instinctive Camp Flexible; Poor or Name Type Training and Charles Martel Frank Quality Protection Shooting Skill Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max - Devastating Melee Expert, 0 4,6 Caballarii Scara Exceptional - - Chargers Dismountable 6 Swabians or Bavarians Superior Short Spear Combat Shy Dismount Swabians or - 0 Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert Bavarians - Any - Melee Expert, 0 4,6 Mercenary Thuringians Short Spear - - Dismountable 6 Heerschild infantry stiffened with veterans *See - Shieldwall, 0 Dismounted caballarii Short Spear - note Melee Expert Formed Close ,8,9 Heerschild Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy Formed Close Experienced 0 6,8,9 Archers - - Combat Shy Bow 18 Experienced 0 4,6 Scouts Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 6 s - - Combat Shy Bow 18 Notes A TuG of Heerschild infantry can have 0-3 dismounted caballarii to create a TuG of 6,8 or 9. Elements of dismounted caballarii must be easily distinguished from the heerschild infantry. UG Size

25 Historical Notes Charles Martel Frank Charles Martel (from the Latin Carolus Martellus) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was de facto ruler of Francia from 718 AD until his death. He defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours in 732, considered a landmark battle that marked the high tide of the Muslim advance into Europe. Troop Notes The internal ally can represent Odo of Aquitaine. Aquitanian troops at this time seem to have followed the same tactical doctrine as other Franks so are treated as an internal ally. Changes from last version Heerschild now short spear. Reclassified Swabian cavalry.

26 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 741 AD to 888 AD Sub-Generals - Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 1-3 Any Instinctive Camp Flexible; Poor or Name Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max - Devastating Melee Expert, 0 4,6 Caballarii Scara Exceptional - - Chargers Dismountable 6 Swabians or Bavarians Superior Short Spear Combat Shy Dismount Swabians or Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert Bavarians - Any - Melee Expert, 0 4,6 Mercenary Thuringians Short Spear - - Dismountable 6 - Devastating Melee Expert, 4 4,6 Heerbaan caballarii Superior - - Chargers Dismountable 18 - Devastating Melee Expert, 8 4,6 Heerbaan freie herren Short Spear - Chargers Dismountable ,8,9 Heerschilde levy Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy Formed Close ,9,10 Lantwer Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Experienced 0 6,8,9 Archers - - Combat Shy Bow 18 s - - Combat Shy Bow 18 Allies Type Training and Quality Carolingian Protection Shooting Skill Frisian allies (only in 716 AD) Lombard allies - Italian Lombard (from 745 to 767 AD) or Lombard Principalities (from 815 AD) Bohemian allies (from 790 AD) or Moravian allies (from 833 AD) Breton allies Melee UG Size

27 Changes from last version Carolingian Notes Cavalry (other than Swabians) dismount as Formed Close, Short Spear, Shieldwall of the same quality. They do not get Melee Expert if dismounted, even if they have the characteristic as mounted. Historical Notes The Carolingian Dynasty was a dynasty of rulers who began as Mayors of the Palace and eventually became kings of the Franks. It is perhaps most noteworthy as the dynasty which resurrected the idea of a Western Roman Empire. The Carolingians succeeded the Merovingian Dynasty. This list covers Frankish armies from the death of Charles Martel, until the final partition of Charlemagne's empire. Separate lists exist for Charles Martel and Charlemagne. The name Carolingian itself comes from Charles Martel (from the Latin Carolus Martellus). The dynasty's most prominent member is Charlemagne. The last Carolingian emperor died in 899 AD. Increased maximums. Heerschilde now short spear. Lantwer. Archers optionally combat shy. Reclassified heerbaan caballarii and Swabian cavalry.

28 Army Commander 1 Any Dates 768 AD to 814 AD Sub-Generals 0-3 Any Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-3 Any Instinctive Camp Flexible; Poor or Name Type Training and Charlemagne Carolingian Quality Protection Shooting Skill Melee Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max Caballarii Scara - Devastating Melee Expert, 0 4,6 Exceptional - Drilled Loose - Chargers Dismountable 6 Household caballarii - Devastating Melee Expert, 4 4,6 Superior - Drilled Loose - Chargers Dismountable 12 Caballarii archers - Devastating 0 4,6 - Melee Expert - Chargers 6 Dismount caballari archers Experienced 0 4,6 - - Melee Expert Bow Any Swabians or Bavarians Superior Short Spear Combat Shy Dismount Swabians or Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert Bavarians - Any Mercenary Thuringians - Melee Expert, 0 4,6 Short Spear - - Dismountable 6 Heerbaan caballarii - Devastating Melee Expert, 4 4,6 Superior - - Chargers Dismountable 12 Heerbaan freie herren - Devastating Melee Expert, 8 4,6 Short Spear - Chargers Dismountable 24 Heerschilde levy - 9 6,8,9 Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy Formed Close - 27 Lantwer - 0 8,9,10 Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Archers Experienced 0 6,8,9 - - Combat Shy Bow 18 s - - Combat Shy Bow 18 UG Size

29 Charlemagne Carolingian Allies Lombard allies - Italian Lombard (until 774 AD) or Lombard Principalities (from 775 AD) Saxon allies - Old Saxon (from 772 to 804 AD ) Bohemian allies (from 790 AD) Notes Cavalry (other than Swabians) dismount as Formed Close, Short Spear, Shieldwall of the same quality. They do not get Melee Expert if dismounted, even if they have the characteristic as mounted. Historical Notes The Carolingian dynasty's most prominent member is Charlemagne, or Charles the Great (in Latin, Carolus Magnus), who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800. Under Charlemagne the empire expanded on all frontiers. His descendants could not keep such a wide area under control and spent much of their efforts fighting each other for supremacy. Changes from last version Heerschilde now short spear. Lantwer. Archers optionally combat shy. Reclassified heerbaan caballarii.

30 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 888 AD to 933 AD Sub-Generals 0-1 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-3 Any Instinctive Camp Flexible; Poor or Name Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max - Devastating Melee Expert, 4 4,6 Best Milites Superior - - Chargers Dismountable 16 Swabians or Bavarians Superior Short Spear Combat Shy Dismount Swabians or Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert Bavarians - Any - Melee Expert, 0 4,6 Mercenary Thuringians Short Spear - - Dismountable 12 - Devastating Melee Expert, 12 4,6 Milites Short Spear - Chargers Dismountable ,8,9 Spearmen Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy Formed Close ,9,10 Peasants Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Experienced 0 6,8,9 Archers - - Combat Shy Bow 18 s - Combat Shy - Bow 18 Allies Type Training and Quality East Frankish Protection Shooting Skill Melee Magyar alles (from 892 to 894 AD) Lombard allies - Lombard Principalities Slav allies - Wends Notes Best milites dismount as Formed Close, Superior,, Short Spear, Shieldwall. Thuringians and milites dismount as Formed Close,,, Short Spear, Shieldwall. They do not get Melee Expert if dismounted, even if they have the characteristic as mounted. UG Size

31 East Frankish Historical Notes This list covers East Frankia from the death of Charles the Fat to the ascension of Otto the Great. Changes from last version Increased maximums. Reclassified Milites. Spearmen now short spear. Peasants now short spear. Archers optionally combat shy.

32 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 888 AD to 1045 AD Sub-Generals 0-1 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-3 Any Instinctive Camp Flexible; Poor or Name Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max - Devastating Melee Expert, 4 4,6 Best milites Superior - - Chargers Dismountable 18 Upgrade best milites (from - Devastating Melee Expert, 4,6 Superior Short Spear 933 AD) - Chargers Dismountable All - Devastating Melee Expert, 8 4,6 Milites Short Spear - Chargers Dismountable ,8,9 Spearmen Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy Formed Close - 27 Experienced 0 6,8 Foot archers - - Combat Shy Bow ,9,10 Peasants Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Massed crossbowmen (from Unskilled 0 6,8 - - Combat Shy 950 AD) Crossbow 8 Experienced Cantabrian, 0 4,6 Gascon cavalry - - Javelin Combat Shy 6 s - Combat Shy - Bow 9 Crossbowmen - Combat Shy - Crossbow 9 Gascon javelinmen Short Spear - Combat Shy Javelin 9 Allies Viking allies (before 923 AD) Norman allies (from 923 AD) Type Training and Early Medieval French Quality Protection Shooting Skill Melee UG Size

33 Notes Troop Notes Changes from last version Early Medieval French Best milites dismount as Formed Close, Superior,, Short Spear, Sheildwall. Milites dismount as Formed Close,,, Short Spear, Shieldwall. They do not get Melee Expert if dismounted, even if they have the characteristic as mounted. Historical Notes This list covers West Frankia from the death of Charles the Fat through the Capetian dynasty until the rise of the medieval knight. The choice of 933 AD to upgrade the best milites is arbitrary. It allows for consistency with the Early Holy Roman Empire list. Reclassified milites. Spearmen now short spear. Peasants now short spear. Archers optionally combat shy. Crossbowmen reclassified.

34 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 911 AD to 1071 AD Sub-Generals 0-3 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard, Coastal Internal Allied Generals Camp Unfortified or Fortified; Poor or Name Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max - Devastating Charging 0 4,6 Familia regis Superior Chargers, Melee Dismountable - Lancer Expert 6 - Charging Devastating Melee Expert, 0 4,6 Best milites Superior - Lancer Chargers Dismountable 12 - Charging Devastating Melee Expert, 18 4,6 Milites - Lancer Chargers Dismountable 36 Experienced 0 4,6 Breton milites Short Spear - Combat Shy Formed Flexible Javelin ,8,9 Familia pedites Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy Formed Close Shieldwall, 0 6,8,9 Pedites Short Spear - Tribal Close - Combat Shy 27 Experienced 0 6,8 Archers - - Combat Shy Tribal Loose Bow 8 Unskilled 0 6,8 Crossbowmen - - Combat Shy Crossbow 8 Skirmishing archers - Combat Shy - Bow 9 Skirmishing crossbowmen - Combat Shy - Crossbow 9 Only invading England in 1066 Regrade milites and best milites lacking horses Type Training and Formed Close Quality Protection Norman Shooting Skill Melee UG Size - 1/3 6,8,9 Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy - 2/3

35 Changes from last version Added best milites. Crossbowmen reclassified. Archers optionally combat shy. Norman Allies French allies - Early Medieval French (to 1045 AD) or Feudal French (from 1046 AD) Notes Familia regis must be in the C-in-C's command. Milites and best milites dismount as Formed Close,,, Short Spear, Shieldwall. Familia regis dismount as Formed Close, Superior,, Short Spear, Shieldwall. They do not get Melee Expert if dismounted, even if they have the characteristic as mounted. Historical Notes The Duchy of Normandy, which began in 911 AD as a fiefdom, was established by the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and the famed Viking ruler Rollo, and was situated in the former Frankish kingdom of Neustria. The Normans thereafteropted the growing feudal doctrines of the rest of France, and worked them into a functional hierarchical system. Theyopted and developed the style of fighting on horseback with a lance that developed into the Medieval knight. Shortage of land led bands of Normans to offer their services as mercenaries and establish a kingdom in Southern Italy. It also provided the core of the army that Duke William used to invade England in 1066.

36 Army Commander 1 Any Instinctive Dates 933 AD to 1045 AD Sub-Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Terrain Standard Internal Allied Generals 0-2 Any Instinctive Camp Flexible; Poor or Name Characteristics Min Mandatory Optional Max - Devastating Melee Expert, 4 4,6 Best milites Superior Short Spear - Chargers Dismountable 16 Swabians or Bavarians Superior Short Spear Combat Shy Dismount Swabians or - 4,6 Superior Short Spear - Melee Expert Bavarians - Any - Melee Expert, 0 4,6 Mercenary Thuringians Short Spear - - Dismountable 12 - Devastating Melee Expert, 8 4,6 Milites Short Spear - Chargers Dismountable ,8,9 Spearmen Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Combat Shy Formed Close ,9,10 Peasants Poor Short Spear Shieldwall Experienced 0 6,8,9 Archers - - Combat Shy Bow 18 s - Combat Shy - Bow 18 Allies Type Training and Early Holy Roman Empire Quality Protection Shooting Skill Melee Burgundian allies - Early Medieval French Lombard allies - Lombard Principalities Slav allies - Wends Notes Best Milites dismount as Formed Close, Superior,, Short Spear, Sheildwall. Milites and Thurangians dismount as Formed Close,,, Short Spear, Shieldwall. They do not get Melee Expert if dismounted, even if they have the characteristic as mounted. UG Size

37 Historical Notes Early Holy Roman Empire This list covers East Frankia from the ascension of Otto I the Great. It saw the creation of the Holy Roman Empire, a title recognised by the Byzantine emperor in 972. It ends with the rise of the medieval knight. Changes from last version Increased maximums. Reclassified milites. Spearmen now short spear. Peasants now short spear. Archers optionally combat shy.

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